View of Hauptplatz, Linz
|• Mayor||Klaus Luger (SPÖ)|
|• Total||96.048 km2 (37.084 sq mi)|
|Elevation||266 m (873 ft)|
|Population (1 January 2014)|
|• Density||2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal codes||4010, 402x, 4030, 404x|
|Area codes||0732, 070|
Linz (//; German pronunciation: [ˈlɪnt͡s]) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (German: Oberösterreich). It is located in the north centre of Austria, approximately 30 kilometres (19 miles) south of the Czech border, on both sides of the river Danube. The population of the city is 193,814, and that of the Greater Linz conurbation is about 271,000.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Population
- 4 Climate
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transport
- 7 Media
- 8 Points of interest
- 9 Culture
- 10 Colleges and universities
- 11 Sports
- 12 Born in Linz
- 13 International relations
- 14 See also
- 15 Notes
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
Linz is located in the center of Europe, lying on the Paris–Budapest west–east axis and the Malmö–Trieste north–south axis. The Danube is the main tourism and transport connection that runs through the city.
Linz is divided into 9 districts and 36 statistical quarters. They are:
- Innenstadt: Altstadtviertel, Rathausviertel, Kaplanhofviertel, Neustadtviertel, Volksgartenviertel, Römerberg-Margarethen
- Kleinmünchen: Kleinmünchen, Neue Welt, Scharlinz, Bergern, Neue Heimat, Wegscheid, Schörgenhub
- Lustenau: Makartviertel, Franckviertel, Hafenviertel
- Pöstlingberg:Pöstlingberg, Bachl-Gründberg
- St. Magdalena: St. Magdalena, Katzbach, Elmberg
- St. Peter
- Urfahr: Alt-Urfahr, Heilham, Hartmayrsiedlung, Harbachsiedlung, Karlhofsiedlung, Auberg
- Waldegg: Freinberg, Froschberg, Keferfeld, Bindermichl, Spallerhof, Wankmüllerhofviertel, Andreas-Hofer-Platz-Viertel
It was a provincial and local government city of the Holy Roman Empire, and an important trading point connecting several routes, on either side of the river Danube from the East to the West and Bohemia and Poland from north to the Balkans and Italy to the south. Being the city where the Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III spent his last years, it was, for a short period of time, the most important city in the empire. It lost its status to Vienna and Prague after the death of the Emperor in 1493.
One important inhabitant of the city was Johannes Kepler, who spent several years of his life in the city teaching mathematics. He discovered, on 15 May 1618, the distance-cubed-over-time-squared — or 'third' — law of planetary motion. The local public university, Johannes Kepler University, is named after him.
Adolf Hitler was born in the border town of Braunau am Inn but moved to Linz in his childhood. Hitler spent most of his youth in the Linz area, from 1898 until 1907, when he left for Vienna. The family lived first in the village of Leonding on the outskirts of town, and then on the Humboldtstrasse in Linz. After elementary education in Leonding, Hitler was enrolled in the Realschule (school) in Linz, as was the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Notorious Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann also spent his youth in Linz. To the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz to be his "home town", and envisioned extensive architectural schemes for it, wanting it to become the main cultural centre of the Third Reich. In order to make the city economically vibrant, Hitler initiated a major industrialization of Linz shortly before, and during, World War II.
In addition to an ordnance depot, Linz has a benzol (oil) plant which was bombed during the Oil Campaign on 16 October 1944. What was once the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp is 20 km (12 miles), east of the city of Linz.
The urban area includes (parts of) 13 other municipalities with together 271,000 inhabitants. Linz is also part of the Linz-Wels-Steyr metropolitan area of Upper Austria, home to around one third of the state's population (460,000 people) and second-largest urban area in Austria.
|Largest groups of foreign residents|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||4,626|
|Climate data for Linz|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.8
|Average high °C (°F)||2.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−0.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−22.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||59.7
|Snowfall cm (inches)||17.5
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||10.8||9.7||10.7||10.5||10.2||12.0||12.1||10.3||9.2||7.7||10.4||11.5||125.1|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm)||14.8||10.0||3.4||0.2||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||2.9||9.1||40.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||49.3||93.5||119.3||171.4||234.7||222.6||238.6||236.2||172.6||110.3||49.2||43.4||1,741.1|
|Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics|
Linz is one of the main economic centers of Austria. The Voestalpine AG is a large steel concern (founded as the "Hermann-Göring-Werke" during World War II), which is known for the LD- ("Linz-Donawitz") procedure for the production of steel. The former "Chemie Linz" chemical group has been split up into several companies. These companies have made Linz one of Austria's most important economic centers.
