Linz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Linz (disambiguation).
Linz
View of Hauptplatz, Linz
View of Hauptplatz, Linz
Coat of arms of Linz
Coat of arms
Linz is located in Austria
Linz
Linz
Location within Austria
Coordinates: 48°18′N 14°17′E / 48.300°N 14.283°E / 48.300; 14.283Coordinates: 48°18′N 14°17′E / 48.300°N 14.283°E / 48.300; 14.283
Country Austria
State Upper Austria
District Statutory city
Government
 • Mayor Klaus Luger (SPÖ)
Area
 • Total 96.048 km2 (37.084 sq mi)
Elevation 266 m (873 ft)
Population (1 January 2014)[1]
 • Total 193,814
 • Density 2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal codes 4010, 402x, 4030, 404x
Area codes 0732, 070
Vehicle registration L
Website www.linz.at

Linz (/ˈlɪnts/; German pronunciation: [ˈlɪnt͡s]) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (German: Oberösterreich). It is located in the north centre of Austria, approximately 30 kilometres (19 miles) south of the Czech border, on both sides of the river Danube. The population of the city is 193,814, and that of the Greater Linz conurbation is about 271,000.

Geography[edit]

Linz is located in the center of Europe, lying on the ParisBudapest west–east axis and the MalmöTrieste north–south axis. The Danube is the main tourism and transport connection that runs through the city.

Districts[edit]

Linz is divided into 9 districts and 36 statistical quarters. They are:

  1. Ebelsberg
  2. Innenstadt: Altstadtviertel, Rathausviertel, Kaplanhofviertel, Neustadtviertel, Volksgartenviertel, Römerberg-Margarethen
  3. Kleinmünchen: Kleinmünchen, Neue Welt, Scharlinz, Bergern, Neue Heimat, Wegscheid, Schörgenhub
  4. Lustenau: Makartviertel, Franckviertel, Hafenviertel
  5. Pöstlingberg:Pöstlingberg, Bachl-Gründberg
  6. St. Magdalena: St. Magdalena, Katzbach, Elmberg
  7. St. Peter
  8. Urfahr: Alt-Urfahr, Heilham, Hartmayrsiedlung, Harbachsiedlung, Karlhofsiedlung, Auberg
  9. Waldegg: Freinberg, Froschberg, Keferfeld, Bindermichl, Spallerhof, Wankmüllerhofviertel, Andreas-Hofer-Platz-Viertel

History[edit]

A statue of Johannes Kepler in Linz, located on a pathway between Saint Martin's church and the Linz Schloss/castle

The city was founded by the Romans, who called it Lentia.[2] The name Linz was first recorded in AD 799.

It was a provincial and local government city of the Holy Roman Empire, and an important trading point connecting several routes, on either side of the river Danube from the East to the West and Bohemia and Poland from north to the Balkans and Italy to the south. Being the city where the Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III spent his last years, it was, for a short period of time, the most important city in the empire.[3] It lost its status to Vienna and Prague after the death of the Emperor in 1493.

One important inhabitant of the city was Johannes Kepler, who spent several years of his life in the city teaching mathematics. He discovered, on 15 May 1618, the distance-cubed-over-time-squared — or 'third' — law of planetary motion. The local public university, Johannes Kepler University, is named after him.

Another famous citizen was Anton Bruckner, who spent the years between 1855 and 1868 working as a local composer and organist in the Old Cathedral, Linz. The Brucknerhaus is named after him.

Adolf Hitler was born in the border town of Braunau am Inn but moved to Linz in his childhood. Hitler spent most of his youth in the Linz area, from 1898 until 1907, when he left for Vienna. The family lived first in the village of Leonding on the outskirts of town, and then on the Humboldtstrasse in Linz. After elementary education in Leonding, Hitler was enrolled in the Realschule (school) in Linz, as was the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Notorious Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann also spent his youth in Linz. To the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz to be his "home town",[4] and envisioned extensive architectural schemes for it, wanting it to become the main cultural centre of the Third Reich.[5] In order to make the city economically vibrant, Hitler initiated a major industrialization of Linz shortly before, and during, World War II.

In addition to an ordnance depot, Linz has a benzol (oil)[1] plant which was bombed during the Oil Campaign on 16 October 1944. What was once the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp is 20 km (12 miles), east of the city of Linz.

