Linggadjati Agreement

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Sutan Sjahrir (left) and Wim Schermerhorn drafting the agreement

The Linggadjati Agreement (Linggajati in modern Indonesian spelling), also known as the Cheribon Agreement (or Cirebon Agreement)[1] was a political accord concluded on 15 November 1946 by the Dutch administration and the unilaterally declared Republic of Indonesia.[2] A small well-appointed museum in the village now known as Linggajati provides information about the history of the negotiations.

The negotiations[edit]

Negotiations took place 11–12 November 1946 in Linggadjati on the slopes of the daunting Mt Ceremay around 25 km towards the south of the West Java city of Cirebon. The Dutch side was represented by Lieutenant General Governor Hubertus van Mook, the Indonesian side by Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir.

Negotiations had begun in October 1946 and a ceasefire in Java and Sumatra was agreed to. Recognising their still weakened position following World War II, the Netherlands were more prepared to negotiate with the Republic than they were later in the Indonesian National Revolution.[3] According to the terms of the agreement, the Netherlands agreed to recognize Republican rule over Java, Sumatra and Madura. The Republic would become a constituent state of the United States of Indonesia, which would be established by 1 January 1949 at the latest and form a Netherlands-Indonesian Union together with the Netherlands, Suriname, and the Netherlands Antilles. The Dutch Queen would remain official head of this Union.

Later developments[edit]

On 25 March 1947 the Dutch House of Representatives ratified a 'stripped down' version of the treaty which was, however, not accepted by the Indonesians. Further disagreements rose over the implementation of the agreement. On 20 July 1947 the Dutch administration cancelled the accord and proceeded to commence military intervention in form of the Operatie Product, the first of two events known as politionele acties ('police actions').

After the agreements surrounding the Linggadjati Agreement broke down there was a prolonged period of diplomatic dispute and open conflict in Indonesia for much of 1947 between the Dutch and Indonesian authorities. The United Nations Security Council established a Committee of Good Offices which led to the signing of the Renville Agreement in January 1948 on the USS Renville anchored off Jakarta.

However the Linggadjati Agreement and the Renville Agreement were at best only partially successful. Disagreements and sharp military clashes between the Dutch and the Indonesia sides continued on throughout 1948 and into 1949.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The agreement is named after the mountain village of Linggajati located near the modern city of Cirebon. "Indonesia: Beginning of Lightness". Time. 7 April 1947. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  2. ^ Spellings are to some extent optional. For example, a small booklet available at the Linggadjati museum in the village of Linggadjati uses the modern spellings of Linggajati and Cirebon.
  3. ^ Frederick, William H. & Worden, Robert L., eds. (1993), "The National Revolution, 1945-50", Indonesia: A Country Study (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress), retrieved 1 December 2009. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]