Link Wray

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Link Wray
Link Wray - 3-8-03 Photo by Anthony Pepitone.jpg
Wray, live in 2003
Background information
Birth name Frederick Lincoln Wray Jr.
Born (1929-05-02)May 2, 1929
Dunn, North Carolina, United States
Died November 5, 2005(2005-11-05) (aged 76)
Copenhagen, Denmark
Genres Rock and roll, rockabilly, roots rock, country, instrumental rock, surf rock, proto-punk
Occupations Musician, songwriter
Instruments Guitar, vocals
Years active 1956–2005
Associated acts Robert Gordon

Frederick Lincoln "Link" Wray Jr (May 2, 1929 – November 5, 2005) was an American rock and roll guitarist, songwriter and vocalist who first came to popularity in the late 1950s.

Building on the overdriven, distorted electric guitar sound of early electric blues records, his 1958 instrumental hit "Rumble" by Link Wray and his Ray Men invented "the power chord, the major modus operandi of modern rock guitarists,"[1] making possible "punk and heavy rock."[2] Rolling Stone placed Wray at number 45 of the 100 greatest guitarists of all time.[3] In 2013 he was announced as a nominee for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[4]

Early life[edit]

Wray was born in Dunn, North Carolina, to Fred Lincoln Wray,Sr. and his wife Lillian M. Coats.[5][6] With half Shawnee Indian ancestry, Wray frequently spoke of this in performances and interviews. Three songs he performed were named for American Indian tribes: "Shawnee", "Apache", and "Comanche." "Apache" was an instrumental composed by Jerry Lordan; it was a hit in the United Kingdom for The Shadows in 1960. Wray recorded a cover version 30 years later, when it was also associated with The Ventures and the Incredible Bongo Band.

Wray served in the US Army during the Korean War, and contracted tuberculosis, which laid him up in a hospital for a year. His stay concluded with the removal of a lung, which doctors predicted would mean he would never be able to sing again.[7]

Career[edit]

After his initial hits, Wray's career had periods of retirement followed by renewed popularity, particularly in Europe. To escape the "trap" of big business involvement in music, he began recording albums using a three-track studio he converted from a chicken shack.[7]

While living in the San Francisco Bay Area in the early 1970s, Wray was introduced to Quicksilver Messenger Service guitarist John Cipollina by bassist James Hutchinson.[8] He subsequently formed a band initially featuring special guest Cipollina along with the rhythm section from Cipollina's band Copperhead, bassist Hutch Hutchinson, and drummer David Weber. They opened for the band Lighthouse at The Whisky a Go Go in Los Angeles from May 15–19, 1974.[9] He later did numerous concerts and radio broadcasts in the Bay Area including KSAN (FM) and the Bill Graham venue, Winterland Ballroom with Les Lizama later replacing Hutchinson on bass.[10] He toured and recorded two albums with retro-rockabilly artist Robert Gordon in the late 1970s.[11] The 1980s to the present day saw a large number of reissues as well as new material. One member of his band in the 1980s, drummer Anton Fig, later became drummer in the CBS Orchestra on the Late Show with David Letterman. In 1994, he played on four songs of the album Chatterton by French rocker Alain Bashung.[12]

Personal life[edit]

Wray's first three marriages - to Elizabeth Canady Wray, Ethel (Kitty) Tidwell Wray and Sharon Wray - each ended in divorce. He had three children with Kitty. Link Elvis, Belinda, and Mona Kay. Link Elvis in his youth was a small town singer/ guitar player in MD. Belinda is a successful artist ranging from pencil to paintings in NC . Mona Kay is mainly known in the small town of Sumter SC for her singing, along with her son for his dancing, (Jonathan Tidwell) in bar and grills. He had eight children with them, but had little contact with any after settling in Denmark.[13]

Wray's grave in the crypt of the Christian's Church, Copenhagen.

Wray moved to Denmark in the 1980s after marrying his wife Olive, a Danish student who had been studying Native American culture. He spent his last years on a Danish island, touring frequently. He died of heart failure, at the age of 76, in 2005 at his home in Copenhagen. He was buried in the crypt of the Christian's Church, Copenhagen.[14]

Legacy[edit]

Jack Rose cited Wray as an influence,[15] as did Iggy Pop.[16] Jimmy Page says that Link Wray had a "real rebel attitude" and credits him in It Might Get Loud as a major influence in his early career. According to Rolling Stone, Peter Townshend of The Who once said, "If it hadn't been for Link Wray and 'Rumble,' I never would have picked up a guitar."

On October 16, 2013, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame announced Link Wray as a nominee for inclusion in 2014.[17]

Discography[edit]

Singles[edit]

