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Linter SQL
Developer(s) RELEX Group
Written in C, C++
Operating system Cross-platform
License Proprietary

Linter SQL RDBMS is the main product of RELEX Group. Linter is a Russian DBMS compliant with the SQL-92 standard and supporting the majority of operating systems, among them Win32 (including WinCE), NetWare, various versions of Unix, OS9, QNX, VxWorks and others. The system enables transparent interaction between the client applications and the database server functioning in different hardware and software environments. DBMS Linter includes program interfaces for the majority of popular development tools. The system provides a high data security level allowing the user to work with secret information. Linter is the only DBMS certified by FSTEC of Russia as compliant with Class 2 data security requirements and Level 2 of undeclared feature absence control. For more than ten years, Linter has been used by Russian Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and other government bodies.


The history of Linter dates back to 1980. The system has domestic predecessors whose developers later took direct part in the creation of Linter. By 1983, according to a state order, the Voronezh construction design office "Systemprogramm" had successfully completed the relational DBMS "BARS" under the real-time operating system "RAFOS" (RT-11 prototype) for computers of the SM set. Since 1985, the system developers accepted the mobility, compatibility and openness concept. As a result, DBMS "INTEREAL" was implemented. The system covered a wide spectrum of hardware and software platforms, from "Electronika-85" and Intel 8086 control modules to SM1702 and "Electronika-82" computer complexes and their VAX prototypes. In 1990, the DBMS development team founded the research-and-production company "RELEX" ("Relational Expert Systems"). At this time DBMS Linter was launched. In the late 1990s, Linter-VS 6.0 was developed as part of a project performed by RELEX for the Russian Ministry of Defense. The prototype of the system was Linter 5.7 (1999) developed by RELEX. Linter-VS 6.0 is available only for OS MSVS (mobile system of the armed forces). There also exists Linter-VS 6.0.1 developed in VNIINS based on PostgreSQL 7.2 This system is also available for OS MSVS.
RelX Embedded, a compact American/Japanese-developed version of Linter is implemented in Sony products, including a Linter phone (Sony Ericsson SO903i),[1] as well as a Kenwood Navigation System ("HDD[Smá:t]Navi Emotional Sound" HDV-990 and HDV-790).[2]

Technical parameters[edit]

Parameter Value
Database size up to 65535 tables up to 12 Тb each
Number of records in a table up to 1 billion
Record size up to 64 К (not counting BLOB fields)
Number of fields in a record up to 250
Minimum memory space occupied by the DBMS kernel 3 МB (for specialized versions – from 800 К)
Data security[3][4] Class 2 (Completely Secret)
Database security Discretionary and mandatory access control, Physical security, Encryption, Capability-Based Protection, Work Station Database Access Control, External Carrier Data Input/Output Security, etc.[5]
Full-text indexing formats PDF, DOC, TXT, XLS, XML, PS, PPT, OpenDocument
Interaction with user tasks Low-level (CALL) and high-level (LinАpi) program interfaces
Program Interfaces ODBC 3.х, JDBC(1,2,3), DBExpress, Embedded SQL, OLEDB, PERL, PERL/DBI, TCL/TK, Java (Hibernate), PHP, Python (Django), QT, Ruby, OCI, ADO.NET (LINQ), 1.x, 2.x, 3.x, 4.x, Mono
Administration Pseudographic and graphic utilities for Windows and UNIX: desktop, database archiver, database converter, database testing and recovery, database migration, stored procedure and trigger debugger
Archiving full, selective, incremental, scheduled, according to script, archiving to tape
Replication asynchronous (including bidirectional replication); replication with other databases via ODBC
Synchronization synchronization with various DBMSs via ODBC using online protocols TCP/IP (including synchronization via SSL), HTTP, HTTPS and offline transports – ActiveSync, ftp, e-mail etc.
Development Tools pseudographic development system LAKUNA, any development tools supporting ODBC, JDBC, DBExpress etc.
Supported Platforms Linux (different versions and hardware platforms, including Embedded Linux), МСВС, Solaris (various versions and platforms), Mac OS X, BSD (various versions of OpenBSD, FreeBSD, BSDI, NetBSD), UnixWare, IRIX, AIX, SINIX, QNX (QNX 4, QNX 6), USIX, VxWorks, OS-9, OS-9000, OC2000, ИНТРОС, VMS, Windows (95, 98, Me, 2000, XP, NT4, Vista, 7), WindowsCE, Android, Maemo
Data Types Char, Varchar, Nchar, Nchar Varying, Byte, Varbyte, Boolean, Smallint, Integer, Bigint, Real, Double, Numeric, Date, Blob, Extfile
For compatibility with PostgreSQL: BOX, LINE, CIRCLE
Geometric Functions OpenGIS specifications:
functions for creating geometric type values in binary and text views (GeomFromText, GeomFromWKB etc.);
functions for processing geometric data properties (general – Dimension, Envelope, Boundary etc., and special – Length, Area, Centroid etc.);
geometric operators (Union, Intersection etc.);
functions describing relations between two geometric type values (Distance, Equals, Intersects etc.).
Supported Network Protocols: TCP/IP(including SSL), SPX, NetBios, Named Pipes


  1. ^ "組込みシステム向けRDB「Linter」、ソニー・エリクソン製携帯電話「SO903i」「SO703i」に採用 :". Brycen Company Inc. 2007-05-21. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  2. ^ "Company/FAQ - RelX:". RelXUS Inc. 2007-02-06. Archived from the original on 2007-05-03. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  3. ^ Classified information in Russia
  4. ^ Classified information
  5. ^ Linters documentation

External links[edit]