Lingua Franca Nova

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Lingua Franca Nova
Flag of Lingua Franca Nova.svg
Created by C. George Boeree
Setting and usage International auxiliary language
Users 200+ online  (2014)[1]
Purpose
Latin
Cyrillic
Sources based on Romance and Creole languages
Official status
Regulated by La Asosia per LFN
Language codes
ISO 639-3 lfn
Glottolog ling1267[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Lingua Franca Nova (or Elefen) is an auxiliary constructed language originally created by C. George Boeree of Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania.[3] Its vocabulary is based on the Romance languages French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Catalan.[4] The grammar is highly reduced and similar to the Romance creoles.[4][5] The language has phonemic spelling, using 22 letters of either the Latin or Cyrillic scripts.[4][5]

History and community[edit]

Boeree was inspired[4] by the Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a pidgin used in the Mediterranean in centuries past, and by creoles such as Papiamento, Haitian Creole, and Bislama. He used French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Catalan as the basis for his new language.[4]

LFN was first presented on the Internet in 1998.[6][7] A Yahoo! Group was formed in 2002 by Bjorn Madsen and has more than 250 members.[8] Group members have contributed significantly to the further evolution of the language. In 2007, Igor Vasiljevic began a Facebook page,[9] which has over 200 members. LFN was given an ISO 639-3 designation (lfn) by SIL in January 2008.[10]

Stefan Fisahn[11] created a wiki for the language in 2005. The site moved to Wikia in 2009 [12] and as of 2013 has over 2800 articles.[13] The searchable "master" dictionary (LFN - English / English - LFN) was updated by Simon Davies in 2008, and now has over 15,000 entries.[14] There is also a LFN - French dictionary[15] and seven small dictionaries available in other languages as well as a wikibooks tutorial[16] in eight languages. Introductions and "LFN for Travellers" are available in 12 languages.[17]

Translated texts include Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's The Little Prince,[18] Charles Dickens' Christmas Carol,[19] Mark Twain's Letters from the Earth.[20] and Shakespeare's King Lear.[21] There are also many poems, both translated and original.[22]

Simon Davies's translation of Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland is the first publication of a work entirely in LFN.[23]

As of January 1, 2014, LFN has a news blog, maintained by Simon Davies, called Aora Oji ("Now Today").[24]

Pronunciation and orthography[edit]

LFN can be written with either the Latin or Cyrillic script:[4][25]

Latin a b c d e f g h i j l m n o p r s t u v x z
Cyrillic а б к д е ф г х и ж л м н о п р с т у в ш з
IPA [a~ɑ] [b] [k] [d] [e~ɛ] [f] [ɡ] [h] [i/j] [ʒ] [l] [m] [n/ŋ] [o~ɔ] [p] [r] [s] [t] [u/w] [v] [ʃ] [z]
Names a be ce de e ef ge hax i je el em en o pe er es te u ve ex ze

LFN vowels (a, e, i, o and u) are pronounced as they are in Spanish or Italian (approximately as in bar, bait or bet, beet, boat or ball, and boot). Diphthongs are ai [ai~ɑi], au [au~ɑu], eu [eu~ɛu], and oi [oi~ɔi] (approximately as in my, cow, "eh-w", and boy).

The letters i and u are used as semivowels ([j] and [w]) initially before a vowel, between vowels, in li and ni between vowels, and in cu and gu before a vowel. The letter n is pronounced as in think ([ŋ]) before g and k.

Most words are stressed on the vowel or diphthong before the last consonant (e.g. CA-sa, a-be-ON, BA-ia). Words with no vowel before the last consonant are accented on the first vowel (e.g. TI-o). Words ending in a diphthong are accented on the diphthong (e.g. ca-CAU). Those ending in the double vowels ae, ao, ea, eo, oa, oe, or ui are accented on the first of these vowels (e.g. i-DE-a). The addition of -s or -es for plural nouns does not alter the stress.

Variations in pronunciation are acceptable.[4][26]

Grammar[edit]

LFN is an SVO (subject-verb-object) language. Modifiers generally follow what they modify, as do prepositional phrases and subordinate clauses.[4][27]

Other than the plural in -s or -es, nouns are invariant. A noun's role in a sentence is determined by word order and prepositions. There are 22 prepositions, such as a (at, to), de (of, from), en (in, into), and con (with).

Nouns are usually preceded by articles (la or un) or other determiners such as esta (this, these), acel (that, those), alga (some), cada (every, each), multe (many, much), and poca (few, little). A variety of pronouns are identical to or derived from determiners.

The personal pronouns are invariant:

person singular plural
1 me nos
2 tu vos
3 el / lo los

El is used for people and higher animals; Lo is used for all else. Reflexive pronouns are the same, except that se is used for the third person, singular or plural. Possessive determiners are the same as the reflexive pronouns and may be preceded by la.

