View of Hauptplatz, Linz
|• Mayor||Klaus Luger (SPÖ)|
|• Total||96.048 km2 (37.084 sq mi)|
|Elevation||266 m (873 ft)|
|Population (1 January 2014)|
|• Density||2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal codes||4010, 402x, 4030, 404x|
|Area codes||0732, 070|
Linz (//; German pronunciation: [ˈlɪnt͡s]) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (German: Oberösterreich). It is located in the north centre of Austria, approximately 30 kilometres (19 miles) south of the Czech border, on both sides of the river Danube. The population of the city is 193,814, and that of the Greater Linz conurbation is about 271,000.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Population
- 4 Climate
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transport
- 7 Media
- 8 Points of interest
- 9 Architecture
- 10 Culture
- 11 Colleges and universities
- 12 Sports
- 13 Born in Linz
- 14 International relations
- 15 See also
- 16 Notes
- 17 Further reading
- 18 External links
Linz is located in the center of Europe, lying on the Paris–Budapest west–east axis and the Malmö–Trieste north–south axis. The Danube is the main tourism and transport connection that runs through the city.
Linz is divided into 9 districts and 36 statistical quarters. They are:
- Innenstadt: Altstadtviertel, Rathausviertel, Kaplanhofviertel, Neustadtviertel, Volksgartenviertel, Römerberg-Margarethen
- Kleinmünchen: Kleinmünchen, Neue Welt, Scharlinz, Bergern, Neue Heimat, Wegscheid, Schörgenhub
- Lustenau: Makartviertel, Franckviertel, Hafenviertel
- Pöstlingberg:Pöstlingberg, Bachl-Gründberg
- St. Magdalena: St. Magdalena, Katzbach, Elmberg
- St. Peter
- Urfahr: Alt-Urfahr, Heilham, Hartmayrsiedlung, Harbachsiedlung, Karlhofsiedlung, Auberg
- Waldegg: Freinberg, Froschberg, Keferfeld, Bindermichl, Spallerhof, Wankmüllerhofviertel, Andreas-Hofer-Platz-Viertel
It was a provincial and local government city of the Holy Roman Empire, and an important trading point connecting several routes, on either side of the river Danube from the East to the West and Bohemia and Poland from north to the Balkans and Italy to the south. Being the city where the Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III spent his last years, it was, for a short period of time, the most important city in the empire. It lost its status to Vienna and Prague after the death of the Emperor in 1493.
One important inhabitant of the city was Johannes Kepler, who spent several years of his life in the city teaching mathematics. He discovered, on 15 May 1618, the distance-cubed-over-time-squared — or 'third' — law of planetary motion. The local public university, Johannes Kepler University, is named after him.
Adolf Hitler was born in the border town of Braunau am Inn but moved to Linz in his childhood. Hitler spent most of his youth in the Linz area, from 1898 until 1907, when he left for Vienna. The family lived first in the village of Leonding on the outskirts of town, and then on the Humboldtstrasse in Linz. After elementary education in Leonding, Hitler was enrolled in the Realschule (school) in Linz, as was the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Notorious Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann also spent his youth in Linz. To the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz to be his "home town", and envisioned extensive architectural schemes for it, wanting it to become the main cultural centre of the Third Reich. In order to make the city economically vibrant, Hitler initiated a major industrialization of Linz shortly before, and during, World War II.
In addition to an ordnance depot, Linz has a benzol (oil) plant which was bombed during the Oil Campaign on 16 October 1944. What was once the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp is 20 km (12 miles), east of the city of Linz.
The urban area includes (parts of) 13 other municipalities with together 271,000 inhabitants. Linz is also part of the Linz-Wels-Steyr metropolitan area of Upper Austria, home to around one third of the state's population (460,000 people) and second-largest urban area in Austria.
|Largest groups of foreign residents|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||4,626|
|Climate data for Linz|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.8
|Average high °C (°F)||2.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−0.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−22.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||59.7
|Snowfall cm (inches)||17.5
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||10.8||9.7||10.7||10.5||10.2||12.0||12.1||10.3||9.2||7.7||10.4||11.5||125.1|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm)||14.8||10.0||3.4||0.2||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||2.9||9.1||40.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||49.3||93.5||119.3||171.4||234.7||222.6||238.6||236.2||172.6||110.3||49.2||43.4||1,741.1|
|Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics|
Linz is one of the main economic centers of Austria. The Voestalpine AG is a large steel concern (founded as the "Hermann-Göring-Werke" during World War II), which is known for the LD- ("Linz-Donawitz") procedure for the production of steel. The former "Chemie Linz" chemical group has been split up into several companies. These companies have made Linz one of Austria's most important economic centers.