Linz serves as an important transportation hub for the region of both Upper Austria and, to a lesser degree, southern Bohemia.
The "Blue Danube" Linz Airport lies about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) southwest of the town centre, in the municipality of Hörsching. Direct flights include Frankfurt, Düsseldorf and Vienna with additional seasonal routes added during the summer and winter months. Ryanair flies to London Stansted Airport and Air Berlin flies to Berlin-Tegel Airport.
The city also has a central station (German: Hauptbahnhof) on Austria's main rail axis, the West railway, linking Vienna with western Austria, Germany and Switzerland. There are also varying types of river transport on the Danube, from industrial barges to tourist cruise ships.
Local public transport comprises the city tram network, the city trolleybus network and the city bus network, all operated by the Linz Linien division of Linz AG. The city tram network includes the Pöstlingbergbahn, a steeply graded tramway which climbs a small mountain at the northwest edge of the town.
The newspaper Oberösterreichische Nachrichten has its head office in Linz.
Points of interest
The main street "Landstraße" leads from the "Blumauerplatz" to "Taubenmarkt" (Pigeonmarket) near the main square. In the middle of the main square the high "Pestsäule" ("plague column", also known as "Dreifaltigkeitssäule" (Dreifaltigkeit means Holy Trinity)) was built to remember the people who died in the plague epidemics.
Other points of interest include:
- St. Mary's Cathedral (Mariendom), Roman Catholic., in Gothic-Revival style
- Pöstlingberg-Kirche: pilgrimage church on the Pöstlingberg hill
- Brucknerhaus — the concert hall named after the composer Anton Bruckner, who was born in Ansfelden, a small town next to Linz.
- Gugl Stadium, is home to the LASK (Linzer Athletik Sport Klub), which is claimed to be the third oldest football club in Austria.
- The Linzer Landestheater
The city is now home to a vibrant music and arts scene that is well-funded by the city and the state of Upper Austria. Between the Lentos Art Museum and the "Brucknerhaus", is the "Donaulände", which is also referred to as "Kulturmeile" ("culture mile"). This is a park alongside the river, which is used mainly by young people to relax and meet in summer. It is also used for the Ars Electronica Festival in early September and the "Linz Fest", which takes place annually in May. In June, July and August the "Musikpavillon" is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge.
Linz has other culture institutions, such as the Posthof, which is near the harbour, and the Stadtwerkstatt, which is by the Danube river. The Pflasterspektakel, an international street art festival, takes place each year in July in and around the Landstraße and the main square. Linz was the European Capital of Culture in 2009, along with Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.
The recently built Lentos (2003) is a modern art gallery, presenting art from the 20th and 21st centuries. It is situated on the south banks of the river Danube. The building can be illuminated at night from the inside with blue, pink, red, and violet, due to its plastic casing.
The Ars Electronica Center (AEC) is a museum and research facility on the north bank of the Danube (in the Urfahr district), across the river from the Hauptplatz (main square). The AEC is a significant world center for new media arts, attracting a large gathering of technologically-oriented artists every year for the Ars Electronica Festival. The AEC museum is home to one of the few public 2D CAVEs in Europe.
The Brucknerhaus, a famous concert hall in Linz is named after Anton Bruckner. It is situated just some 200 meters away from the "Lentos". It is home to the "Bruckner Orchestra", and is frequently used for concerts, as well as Balls and other events. It is also the venue of the “Linz Fest” which takes place annually in May as well as one of the venues during the Ars Electronica Festival in early September. In June, July and August the “Musikpavillon” is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge.