Population[edit]

The urban area includes (parts of) 13 other municipalities with together 271,000 inhabitants. Linz is also part of the Linz-Wels-Steyr metropolitan area of Upper Austria, home to around one third of the state's population (460,000 people) and second-largest urban area in Austria.[6][7]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1900 83,356 —    
1951 184,685 +121.6%
1961 195,978 +6.1%
1971 204,889 +4.5%
1981 199,910 −2.4%
1991 203,044 +1.6%
2001 183,504 −9.6%
2006 188,968 +3.0%
2011 189,845 +0.5%
2014 194,522 +2.5%
Largest groups of foreign residents[8]
Nationality Population (2014)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,626
 Turkey 3,206
 Romania 2,768
 Germany 2,718
 Croatia 1,986
 Serbia 1,671

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Linz
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.8
(58.6)
17.0
(62.6)
23.5
(74.3)
28.0
(82.4)
31.0
(87.8)
34.2
(93.6)
36.2
(97.2)
36.2
(97.2)
31.4
(88.5)
25.3
(77.5)
22.7
(72.9)
13.4
(56.1)
36.2
(97.2)
Average high °C (°F) 2.0
(35.6)
4.3
(39.7)
9.9
(49.8)
14.6
(58.3)
20.4
(68.7)
22.7
(72.9)
24.8
(76.6)
24.5
(76.1)
19.7
(67.5)
14.1
(57.4)
6.6
(43.9)
3.1
(37.6)
13.9
(57)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.7
(30.7)
0.7
(33.3)
5.1
(41.2)
9.3
(48.7)
14.6
(58.3)
17.3
(63.1)
19.1
(66.4)
18.7
(65.7)
14.4
(57.9)
9.4
(48.9)
3.8
(38.8)
0.6
(33.1)
9.4
(48.9)
Average low °C (°F) −2.8
(27)
−1.7
(28.9)
1.7
(35.1)
5.1
(41.2)
9.8
(49.6)
12.6
(54.7)
14.4
(57.9)
14.2
(57.6)
10.7
(51.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
5.9
(42.6)
Record low °C (°F) −22.0
(−7.6)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.1
(39.4)
7.3
(45.1)
6.1
(43)
1.6
(34.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
−10.6
(12.9)
−17.6
(0.3)
−22.0
(−7.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 59.7
(2.35)
48.4
(1.906)
64.2
(2.528)
63.8
(2.512)
70.9
(2.791)
91.2
(3.591)
107.0
(4.213)
83.9
(3.303)
63.2
(2.488)
52.3
(2.059)
62.1
(2.445)
65.7
(2.587)
832.4
(32.773)
Snowfall cm (inches) 17.5
(6.89)
13.1
(5.16)
6.0
(2.36)
0.6
(0.24)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
4.9
(1.93)
12.0
(4.72)
54.1
(21.3)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.8 9.7 10.7 10.5 10.2 12.0 12.1 10.3 9.2 7.7 10.4 11.5 125.1
Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 14.8 10.0 3.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 9.1 40.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 49.3 93.5 119.3 171.4 234.7 222.6 238.6 236.2 172.6 110.3 49.2 43.4 1,741.1
Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics[9]

Economy[edit]

Church of Saints Michael and Ursula, Linz
The Neues Rathaus (Linz city hall)
The Pöstlingberg church in Linz
The Brucknerhaus
The Eisenbahnbrücke (railway bridge) at night, with the more modern VöestAlpine bridge in the background
TipsArena Linz, in Linz
The Landestheater

Linz is one of the main economic centers of Austria. The Voestalpine AG is a large steel concern (founded as the "Hermann-Göring-Werke" during World War II), which is known for the LD- ("Linz-Donawitz") procedure for the production of steel. The former "Chemie Linz" chemical group has been split up into several companies. These companies have made Linz one of Austria's most important economic centers.

Transport[edit]

Linz serves as an important transportation hub for the region of both Upper Austria and, to a lesser degree, southern Bohemia.

The "Blue Danube" Linz Airport lies about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) southwest of the town centre, in the municipality of Hörsching. Direct flights include Frankfurt, Düsseldorf and Vienna with additional seasonal routes added during the summer and winter months. Ryanair flies to London Stansted Airport and Air Berlin flies to Berlin-Tegel Airport.[10]

The city also has a central station (German: Hauptbahnhof) on Austria's main rail axis, the West railway, linking Vienna with western Austria, Germany and Switzerland. There are also varying types of river transport on the Danube, from industrial barges to tourist cruise ships.

