|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||280.45 g mol−1|
|Melting point||−5 °C (23 °F)
−12 °C (10 °F)
|Boiling point||230 °C (446 °F) at 21 mbar
230 °C (446 °F) at 16 mmHg
|Solubility in water||0.139 mg/L|
|Vapor pressure||16 Torr at 229 °C|
|Flash point||112 °C (234 °F)|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature. In physiological literature, it has a lipid number of 18:2 cis,cis-9,12. Chemically, linoleic acid is a carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and two cis double bonds; the first double bond is located at the sixth carbon from the methyl end.
The word "linoleic" comes from the Greek word linon (flax). Oleic means "of, relating to, or derived from oil of olive" or "of or relating to oleic acid" because saturating the omega-6 double bond produces oleic acid.
Some medical research suggests that excessive levels of certain omega−6 fatty acids relative to certain omega-3 fatty acids, but likely in conjunction with exogenous toxins, may have negative health effects.
LA is a polyunsaturated fatty acid used in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid (AA) and thus some prostaglandins. It is found in the lipids of cell membranes. It is abundant in many vegetable oils, comprising over half (by weight) of poppy seed, safflower, sunflower, and corn oils.
Along with oleic acid, linoleic acid is released by cockroaches upon death which has the effect of preventing other roaches from entering the area. This is similar to the mechanism found in ants and bees, in which oleic acid is released upon death.
Metabolism and eicosanoids
There is evidence suggesting that infants lack Δ6desaturase of their own, and must acquire it through breast milk. Studies show that breast-milk fed babies have higher concentrations of GLA than formula-fed babies, while formula-fed babies have elevated concentrations of LA.
GLA is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), which in turn is converted to arachidonic acid (AA). One of the possible fates of AA is to be transformed into a group of metabolites called eicosanoids, a class of paracrine hormones. The three types of eicosanoids are prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. Eicosanoids produced from AA tend to be inflammatory. For example, both AA-derived thrombaxane and leukotrieneB4 are proaggretory and vasoconstrictive eicosanoids. The oxidized metabolic products of linoleic acid, such as 9-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid and 13-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, have also been shown to activate TRPV1, the capsaicin receptor, and through this might play a major role in hyperalgesia and allodynia.
One study monitoring two groups of survivors of myocardial infarction concluded “the concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was increased by 68%, in the experimental group, and that of linoleic acid reduced by 7%...the survivors of a first myocardial infarction, assigned to a Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid rich diet, had a markedly reduced rate of recurrence, other cardiac events and overall mortality.” 
Linoleic acid is used in making quick-drying oils, which are useful in oil paints and varnishes. These applications exploit the easy reaction of the linoleic acid with oxygen in air, which leads to crosslinking and formation of a stable film.
Linoleic acid has become increasingly popular in the beauty products industry because of its beneficial properties on the skin. Research points to linoleic acid's anti-inflammatory, acne reductive, and moisture retentive properties when applied topically on the skin.
Use in research
Linoleic acid can be used to show the antioxidant effect of natural phenols. Experiments on linoleic acid subjected to 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidation with different combinations of phenolics show that binary mixtures can lead to either a synergetic antioxidant effect or to an antagonistic effect.
Note: Unless cited, none of these percentages have been verified by scientific research.
|Evening Primrose oil||73%|
|Grape seed oil||69.6%|
|Wheat germ oil||55%|
|Rice bran oil||39%|
|Olive oil||10% (3.5 - 21%)|||
- Conjugated linoleic acid
- Omega-6 fatty acid: Negative health effects
- Essential fatty acids
- Essential fatty acid interactions
- Essential nutrients
- The Merck Index, 11th Edition, 5382
- Record of CAS RN 60-33-3 in the GESTIS Substance Database from the IFA
- David J. Anneken, Sabine Both, Ralf Christoph, Georg Fieg, Udo Steinberner, Alfred Westfechtel "Fatty Acids" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_245.pub2
- Burr, G.O., Burr, M.M. and Miller, E. (1930). "On the nature and role of the fatty acids essential in nutrition" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 86 (587): 1–9.
- "Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page". USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2007.
- Cunnane S, Anderson M (1 April 1997). "Pure linoleate deficiency in the rat: influence on growth, accumulation of n-6 polyunsaturates, and (1-14C) linoleate oxidation". J Lipid Res 38 (4): 805–12. PMID 9144095. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
- Ruthig DJ & Meckling-Gill KA. (1 October 1999). "Both (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids stimulate wound healing in the rat intestinal epithelial cell line, IEC-6". Journal of Nutrition 129 (10): 1791–8. PMID 10498749. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
- "Earth News: Ancient 'smell of death' revealed". BBC.
- David F. Horrobin (1993). "Fatty acid metabolism in health and disease: the role of Δ-6-desaturase". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57: 732S–7S.
- Piomelli, Daniele (2000). "Arachidonic Acid". Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
- Patwardhan, AM; Scotland, PE; Akopian, AN; Hargreaves, KM (2009). "Activation of TRPV1 in the spinal cord by oxidized linoleic acid metabolites contributes to inflammatory hyperalgesia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (44): 18820–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905415106. PMC 2764734. PMID 19843694.
- Kinsella, JE; Lokesh, B; Stone, RA (1990). "Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and amelioration of cardiovascular disease: possible mechanisms". The American journal of clinical nutrition 52 (1): 1–28. PMID 2193500.
- Kinsella, John E., Lokesh, Belur, Stone, Richard A. (1990). "Dietary n-3 polyunsatruated fatty acids and amelioration of cardiovascular disease: possible mechanisms". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52 (1): 1–28. PMID 2193500.
- Michel, Renaud, Serge (1994). "Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease". Lancet 343: 8911.
- Diezel, W.E.; Schulz, E.; Skanks, M.; Heise, H. (1993). "Plant oils: Topical application and anti-inflammatory effects (croton oil test)". Dermatologische Monatsschrift 179: 173.
- Letawe, C; Boone, M; Pierard, GE (March 1998). "Digital image analysis of the effect of topically applied linoleic acid on acne microcomedones". Clinical & Experimental Dermatology 23 (2): 56–58. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2230.1998.00315.x. PMID 9692305.
- Darmstadt, GL; Mao-Qiang, M; Chi, E; Saha, SK; Ziboh, VA; Black, RE; Santosham, M; Elias, PM (2002). "Impact of topical oils on the skin barrier: possible implications for neonatal health in developing countries". Acta Paediatrica 91 (5): 546–554. doi:10.1080/080352502753711678. PMID 12113324.
- Peyrat-Maillard, M. N.; Cuvelier, M. E.; Berset, C. (2003). "Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation: Synergistic and antagonistic effects". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 80 (10): 1007. doi:10.1007/s11746-003-0812-z.
- Janet Raloff (2012). "Tricks Foods Play". Science News Magazine 182 (7): 25–28.
- Oil, peanut, salad or cooking: search for peanut oil on http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/
- M. K. Nutter, E. E. Lockhart and R. S. Harris (1943). "The chemical composition of depot fats in chickens and turkeys". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 20 (11): 231–234. doi:10.1007/BF02630880.
- "Olive Oil : Chemical Characteristics".
- Beltran; Del Rio, C; Sánchez, S; Martínez, L (2004). "Influence of Harvest Date and Crop Yield on the Fatty Acid Composition of Virgin Olive Oils from Cv. Picual" (PDF). J. Agric. Food Chem. 52 (11): 3434–3440. doi:10.1021/jf049894n. PMID 15161211.