Linz serves as an important transportation hub for the region of both Upper Austria and, to a lesser degree, southern Bohemia.
The "Blue Danube" Linz Airport lies about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) southwest of the town centre, in the municipality of Hörsching. Direct flights include Frankfurt, Düsseldorf and Vienna with additional seasonal routes added during the summer and winter months. Ryanair flies to London Stansted Airport and Air Berlin flies to Berlin-Tegel Airport.
The city also has a central station (German: Hauptbahnhof) on Austria's main rail axis, the West railway, linking Vienna with western Austria, Germany and Switzerland. There are also varying types of river transport on the Danube, from industrial barges to tourist cruise ships.
Local public transport comprises the city tram network, the city trolleybus network and the city bus network, all operated by the Linz Linien division of Linz AG. The city tram network includes the Pöstlingbergbahn, a steeply graded tramway which climbs a small mountain at the northwest edge of the town.
The newspaper Oberösterreichische Nachrichten has its head office in Linz.
Points of interest
The main street "Landstraße" leads from the "Blumauerplatz" to "Taubenmarkt" (Pigeonmarket) near the main square. In the middle of the main square the high "Pestsäule" ("plague column", also known as "Dreifaltigkeitssäule" (Dreifaltigkeit means Holy Trinity)) was built to remember the people who died in the plague epidemics.
Other points of interest include:
- St. Mary's Cathedral (Mariendom), Roman Catholic., in Gothic-Revival style
- Pöstlingberg-Kirche: pilgrimage church on the Pöstlingberg hill
- Brucknerhaus — the concert hall named after the composer Anton Bruckner, who was born in Ansfelden, a small town next to Linz.
- Gugl Stadium, is home to the LASK (Linzer Athletik Sport Klub), which is claimed to be the third oldest football club in Austria.
- The Linzer Landestheater
As many central European cities, the cityscape of Linz is characterized by small and several sacred buildings. The Mariä Empfängnis Dom or New Cathedral, Linz is the biggest church in Austria, not by height (it is roughly 2 meters shorter than the St. Stephen's Cathedral (Stephansdom) in Vienna), but by capacity.
The historic center is characterized by its medieval architectural style, whereas in those parts of the city that border with the historic center the architecture is of neoclassical, neo-baroque and neo-renaissance styles. Even further from the historic center there are living areas, such as Franckviertel, Froschberg, Bindermichl and Kleinmünchen southern of the Danube and Alt-Urfahr northern of the Danube. These areas are where residential buildings can be found that are still referred to as "Hitlerbauten" or "Hitler buildings", because they were built during the interwar period and the time of nazi dictatorship. The residential area called Gugl became a well liked living area among the wealthy at around 1900, which is why there are numerous villas still there today.
Amongst the newer buildings is the new Central Station, which was designed by Wilhelm Holzbauer and added the Terminal Tower skyscraper as part of a mixed-use complex. Between 2005 und 2011 it was voted Austria’s most beautiful train station seven times in a row by the Verkehrsclub Österreich. The Wissensturm (“Tower of knowledge”) with a height of about 63 meters, houses the public library and the Volkshochschule, an adult education center. It was designed by Franz Kneidinger and Heinz Stögmüller and opened in 2007. The Lentos Art Museum, which opened in 2003, was designed by Zurich-based architects Weber & Hofer and the Musiktheater (music theater), which opened in 2013, was designed by Terry Pawson.
The city is now home to a vibrant music and arts scene that is well-funded by the city and the state of Upper Austria. Between the Lentos Art Museum and the "Brucknerhaus", is the "Donaulände", which is also referred to as "Kulturmeile" ("culture mile"). This is a park alongside the river, which is used mainly by young people to relax and meet in summer. It is also used for the Ars Electronica Festival in early September and the "Linz Fest", which takes place annually in May. In June, July and August the "Musikpavillon" is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge.
Linz has other culture institutions, such as the Posthof, which is near the harbour, and the Stadtwerkstatt, which is by the Danube river. The Pflasterspektakel, an international street art festival, takes place each year in July in and around the Landstraße and the main square. Linz was the European Capital of Culture in 2009, along with Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.
The recently built Lentos (2003) is a modern art gallery, presenting art from the 20th and 21st centuries. It is situated on the south banks of the river Danube. The building can be illuminated at night from the inside with blue, pink, red, and violet, due to its plastic casing.