Verbs are invariant. The verb alone represents the present tense and the infinitive. Other tenses and moods are indicated by preceding particles:

tense/mood particle example translation
present - vade go
past ia ia vade went
future va va vade will go
conditional ta ta vade would go

Adverbs such as ja (already) and auxiliary verbs such as comensa (begin to) are used to add precision. The active participle ends in -nte and the passive participle in -da. They can be used with es (to be) to form a progressive aspect and a passive voice, respectively.

Adjectives are invariant, and adverbs are not distinguished from adjectives. Adjectives follow nouns and adverbs follow verbs but precede adjectives. The comparative is formed with plu or min, the superlative with la plu or la min.

Questions are formed by preceding the sentence with esce or by using one of several "question words", such as cual (what, which), ci (who), do (where), cuando (when), and perce (why).[28] These same words are also used to introduce subordinate clauses, as are words such as si (if), ce (that), car (because), and afin (so that).

Conjunctions include e (and), o (or), and ma (but).

Complete detailed grammars of LFN are available in English, French, Esperanto, and LFN [29]

Affixes[edit]

LFN has a small number of regular affixes that help to create new words.[4][27]

Three suffixes that create nouns are -or, -ador, and -eria, which refer to a person, a device, and a place respectively. They can be added to any noun, adjective, or verb. For example:

  • carne (meat) + -or > carnor (butcher)
  • lava + -ador > lavador (washing machine)
  • flor + -eria > floreria (florist shop)

Another suffix is -i which, added to an adjective and some nouns, means "to become" or "to cause to become." It is also used with names for tools, machines, or supplies with the meaning "to use." For example:

  • calda (hot) + -i > caldi (to heat)
  • telefon (telephone) + -i > telefoni (to telephone)

Two more suffixes are -eta, which means a small version of something, and -on, which means a large version of something. (They are not, however, simply synonyms for small and large!) For example:

  • bove (cow, cattle) + -eta > boveta (calf)
  • tela (cloth) + -on > telon (sheet, tablecloth)

There are also three suffixes that turn nouns into adjectives: -al means "pertaining to...," -in means "similar to...," -osa means "full of..." For example:

  • nasion (nation) + -al > nasional (national)
  • serpente (serpent) + -in > serpentin (serpentine)
  • mofo (mold) + -osa > mofosa (moldy)

Other suffixes include -able (-able), -isme (-ism), and -iste (-ist).

There are also several prefixes. Non- means not, re- means again or in the opposite direction, and des- means to undo. For example:

  • non- + felis (happy) > nonfelis (unhappy)
  • re- + pone (place) > repone (replace)
  • des- + infeta (infect) > desinfeta (disinfect)

Other prefixes include pos- (post-), pre- (pre-), supra- (super-), su- (sub-), media- (mid-), vis- (vice-), inter- (inter-), and auto- (auto-, self-)

Compounds of verbs plus objects create nouns:

  • porta (carry) + candela (candle) > portacandela (candlestick)
  • pasa (pass) + tempo (time) > pasatempo (pastime)
  • para (stop) + pluve (rain) > parapluve (umbrella)

Two nouns are rarely joined (as they often are in English), but are linked with de or other prepositions instead:

  • avia de mar - seabird
  • casa per avias - birdhouse
  • xef de polisia - police chief

Examples[edit]

La Preambul a la Declara Universal de Diretos Umana [30][edit]

Car la reconose de la dinia inerente e la diretos egal e nonalienable de tota la membros de la familia umana es la funda de libria, justia, e pas en la mundo;

Car la nonconose e la despeta de la diretos umana ia trae atas de barbaria cual ofende la consiensa umana, e car la veni de un mundo do tota persones va es libre per parla e crea, e librida de temia e de miseria, es proclamada como la aspira la plu alta de umanas;

Car es esensal ce la diretos umana es protejeda par un sistem de diretos, afin no person es forsada, como un recurso ultima, a la rebelia contra tirania e oprimi;

Car es esensal promove la developa de relates bonvolente entre nasiones;

Car en la Carta, la poplas de la Nasiones Unida proclama se fida en la diretos umana fundal, en la dinia e la valua de la person umana, en la egalia de diretos de omes e de femes, e car los ia deside promove la progresa sosial e leva la cualia de vive con un libria plu completa;

Car la statos-membros promete securi, en coopera con la Nasiones Unida, la respeta e la oserva universal de diretos umana e libria fundal;

E car un conseta comun de esta diretos e librias es la plu importante per la completi plen de esta promete -

La Asemblea Jeneral proclama esta Declara Universal de Diretos Umana como un ideal comun per la aspira de tota poplas e nasiones, afin cada person e cada organo sosial, con esta Declara en mente constante, va promove la respeta de esta diretos e librias par eleva e instrui, e par mesuras progresante, e nasional e internasional, va securi la reconose e aplica universal e produosa, entre la poplas de la statos parteninte e de la teritorios su se autoria legal.

