Lingwa de planeta

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Lingwa de planeta (Lidepla)
Created by D.Ivanov, A.Lysenko and others
Date 2010
Setting and usage International auxiliary language
Users more than 15[1]  (2012)
Purpose
Latin
Sources Vocabulary from ten representative languages, namely English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Russian, Arabic, Hindi, Chinese, Persian.
Language codes
ISO 639-3 None (mis)

Lingwa de planeta (also Lidepla, LdP) is a constructed international auxiliary language,[1] whose development began in 2006 in Saint-Petersburg, Russia, by a group of enthusiasts, with Dmitri Ivanov being the project leader. The basic version of the language was published in 2010.[1] Lidepla is based on the most widely spoken languages of the world, including Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish.[2]

Concept[edit]

The main idea was to create a harmonious whole on the base of the most widespread and influential national languages of the planet. That results in the Lidepla vocabulary containing a fairly significant amount of non-European words, making Lidepla a worldlang. A general design principle for Lidepla was to have something in common with the native languages of most of the people on Earth.[1][3]

Project team and use of the language[edit]

The project leader is a psychologist, Dmitri Ivanov. He laid the foundation of the language.[4] Linguists A.Vinogradova and E.Ivanova helped a lot during the early period of Lidepla development. In 2007 A. Lysenko joined and became the main linguist of the project.[1]

From the very beginning the project was open and widely discussed in a number of conlanger groups.[5] As of 2014, more than 15 people contributed to the language considerably (that is, worked on vocabulary and grammar, translated and wrote original texts, including songs),[1] not speaking about those who participated in discussions.

At the moment the language is used in real communication, mainly in Internet (facebook, yahoo etc.). About 10-15 people master the language, about 50 can use it in communication.[1] There are a lot of texts translated, including rather spacious texts like Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Lewis Carroll,[6] and "Sailor Ruterford in Maori captivity" (by Nikolay Chukovsky, son of Korney Chukovsky, translated from Russian),[1] and also some fairy-tales and tales. There are songs written/translated and sung, including an album of professional musician eo:Jonny.M, and subtitles made for cartoons and films (like popular Russian film "Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the Future").[1]

Description of the language[edit]

In some sources [7] the date of creation of Lidepla is stated to be 2006. It is important to say, though, that the "basic version" of the language was published only in 2010.[1] The basics of the language is not to be changed after that.

Phonology[edit]

There are 17 basic consonants (b, d, g; p, t, k; w, f; s, ʃ; x; d͡ʒ, d͡z; m, n, r, l) and 3 optional ones (v; t͡ʃ; ŋ) in Lidepla.[1]

Distinction of the sounds w — v, d͡ʒ — t͡ʃ is not obligatory, that is they may be pronounced in the same way, as there are no minimal pairs for them. The ŋ sound is the same as in English (in -ing ending).

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Stop p b t d k ɡ
Affricate d͡z t͡ʃ / d͡ʒ
Fricative w f (v) s ʃ x
Approximant r l

There are 5 vowels (a, e, i, o, u) in the language.

Front Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

Alphabet and pronunciation[edit]

The official Lidepla alphabet is based on the Latin script and has 25 letters.

  • letter C c occurs only in Ch ch,
  • letter Q q is not used,
  • letter y means the same vowel as i, but is never stressed,
  • letters ch, j, z mean affricates t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, d͡z, respectively: chay — tea, jan — to know, zun — to go in for,
  • letter X x means the gs combination (between vowels may be pronounced as s): examen — exam,
  • the sh combination means the ʃ consonant (like in "shoes'): shi — ten,
  • the ng combination in the end of the word means the (optional) velar nasal (ŋ): feng — wind.[8]

The general rule regarding the stress is: the vowel before the last consonant (or "y") is stressed: máta (mother), família (family), akshám (evening), ruchéy (brook). Lidepla tries to preserve the original sounding of the international words, though, so there are some exceptions, as follows:[1]

  • some endings (-um, -us, -er, -en; -ika, -ike, -ula) are never stressed,
  • the doubled vowel is always stressed (like in adyoo (bye)).

Vocabulary[edit]

Most Lidepla vocabulary is made up of international words of Latin origin. The part of the most frequent words are of English, Russian, Chinese, Arabic and Hindi origin, though. There are not definite endings for different parts of speech, so nearly any word can be easily incorporated (the words are adapted to Lidepla phonology and don't preserve original orthography).[1]

As of 2014, in Lidepla vocabulary there are about 4000 entries, meaning about 10 000 individual words. The number is constantly increasing. For a word to be incorporated, the following principles are taken into account:[1]

  • the short words without consonant clusters are best
  • the word has to be widespread and / or phonetically familiar for speakers of at least a few different national languages. For example, the word "darba", being of Arabic origin, is close to Russian "удар" ([udar]) and Chinese "da". Some resemblance may be found also as regarding English "strike" and Hindi "prahar".

The whole Lidepla phrases sometimes sound very close to the national languages ones:[1][8]

  • Brata snova dumi om to. The brother is thinking about it again. (Rus.)
  • Ta bu yao shwo. He doesn't want to talk. (Chin. Tā bù yào shuō)
  • Way yu go bak? Why do you go back? Why are you going back?
  • Me jan ke mata pri pi chay. I know that mother likes to drink tea. (Hindi)
  • Pa sabah me safari. In the morning I travel. (Arab.)