The Ars Electronica Center (AEC) is a museum and research facility on the north bank of the Danube (in the Urfahr district), across the river from the Hauptplatz (main square). The AEC is a significant world center for new media arts, attracting a large gathering of technologically-oriented artists every year for the Ars Electronica Festival. The AEC museum is home to one of the few public 2D CAVEs in Europe.
The City Museum Nordico houses an art collection as well as a historical and an archeological collection, all of which relate to the city of Linz. About 16.000 people visited the museum in 2013.
The Upper Austrian Regional Museum (Oberösterreichisches Landesmuseum) has three main locations that focus on different aspects of the regional history: The Landesgalerie (regional gallery) exhibits modern and temporary art, the Schlossmuseum houses archeological findings all of which retrace Upper Austria’s cultural history whereas the aim of the Biologiezentrum Linz-Dornach (centre of biology) is to retrace the region’s natural history with an exhibition of about 16 million objects (which makes it the second biggest museum for natural history in Austria).
The Brucknerhaus, a famous concert hall in Linz is named after Anton Bruckner. It is situated just some 200 meters away from the "Lentos". It is home to the "Bruckner Orchestra", and is frequently used for concerts, as well as Balls and other events. It is also the venue of the “Linz Fest” which takes place annually in May as well as one of the venues during the Ars Electronica Festival in early September. In June, July and August the “Musikpavillon” is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge.
The Musiktheater (music theatre) was opened in April 2013 and is considered to be one of the most modern opera houses in Europe. It offers five stages of varying sizes; the big hall ("Großer Saal") with 1.200 seats, the BlackBox with up to 270 seats, the BlackBoxLounge with up to 150 seats, the orchestra hall ("Orchestersaal") with up to 200 seats and another stage in the foyer ("FoyerBühne"). Performances at the Musiktheater include operas and typically Austrian operettas, ballets and musicals.
The ensemble of the Landestheater (regional theatre) Linz used to perform musical productions as well as theatre productions at a venue located on the “Promenade” in the inner city of Linz (this venue is still referred to simply as “Landestheater”). Since the opening of the new Musiktheater, only theatre performances take place at the “Promenade” venue, whereas musical productions are shown in the Musiktheater. The Landestheater Linz is especially renowned for its theatre for young audiences called u\hof:.
The Posthof is one of the biggest event centers in Linz with three rooms offering up to 630 seats or standing room for about 1.200 people respectively in the big hall. The program focuses on contemporary art and covers concerts, theatre, cabaret, dance and literature. Artists from Linz are regularly invited in order to improve the local cultural scene; e.g. bands from Linz get the opportunity to play as pre-bands alongside nationally and internationally known artists. Altogether a total of about 250 events take place at the Posthof each year with a total number of visitors of about 80.000.
The Stadtwerkstatt is an independent association for culture and was founded in 1979. Its headquarters is located in the Urfahr district on the north bank of the Danube close to the Ars Electronica Center and serves as venue for music events and other artistic and cultural activities. Situated at the same address is the Stadtwerkstatt’s own Café Strom, a café/bar popular amongst young adults.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. 36 (1783) in Linz for a concert to be given there, and the work is known today as the Linz Symphony. He reportedly also composed his Piano Sonata 13 in B flat while in Linz, although it was published in Vienna. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz version.
Anton Bruckner was born in Ansfelden near Linz and spent several years working as a conductor and organist in Linz, where he also started to compose. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz version. The Brucknerhaus, a concert hall in Linz as well as its annual international Brucknerfest are named after him.
The musician and DJ Marcus Füreder, better known by his stage name Parov Stelar was born in Linz.
- Ars Electronica Festival: the Ars Electronica Festival is a festival for media art which has been taking place annually in Linz since 1986 and includes exhibitions, concerts, performances, symposia and interventions on changing themes that take place in public settings such as churches and industrial halls. The events focus on art, technology and society and the nexus among them. In 2013 a total of about 75.000 visitors took part in the Ars Electronica Festival.
- Bubble Days: the Bubble Days have been taking place annually in June since 2011 and are hosted by local creative collective LI.K.I.DO. During the event a number of extreme sports shows, such as aviation performances and a wake boarding contest, the Red Bull WAKE OF STEEL, take place in the harbor of Linz. Additionally there are a number of art exhibitions and live music acts and visitors can explore the harbor on boat tours, in paddle boats or kayaks. In 2013 the Bubble Days reached a total number of 12.000 visitors.