Local public transport comprises the city tram network, the city trolleybus network and the city bus network, all operated by the Linz Linien division of Linz AG.[11] The city tram network includes the Pöstlingbergbahn, a steeply graded tramway which climbs a small mountain at the northwest edge of the town.

Media[edit]

The newspaper Oberösterreichische Nachrichten has its head office in Linz.

Points of interest[edit]

The main street "Landstraße" leads from the "Blumauerplatz" to "Taubenmarkt" (Pigeonmarket) near the main square. In the middle of the main square the high "Pestsäule" ("plague column", also known as "Dreifaltigkeitssäule" (Dreifaltigkeit means Holy Trinity)) was built to remember the people who died in the plague epidemics.[12][13]

Near the Schloss/castle, being the former seat of Friedrich the III — the oldest Austrian church is located: Sankt/Saint Martins church. It was built during early medieval Carolingian times.[14]

Other points of interest include:

Culture[edit]

The city is now home to a vibrant music and arts scene that is well-funded by the city and the state of Upper Austria. Between the Lentos Art Museum and the "Brucknerhaus", is the "Donaulände", which is also referred to as "Kulturmeile" ("culture mile"). This is a park alongside the river, which is used mainly by young people to relax and meet in summer. It is also used for the Ars Electronica Festival in early September and the "Linz Fest", which takes place annually in May.[20] In June, July and August the "Musikpavillon" is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge.
Linz has other culture institutions, such as the Posthof, which is near the harbour,[21] and the Stadtwerkstatt, which is by the Danube river.[22] The Pflasterspektakel, an international street art festival, takes place each year in July in and around the Landstraße and the main square.[23] Linz was the European Capital of Culture in 2009, along with Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.[24]

Art[edit]

The recently built Lentos (2003) is a modern art gallery, presenting art from the 20th and 21st centuries. It is situated on the south banks of the river Danube. The building can be illuminated at night from the inside with blue, pink, red, and violet, due to its plastic casing.

The Ars Electronica Center (AEC) is a museum and research facility on the north bank of the Danube (in the Urfahr district), across the river from the Hauptplatz (main square). The AEC is a significant world center for new media arts, attracting a large gathering of technologically-oriented artists every year for the Ars Electronica Festival. The AEC museum is home to one of the few public 2D CAVEs in Europe.

Music[edit]

Stattwerkstatt Linz
Musiktheater Linz

The Brucknerhaus, a famous concert hall in Linz is named after Anton Bruckner. It is situated just some 200 meters away from the "Lentos". It is home to the "Bruckner Orchestra", and is frequently used for concerts, as well as Balls and other events. It is also the venue of the “Linz Fest” which takes place annually in May as well as one of the venues during the Ars Electronica Festival in early September. In June, July and August the “Musikpavillon” is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge.[25]

The Musiktheater (music theatre) was opened in April 2013 and is considered to be one of the most modern opera houses in Europe. It offers five stages of varying sizes; the big hall ("Großer Saal") with 1.200 seats, the BlackBox with up to 270 seats, the BlackBoxLounge with up to 150 seats, the orchestra hall ("Orchestersaal") with up to 200 seats and another stage in the foyer ("FoyerBühne"). Performances at the Musiktheater include operas and typically Austrian operettas, ballets and musicals.[26]

The ensemble of the Landestheater (regional theatre) Linz used to perform musical productions as well as theatre productions at a venue located on the “Promenade” in the inner city of Linz (this venue is still referred to simply as “Landestheater”). Since the opening of the new Musiktheater, only theatre performances take place at the “Promenade” venue, whereas musical productions are shown in the Musiktheater. The Landestheater Linz is especially renowned for its theatre for young audiences called u\hof:.

The Kapu is a venue for various contemporary music styles, such as hip hop, noise rock and crust, and also houses a cinema and a recording studio.[27]

The Posthof is one of the biggest event centers in Linz with three rooms offering up to 630 seats or standing room for about 1.200 people respectively in the big hall. The program focuses on contemporary art and covers concerts, theatre, cabaret, dance and literature. Artists from Linz are regularly invited in order to improve the local cultural scene; e.g. bands from Linz get the opportunity to play as pre-bands alongside nationally and internationally known artists. Altogether a total of about 250 events take place at the Posthof each year with a total number of visitors of about 80.000.[28]

The Stadtwerkstatt is an independent association for culture and was founded in 1979. Its headquarters is located in the Urfahr district on the north bank of the Danube close to the Ars Electronica Center and serves as venue for music events and other artistic and cultural activities. Situated at the same address is the Stadtwerkstatt’s own Café Strom, a café/bar popular amongst young adults.[29]

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. 36 (1783) in Linz for a concert to be given there, and the work is known today as the Linz Symphony. He reportedly also composed his Piano Sonata 13 in B flat while in Linz, although it was published in Vienna. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz version.