Swadesh list[edit]

Swadesh list for Lidepla
Lidepla English
1 me I
2 yu you (singular)
3 ta (lu) he
4 nu we
5 yu (yu oli) you (plural)
6 li they
7 se this
8 to that
9 hir here
10 dar there
11 hu who
12 kwo what
13 wo where
14 wen when
15 komo how
16 bu not
17 olo, oli all
18 mucho many
19 kelke some
20 shao few
21 otre other
22 un one
23 dwa two
24 tri three
25 char four
Lidepla English
26 pet five
27 gran big
28 longe long
29 chaure wide
30 grose thick
31 grave heavy
32 syao small
33 kurte short
34 tange narrow
35 dine thin
36 gina woman
37 man man
38 jen human being
39 kinda child
40 molya wife
41 mursha husband
42 mata mother
43 patra father
44 animal animal
45 fish fish
46 faula bird
47 doga dog
48 kinah louse
49 serpenta snake
50 wurma worm
Lidepla English
51 baum tree
52 shulin forest
53 stik stick
54 fruta fruit
55 semena seed
56 lif leaf
57 riza root
58 kuta bark (of a tree)
59 flor flower
60 herba grass
61 korda rope
62 derma skin
63 masu meat
64 hema blood
65 osta bone
66 fet fat (noun)
67 ovo egg
68 korna horn
69 kauda tail
70 pluma feather
71 har hair
72 kapa head
73 aur ear
74 oko eye
75 nos nose
Lidepla English
76 muh mouth
77 denta tooth
78 lisan tongue
79 naka fingernail
80 peda foot
81 gamba leg
82 genu knee
83 handa hand
84 ala wing
85 duza belly
86 antratot guts
87 gorla neck
88 bey back
89 sina breast
90 kordia heart
91 hepata liver
92 pi to drink
93 chi to eat
94 kusi to bite
95 suki to suck
96 spuki to spit
97 vomi to vomit
98 fuki to blow
99 spiri to breathe
100 ridi to laugh

Grammar[edit]

The Lidepla grammar is based on 3 rules.

Rule of belonging to a word class[edit]

Every Lidepla word belongs to a word class (noun, verb, adjective, adverb etc.). Derivation takes place by means of affixes and particles:[8]

  • lubi (to love)
  • luba (love)
  • lubi-she (loving)
  • lubi-shem (lovingly, with love)

There are no fixed endings for the word classes, there are preferable, though. Thus most verbs end in "i", but there are some exceptions (jan (to know), shwo (to talk) etc.).

Derivation[edit]

By means of affixes and particles new words can be made up, both of the same class and of the other.[8] For example:

  • somni (to sleep)
  • en-somni (to fall asleep)
  • somni-ki (to doze)
  • ek-somni-ki (to take a nap)
  • gro-somni (to be dead to the world)
  • mah-somni, somnisi (to lull to sleep)
  • somni-she (sleeping)
  • somni-shem (sleepingly, as if while asleep)
  • somni-ney (having taken a nap)
  • somni-nem (sleepily)
  • somni-yen (while sleeping)
  • somnishil (sleepy)
  • somnilok (sleeping place)
  • somninik (sleepyhead).

Rule of the constant form[edit]

The word form never chages. Special particles are used to express the grammatical meanings, for example:

  • me lubi (I love)
  • ela lubi (they love)
  • yu ve lubi (you will love)
  • me wud lubi (I would love)
  • lubi (ba) (love!).

The only two exceptions are:

  • the plural of nouns (kitaba (book) — kitabas (books), flor (flower) — flores (flowers),
  • the verb "to be" has its own forms: bi / es / bin.
Principle of necessity[edit]

The use of special particle is optional if its meaning is clear from the context.[1][8] For example:

  • Yeri me miti ela (Yesterday I met her). Manya me miti ela (Tomorrow I'll meet her).
  • Me vidi mucho kinda (I see a lot of children). Me vidi kindas (I see children).

Rule of direct word order[edit]

The word order in a sentence is usually direct, that is subjectpredicateobject, attribute goes before the noun, prepositions are before the noun group they refer to.

If the word order is changed, it is shown by the use of special particles, for example "den" (is put before theobject),[8] for example: Ela lubi lu. Den lu ela lubi. — She loves him.

Sample text[edit]

(Pater Noster, the Lord's prayer)

Nuy Patra kel es pa swarga,
hay Yur nam santefai,
hay Yur reging lai,
hay yur vola fulfil
i pa arda kom pa swarga.
Dai ba a nu nuy pan fo jivi sedey
e pardoni ba a nu nuy deba,
kom nu pardoni toy-las kel debi a nu.
Bye dukti nu inu temta
e protekti nu fon bada.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Статья в журнале СПбГУ (№ 13 (3855) 26 ОКТЯБРЯ 2012)
  2. ^ Journal of Universal Language
  3. ^ http://ifapcom.ru/files/Documents/multiling_eng.pdf#page=112
  4. ^ using mainly the ideas of Otto Jespersen on the Novial language, and also the facts of Creole language development and structure
  5. ^ for example
  6. ^ L. Carroll Alisa-ney Aventura in Divalanda = Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland — 1. — Cnoc Sceichín, Leac an Anfa, Cathair na Mart, Co. Mhaigh Eo, Éire: Evertype, 2014. — 150 с. — ISBN 1-78201-071-5.
  7. ^ for example, Libert, Alan Reed / Moskovsky, Christo Aspects of the Grammar and Lexica of Artificial Languages — Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2011. — 180 с. — ISBN 978-3-631-59678-4.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Riverego

Literature[edit]

Mass media[edit]

External links[edit]