- Crossing Europe Film Festival: Since 2004 this festival takes place annually in Linz. Starting at a total number of 9,000 visitors in the first year, the tenth edition of the Crossing Europe Film Festival in 2014 attracted over 20,000 people; 184 feature films, documentaries and short films from 37 countries were shown. The film screenings are accompanied by exhibitions, talks and live music acts (“Nightline”). There are currently eight different awards to be won at the Crossing Europe Film Festival in categories such as “CROSSING EUROPE Audience Award”, the “FEDEORA AWARD for European Documentaries” and the “CROSSING EUROPE AWARD Local Artist”.
- Festival der Regionen (Festival of the regions): The Festival of the regions focuses on contemporary local art and culture and takes place every second year in varying locations across upper Austria. It took place for the first time in 1993 and has been dedicated to different themes such as "the other", "marginal zones" or "normality".
- International Brucknerfest: Following the opening of the “Brucknerhaus” concert hall in Linz three years earlier, the international Brucknerfest took place for the first time in 1977. Whereas the first two editions were only dedicated to classical music in general and Anton Bruckner’s pieces in particular, this changed in 1979 when the international Brucknerfest, the Ars Electronica festival and the “Klangwolke” (Sound cloud), which now marks the beginning of the Brucknerfest, were merged to create a festival worthy of competing with those in Vienna and Salzburg. Taking place annually for three weeks in September/October it closes the Austrian festival season.
- Klangwolke (Cloud of sound): Created as a link between the Ars Electronica Festival and the international Brucknerfest, this open-air multimedia musical event takes place annually at the beginning of September at the riverside Donaupark in Linz. It is free of charge and attracted about 110.000 people in 2013. Today there are three different “Clouds of sound”, the visualized Klangwolke, in which modern music (mostly commissioned works) is staged with lasers, video projections, fireworks, ships, cranes, balloons, etc., the Klangwolke for children (since 1998) and the classical Klangwolke.
- Linzfest: This Open Air Festival has taken place in Linz since 1990. It is financed by the city of Linz and several sponsors and organized for the broad public of all ages in cooperation with partners such as local cultural institutions. The festival is dedicated to a different theme every year (the last one in 2014 was "Old is the new new") and includes concerts, theater, dance, comedy, art in the public space, culinary art, literature and parties, all of which are in line with the general theme of the event. It is held in the "Donaupark", a wide park area next to the Danube, also referred to as "Donaulände" or "Kulturmeile".
- The Linz Marathon is held annually in April and attracted over 15.000 participants and about 100.000 spectators in 2013.
- Pflasterspektakel: The festival takes place annually since 1986 in the city center of Linz and includes musical acts, juggling, acrobatics, pantomime, improvisational theatre, clownery, fire dancing, painting, samba parades, as well as a program for children. With about 250.000 visitors (2014) the festival is one of the biggest street art festivals in Europe; its 28th edition featured 300 artists from 36 different nations.
- The Stadtfest (City festival) is held annually in August in the inner city of Linz. The three day festival features live music acts of different styles, with each music style being represented on a different stage. The concerts are held by national and international artists. Every year about 100.000 people take part in this event.
- Urfahraner Märkte: These fairs are held twice every year (once in spring, once in autumn) in Urfahr on the northern side of the Danube. They include a fun park (with roller coasters and a Ferris wheel) and a market (with food products from local and regional farmers) and attract about 500.000 people.
Other cultural institutions and venues
- Alte Welt: concerts and cabaret
- Archive of the city of Linz: collection of important documents of the city of Linz, presenting Linz‘ town history
- Atelierhaus Salzamt: living and working space for artists, featuring continuous exhibitions.
- Botanic garden: about 100.000 visitors every year; featuring a summer program of music acts, readings and dance performances in the garden pavilion
- Club Tunnel: features techno and drum’n’bass parties
- Design Center Linz: modern congress and exhibition center
- Johannes Kepler Observatory: opened in 1983
- Kijani: Bar/event location for concerts (electronic music)
- Kinderkulturzentrum Kuddelmuddel: theater for children which includes a kindergarten
- KUBA Jugendkultur: cultural institution for teenagers and young adults, founded by the Verein Jugend und Freizeit, which is an association for teenagers and young adults interested in culture
- Kultur-Café Smaragd: Bar with a small stage in the basement area; presenting regional Jazz, Pop and Rock bands and international acts
- Kulturhaus Reiman: venue for concerts, young theater and cabaret
- Kulturzentrum Hof: cultural institution featuring concerts of different music styles, cabaret performances, theater, readings and various workshops. The Kulturzentrum Hof tries to appeal to non-mainstream artistic styles.