The Musiktheater (music theatre) was opened in April 2013 and is considered to be one of the most modern opera houses in Europe. It offers five stages of varying sizes; the big hall ("Großer Saal") with 1.200 seats, the BlackBox with up to 270 seats, the BlackBoxLounge with up to 150 seats, the orchestra hall ("Orchestersaal") with up to 200 seats and another stage in the foyer ("FoyerBühne"). Performances at the Musiktheater include operas and typically Austrian operettas, ballets and musicals.
The ensemble of the Landestheater (regional theatre) Linz used to perform musical productions as well as theatre productions at a venue located on the “Promenade” in the inner city of Linz (this venue is still referred to simply as “Landestheater”). Since the opening of the new Musiktheater, only theatre performances take place at the “Promenade” venue, whereas musical productions are shown in the Musiktheater. The Landestheater Linz is especially renowned for its theatre for young audiences called u\hof:.
The Posthof is one of the biggest event centers in Linz with three rooms offering up to 630 seats or standing room for about 1.200 people respectively in the big hall. The program focuses on contemporary art and covers concerts, theatre, cabaret, dance and literature. Artists from Linz are regularly invited in order to improve the local cultural scene; e.g. bands from Linz get the opportunity to play as pre-bands alongside nationally and internationally known artists. Altogether a total of about 250 events take place at the Posthof each year with a total number of visitors of about 80.000.
The Stadtwerkstatt is an independent association for culture and was founded in 1979. Its headquarters is located in the Urfahr district on the north bank of the Danube close to the Ars Electronica Center and serves as venue for music events and other artistic and cultural activities. Situated at the same address is the Stadtwerkstatt’s own Café Strom, a café/bar popular amongst young adults.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. 36 (1783) in Linz for a concert to be given there, and the work is known today as the Linz Symphony. He reportedly also composed his Piano Sonata 13 in B flat while in Linz, although it was published in Vienna. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz version.
Anton Bruckner was born in Ansfelden near Linz and spent several years working as a conductor and organist in Linz, where he also started to compose. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz version. The Brucknerhaus, a concert hall in Linz as well as its annual international Brucknerfest are named after him.
The musician and DJ Marcus Füreder, better known by his stage name Parov Stelar was born in Linz.
- Ars Electronica Festival: the Ars Electronica Festival is a festival for media art which has been taking place annually in Linz since 1986 and includes exhibitions, concerts, performances, symposia and interventions on changing themes that take place in public settings such as churches and industrial halls. The events focus on art, technology and society and the nexus among them. In 2013 a total of about 75.000 visitors took part in the Ars Electronica Festival.
- Crossing Europe Film Festival: Since 2004 this festival takes place annually in Linz. Starting at a total number of 9,000 visitors in the first year, the tenth edition of the Crossing Europe Film Festival in 2014 attracted over 20,000 people; 184 feature films, documentaries and short films from 37 countries were shown. The film screenings are accompanied by exhibitions, talks and live music acts (“Nightline”). There are currently eight different awards to be won at the Crossing Europe Film Festival in categories such as “CROSSING EUROPE Audience Award”, the “FEDEORA AWARD for European Documentaries” and the “CROSSING EUROPE AWARD Local Artist”.
- International Brucknerfest: Following the opening of the “Brucknerhaus” concert hall in Linz three years earlier, the international Brucknerfest took place for the first time in 1977. Whereas the first two editions were only dedicated to classical music in general and Anton Bruckner’s pieces in particular, this changed in 1979 when the international Brucknerfest, the Ars Electronica festival and the “Klangwolke” (Sound cloud), which now marks the beginning of the Brucknerfest, were merged to create a festival worthy of competing with those in Vienna and Salzburg. Taking place annually for three weeks in September/October it closes the Austrian festival season.
- Klangwolke (Cloud of sound): Created as a link between the Ars Electronica Festival and the international Brucknerfest, this open-air multimedia musical event takes place annually at the beginning of September at the riverside Donaupark in Linz. It is free of charge and attracted about 110.000 people in 2013. Today there are three different “Clouds of sound”, the visualized Klangwolke, in which modern music (mostly commissioned works) is staged with lasers, video projections, fireworks, ships, cranes, balloons, etc., the Klangwolke for children (since 1998) and the classical Klangwolke.