Alisia en la pais de mervelias[23][edit]

Alisia comensa deveni multe noiada, sentante a lado de se sore sur la colineta, con no cosa per ocupa se: a un o du veses, el ia regardeta en la libro cual se sore leje, ma lo conteni no pitures o conversas, “e cual es la valua de un libro,” Alisia pensa, “sin pitures o conversas?”

Donce el es considerante, en se mente propre (tan bon como posible, car el senti multe dormosa e stupida par causa de la dia calda), esce la plaser de crea un cadena de margaritas ta compensa per la labora de leva se e colie la margaritas, cuando subita un Coneo Blanca con oios ros pasa corente a se lado.

No parte de esta es vera multe notable; e Alisia no trova ce lo es vera multe estracomun cuando el oia la Coneo dise a se: “Ai! ai! me va es tro tarda!” (cuando Alisia contempla esta a pos, lo pare a el ce el ia debe mervelia a lo, ma aora, a la momento de aveni, tota pare intera natural); Ma, cuando la Coneo prende an un orolojeta de se pox de jaceta, e regarda lo, e alora continua freta, Alisia salta sur se pedes, car la pensa vola tra se mente ce el ia vide ja nunca un coneo con o un pox de jaceta, o un orolojeta prendable de lo, e con curiosia ardente, el core pos lo en traversa de la campo, e ariva a la bon tempo per vide lo desapare su la sepe en un tunel de coneo grande.

En la momento seguente, Alisia entra pos lo, no considerante an pico como el va sorti posible denova.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Lingua Franca Nova at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Lingua Franca Nova". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ http://www.pennlive.com/midstate/index.ssf/2011/11/pennsylvania_dialects.html
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Harrison, Richard H. (2008) Lingua Franca Nova. Invented Languages, 1, pp. 30 –33.
  5. ^ a b http://www.richardsandesforsyth.net/docs/bunnies.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.panix.com/~bartlett/ial.html
  7. ^ http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/lfn/ LFN homepage
  8. ^ tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/LinguaFrancaNova/
  9. ^ http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2557990156 Facebook
  10. ^ http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/documentation.asp?id=lfn ISO designation
  11. ^ Fisahn, Stefan (2005) Plansprache: Lingua Franca Nova. Contraste, 244, p. 12.
  12. ^ http://lfn.wikia.com LFN Wiki
  13. ^ http://lfn.wikia.com/wiki/Paje_xef
  14. ^ http://purl.org/net/lfn/disionario/ LFN - English Dictionary
  15. ^ http://lfn.wikia.com/wiki/Disionario_corta_-_lfn_a_franses
  16. ^ http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Lingua_Franca_Nova Learn LFN
  17. ^ http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/lfn Introductions and "LFN for Travellers"
  18. ^ http://lfn.wikia.com/wiki/La_prinse_peti/0 The Little Prince
  19. ^ http://lfn.wikia.com/wiki/Un_canta_de_natal/0 A Christmas Carol
  20. ^ http://lfn.wikia.com/wiki/Leteras_de_la_tera Letters from the Earth,
  21. ^ http://lfn.wikia.com/wiki/Re_Lear King Lear
  22. ^ http://lfn.wikia.com/wiki/Colie_de_poesias Poems
  23. ^ a b La aventuras de Alisia en la pais de mervelias
  24. ^ http://aoraoji.blogspot.com/ Aora Oji
  25. ^ http://www.omniglot.com/writing/lfn.htm Omniglot
  26. ^ http://ccgi.esperanto.plus.com/lfn/grammar.pdf Spelling and Pronunciation
  27. ^ a b http://ccgi.esperanto.plus.com/lfn/grammar.pdf Grammar of Lingua Franca Nova
  28. ^ Christo Moskovsky & Alan Libert (2006) Questions in Natural and Artificial Languages. Journal of Universal Language 7, pp 65-120 http://www.unish.org/upload/word/7-2-03-QuestionsInNat%26ALs2.pdf
  29. ^ http://lfn.wikia.com/wiki/Grammar_of_LFN Grammar
  30. ^ http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

References[edit]

  • Carroll, Lewis (Trans: Simon Davies). La aventuras de Alisia en la pais de mervelias. Westport, Ireland: Evertype (2012). ISBN 978-1-904808-88-6 [1]
  • Fisahn, Stefan (2005) Plansprache: Lingua Franca Nova. Contraste, 244, p. 12. [2]
  • Harrison, Richard H. (2008) Lingua Franca Nova. Invented Languages, 1, pp. 30 –33. [3]

External links[edit]