Release date A-side B-side Label Catalog number US
April 1958 "Rumble" "The Swag" Cadence 1347 16
January 1959 "Raw-Hide" "The Dixie-Doodle" Epic 5-9300 23
June 1959 "Comanche" "Lillian" Epic 5-9321
October 1959 "Slinky" "Rendezvous" Epic 5-9343
1959 "Vendetta" (as Ray Vernon) "Roughshod" "Scottie" NRS-3020
March 1960 "Trail Of The Lonesome Pine" "Golden Strings" (based On A Chopin Etude) Epic 5-9361
October 1960 "Ain't That Lovin' You Babe" "Mary Ann" Epic 5-9419
July 1961 "Jack The Ripper" "The Stranger" Rumble 1000 64
August 1961 "El Toro" "Tijuana" Epic 5-9454
1962 "Big City After Dark" "Hold It" (as Ray Vernon & the Raymen) Mala
March 1962 "Big City Stomp" "Poppin' Popeye" Trans Atlas
March 1963 "Rumble Mambo" "Hambone" Okeh 4-7166
April 1963 "The Black Widow" "Jack The Ripper" Swan S-4137
September 1963 "Week End" "Turnpike U.S.A." Swan S-4154
November 1963 "Run Chicken Run" "The Sweeper" Swan S-4163
March 1964 "The Shadow Knows" "My Alberta" Swan S-4171
July 1964 "Deuces Wild" "Summer Dream" Swan S-4187
February 1965 "Good Rockin' Tonight" "I'll Do Anything For You" Swan S-4201
1965 "I'm Branded" "Hang On" Swan S-4211
1965 "Girl from the North Country" "You Hurt Me So" Swan S-4232
1965 "Ace of Spades" "The Fuzz" Swan S-4239
1966 "The Batman Theme" (with Bobby Howard) "Alone" Swan S-4244
1966 "Ace of Spades" "Hidden Charms" Swan S-4261
1967 "Let the Good Times Roll" (with Kathy Lynn) "Soul Train" Swan S-4273
1967 "Jack The Ripper" "I'll Do Anything For You" Swan S-4284
1977 "Red Hot" 83
May 1979 "It's All Over Now Baby Blue" "Just That Kind" Charisma CB-333

[18]

Albums[edit]

Release date Title Label Catalog Number
1960 US Link Wray & The Wraymen Epic LN 3661
1962 US Great Guitar Hits by Link Wray Vermillion V-1924
1963 US Jack The Ripper Swan S-LP 510
1964 US Link Wray Sings and Plays Guitar Vermillion V-1925
1963/2006 Link Wray Early Recordings Rollercoaster/Ace
1971 US Link Wray Polydor PD-24-4064
1971 US Mordicai Jones (w/ Bobby Howard) Polydor PD-5010
1972 US Be What You Want To Polydor PD-5047
1973 US Beans and Fatback (rec. 1971) Virgin V-2006
1974 US The Link Wray Rumble Polydor PD-6025
1975 US Stuck in Gear Virgin Records Ltd Stereo 27 266 XOT
1979 US Bullshot Visa VISA 7009
1979 US Live at the Paradiso RCA PL-44012
1990 UK Apache
1990 UK Wild Side of the City Lights
1993 DE Indian Child Sony Music EPC 473100 2
1997 US Shadowman
1997 UK Walking Down a Street Called Love - live
2000 US Barbed Wire

Compilation albums[edit]

Release date Title Label Catalog Number
1969 US Yesterday and Today Record Factory LP 1929
May 1993 Rumble! The Best of Link Wray Rhino Records
2002 Mr. Guitar Norton Records
2003 Hillbilly Wolf - Missing Links Volume 1 Norton Records
2003 Streets of Chicago - Missing Links Volume 4 Norton Records
2006 Big City After Dark - Missing Links Volume 2 Norton Records
2006 Some Kinda Nut - Missing Links Volume 3 Norton Records
2007 King of the Wild Guitar Ace Records B000PATZPQ

With Robert Gordon[edit]

Release date Title Label Number
1977 UK Robert Gordon w/ Link Wray
1978 UK Fresh Fish Special Private Stock PS 7008

[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cub Koda & Steve Leggett (2008). "Link Wray" Biography, AllMusic.
  2. ^ Simmonds, Jeremy (2008). The Encyclopedia of Dead Rock Stars: Heroin, Handguns, and Ham Sandwiches, p.559. ISBN 1-55652-754-3.
  3. ^ "Link Wray | Rolling Stone Music | Lists". Rollingstone.com. Retrieved 2010-08-09. 
  4. ^ "Nirvana, Kiss, Hall and Oates Nominated for Rock and Roll Hall of Fame". Rolling Stone. October 16, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
  5. ^ Deborah Wray: daughter-in-law
  6. ^ "Ancestry of Link Wray". Wargs.com. Retrieved 2012-08-24. 
  7. ^ a b Meadows, Dick (28 August 1971). "Link: Doing it his Way". Sounds (Spotlight Publications). p. 8. 
  8. ^ "The Leading Bands Site on the Net". BayAreaBands.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  9. ^ [1][dead link]
  10. ^ "Link Wray". wolfgangsvault.com. Retrieved 2012-08-24. 
  11. ^ Prown, Pete & Newquist, HP (1997). Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists, p. 25. Hal Leonard Corporation.
  12. ^ Chatterton (album booklet). Alain Bashung. Barclay Records. 1994. 523 111-2. 
  13. ^ Adam Bernstein (November 22, 2005). "Guitarist Link Wray Dies; Influenced Punk, Grunge". Washington Post. Retrieved December 8, 2013. 
  14. ^ Link Wray at Find a Grave
  15. ^ US. "jack rose | Gratis muziek, tourneedata, foto's, video's". Myspace.com. Retrieved 2012-08-24. 
  16. ^ "Iggy Pop - The Colbert Report - 2013-29-04 - Video Clip | Comedy Central". Colbertnation.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  17. ^ "Nirvana, Kiss, Hall and Oates Nominated for Rock and Roll Hall of Fame". Rolling Stone. October 16, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
  18. ^ a b Strong, Martin C. (2000). The Great Rock Discography (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Mojo Books. pp. 1084–1085. ISBN 1-84195-017-3. 

External links[edit]