- Pflasterspektakel: The festival takes place annually since 1986 in the city center of Linz and includes musical acts, juggling, acrobatics, pantomime, improvisational theatre, clownery, fire dancing, painting, samba parades, as well as a program for children. With about 250.000 visitors (2014) the festival is one of the biggest street art festivals in Europe; its 28th edition featured 300 artists from 36 different nations.
Colleges and universities
- Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance (private) for music (approx. 800 students)
- Catholic-Theological Private University Linz (private) for Catholic theology (approx. 400 students), which has been a Papal faculty since 1978
- The Johannes Kepler University is situated in the north-east of Linz, and hosts law, business, social sciences, engineering, and science faculties; about 13416 students (October 2007) are enrolled. A spin-off of the university, as well as a Fachhochschule for various computer-related studies, (polytechnic) is located 20 miles (32 km) north of Linz in the small town of Hagenberg im Mühlkreis. Linz also hosts three other universities:
- University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz, public, for arts and industrial design (approx. 800 students).
Amongst the many "Gymnasien" (high schools) in Linz, is Linz International School Auhof (LISA), which is one of four IB (International Baccalaureate) schools in Austria, and uses English as main language for instruction.
Born in Linz
- Mary Anne of Austria (1683–1754), Queen consort of Portugal
- Alois Riegl (1858–1905) art historian
- Hermann Bahr (1863–1934) writer, playwright, director, and critic
- Frederic "Fritz" Austerlitz (1868) father of Fred Astaire
- Richard Tauber (1891–1948) tenor
- Hans Kronberger (1920-1970) nuclear physicist
- Valie Export (born 1940) artist
- Waltraut Cooper (born 1937) artist, Pioneer of Digital Art
- Herwig van Staa (born 1942) former governor of Tyrol
- Fritz Eckhardt (1907–1995) actor, director, and writer
- Frank Elstner (born 1942) presenter on German television
- Shlomo Sand (born 1946) Prof. of history at Tel Aviv University and author of the controversial book The Invention of the Jewish People
- Herbert Maneval (born 1946) U.S. prof. of literature and drama and author of The Myth of Global Warming
- Fritz von Thurn und Taxis (born 1950) Austrian sportscaster
- Richard Link (born 1951) Canadian space scientist
- Anton Koschany (born 1953) Canadian news producer, W5
- Elisabeth Theurer (born 1956) equestrienne
- Franz Welser-Möst (born 1960) music director of the Cleveland Orchestra and the Vienna State Opera
- Franz Schumann (born 1960) professional wrestler
- Marcus Füreder (born 1974) producer, DJ
- Vera Lischka (born 1977) breaststroke swimmer and politician
- Birgit Minichmayr (born 1977) actress
- Thomas Marban (born 1979) entrepreneur
- Sybille Bammer (born 1980) tennis player
- Marco Krainer (born 1981) Austrian specialty and TV chef with connections to the United States
- Christina Stürmer (born 1982) Austrian pop/rock singer
- Martin Mefjus Austrian drum and bass producer
Living in Linz:
- Doug Hammond (born in Tampa, Florida, 1942) musician.
- Klaus von Pervulesko (born in Innsbruck, 1945) actor.
- Andrew Edge (born in Leeds, England, 1956) musician.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Linz is twinned with:
Partnerships and Cooperations
Linz also has a partnership with:
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- Published in the 19th century
- Published in the 20th century
- "Linz", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Linz.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article Linz.|
- Linz travel guide from Wikivoyage
- "Linz". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- LinzGenesis and Museum of the History of Dentistry in Upper Austria
- Landesgalerie (Provincial gallery)
- Nordico – Museum of the City of Linz
- O.K Center for Contemporary Art
- Linz Picture tour through Linz
- 360° Panoramic Photos from Linz
- University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz
- Official homepage of Linz — The Capital of Culture 2009
- Independent Platform of Linz — European Capital of Culture 2009
- Comprehensive independent travel guide to Linz written by a local
- LISA — Linz International School Auhof
- Ars Electronica Centre
- Lentos Art Museum
- Brucknerhaus concert hall
- (German) Linz web site
- (German) Data about the city
- (German) Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance
- (German) Catholic-Theological Private University Linz