- Kunstraum Goethestrasse: founded in 1998, it is a location for temporary art
- Landeskulturzentrum Ursulinenhof: The Ursulinenhof houses cultural institutions and is a cultural venue (presenting e.g. exhibitions and hosting readings and theater performances) and a press and event centre.
- MAIZ: autonomous centre for migrants realizing cultural projects
- Tabakfabrik: location for exhibitions and musical events
- Winery Josef Cembran: location for various events, such as wine tastings and drum’n’bass parties
Colleges and universities
- Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance (private) for music (approx. 800 students)
- Catholic-Theological Private University Linz (private) for Catholic theology (approx. 400 students), which has been a Papal faculty since 1978
- The Johannes Kepler University is situated in the north-east of Linz, and hosts law, business, social sciences, engineering, and science faculties; about 13416 students (October 2007) are enrolled. A spin-off of the university, as well as a Fachhochschule for various computer-related studies, (polytechnic) is located 20 miles (32 km) north of Linz in the small town of Hagenberg im Mühlkreis. Linz also hosts three other universities:
- University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz, public, for arts and industrial design (approx. 800 students).
Amongst the many "Gymnasien" (high schools) in Linz, is Linz International School Auhof (LISA), which is one of four IB (International Baccalaureate) schools in Austria, and uses English as main language for instruction.
Born in Linz
- Mary Anne of Austria (1683–1754), Queen consort of Portugal
- Alois Riegl (1858–1905) art historian
- Hermann Bahr (1863–1934) writer, playwright, director, and critic
- Frederic "Fritz" Austerlitz (1868) father of Fred Astaire
- Richard Tauber (1891–1948) tenor
- Hans Kronberger (1920-1970) nuclear physicist
- Valie Export (born 1940) artist
- Waltraut Cooper (born 1937) artist, Pioneer of Digital Art
- Herwig van Staa (born 1942) former governor of Tyrol
- Fritz Eckhardt (1907–1995) actor, director, and writer
- Frank Elstner (born 1942) presenter on German television
- Shlomo Sand (born 1946) Prof. of history at Tel Aviv University and author of the controversial book The Invention of the Jewish People
- Herbert Maneval (born 1946) U.S. prof. of literature and drama and author of The Myth of Global Warming
- Fritz von Thurn und Taxis (born 1950) Austrian sportscaster
- Richard Link (born 1951) Canadian space scientist
- Anton Koschany (born 1953) Canadian news producer, W5
- Elisabeth Theurer (born 1956) equestrienne
- Franz Welser-Möst (born 1960) music director of the Cleveland Orchestra and the Vienna State Opera
- Franz Schumann (born 1960) professional wrestler
- Marcus Füreder (born 1974) producer, DJ
- Vera Lischka (born 1977) breaststroke swimmer and politician
- Birgit Minichmayr (born 1977) actress
- Thomas Marban (born 1979) entrepreneur
- Sybille Bammer (born 1980) tennis player
- Marco Krainer (born 1981) Austrian specialty and TV chef with connections to the United States
- Christina Stürmer (born 1982) Austrian pop/rock singer
- Martin Mefjus Austrian drum and bass producer
Living in Linz:
- Doug Hammond (born in Tampa, Florida, 1942) musician.
- Klaus von Pervulesko (born in Innsbruck, 1945) actor.
- Andrew Edge (born in Leeds, England, 1956) musician.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Linz is twinned with:
Partnerships and Cooperations
Linz also has a partnership with:
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- Published in the 19th century
- Published in the 20th century
- "Linz", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Linz.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article Linz.|
- Linz travel guide from Wikivoyage
- "Linz". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- LinzGenesis and Museum of the History of Dentistry in Upper Austria
- Landesgalerie (Provincial gallery)
- Nordico – Museum of the City of Linz
- O.K Center for Contemporary Art
- Linz Picture tour through Linz
- 360° Panoramic Photos from Linz
- University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz
- Official homepage of Linz — The Capital of Culture 2009
- Independent Platform of Linz — European Capital of Culture 2009
- Comprehensive independent travel guide to Linz written by a local
- LISA — Linz International School Auhof
- Ars Electronica Centre
- Lentos Art Museum
- Brucknerhaus concert hall
- (German) Linz web site
- (German) Data about the city
- (German) Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance
- (German) Catholic-Theological Private University Linz