Anton Bruckner was born in Ansfelden near Linz and spent several years working as a conductor and organist in Linz, where he also started to compose. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz version. The Brucknerhaus, a concert hall in Linz as well as its annual international Brucknerfest are named after him.

The musician and DJ Marcus Füreder, better known by his stage name Parov Stelar was born in Linz.

Cultural events[edit]

  • Ars Electronica Festival: the Ars Electronica Festival is a festival for media art which has been taking place annually in Linz since 1986 and includes exhibitions, concerts, performances, symposia and interventions on changing themes that take place in public settings such as churches and industrial halls. The events focus on art, technology and society and the nexus among them. In 2013 a total of about 75.000 visitors took part in the Ars Electronica Festival.[30][31]
  • Crossing Europe Film Festival: Since 2004 this festival takes place annually in Linz. Starting at a total number of 9,000 visitors in the first year, the tenth edition of the Crossing Europe Film Festival in 2014 attracted over 20,000 people; 184 feature films, documentaries and short films from 37 countries were shown. The film screenings are accompanied by exhibitions, talks and live music acts (“Nightline”). There are currently eight different awards to be won at the Crossing Europe Film Festival in categories such as “CROSSING EUROPE Audience Award”, the “FEDEORA AWARD for European Documentaries” and the “CROSSING EUROPE AWARD Local Artist”.[32]
  • International Brucknerfest: Following the opening of the “Brucknerhaus” concert hall in Linz three years earlier, the international Brucknerfest took place for the first time in 1977. Whereas the first two editions were only dedicated to classical music in general and Anton Bruckner’s pieces in particular, this changed in 1979 when the international Brucknerfest, the Ars Electronica festival and the “Klangwolke” (Sound cloud), which now marks the beginning of the Brucknerfest, were merged to create a festival worthy of competing with those in Vienna and Salzburg. Taking place annually for three weeks in September/October it closes the Austrian festival season.[33][34]
  • Klangwolke (Cloud of sound): Created as a link between the Ars Electronica Festival and the international Brucknerfest, this open-air multimedia musical event takes place annually at the beginning of September at the riverside Donaupark in Linz. It is free of charge and attracted about 110.000 people in 2013. Today there are three different “Clouds of sound”, the visualized Klangwolke, in which modern music (mostly commissioned works) is staged with lasers, video projections, fireworks, ships, cranes, balloons, etc., the Klangwolke for children (since 1998) and the classical Klangwolke.
  • Pflasterspektakel: The festival takes place annually since 1986 in the city center of Linz and includes musical acts, juggling, acrobatics, pantomime, improvisational theatre, clownery, fire dancing, painting, samba parades, as well as a program for children. With about 250.000 visitors (2014) the festival is one of the biggest street art festivals in Europe; its 28th edition featured 300 artists from 36 different nations.[35]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Amongst the many "Gymnasien" (high schools) in Linz, is Linz International School Auhof (LISA), which is one of four IB (International Baccalaureate) schools in Austria, and uses English as main language for instruction.

Sports[edit]

The EHC Black Wings Linz play professional ice hockey in the Erste Bank Eishockey Liga.

Generali Ladies Linz is annual WTA Tour tennis tournament held in city.

Born in Linz[edit]

Living in Linz:

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Linz is twinned with:[40]

Partnerships and Cooperations[edit]

Linz also has a partnership with:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Statistik Austria - Bevölkerung zu Jahres- und Quartalsanfang, 2014-01-01.
  2. ^ Paul Hofmann (1987-04-05). "Letting Linz Castle cast a spell". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-02. 
  3. ^ Lundy, Darryl. "A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe". The Peerage. Retrieved 2008-04-15. 
  4. ^ Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris. New York: Norton, 1998. p.15
  5. ^ "Adolf Hitler's hometown in Austria has opened an exhibition...", BBC
  6. ^ City of Linz Website statistik.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007
  7. ^ Population linz.at/zahlen – Retrieved 31 October 2007
  8. ^ Standfest, Thomas. "AusländerInnen". www.linz.at. Stadtforschung Linz. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  9. ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971-2000 -Linz" (in German). Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  10. ^ Press release Air Berlin. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
  11. ^ Linz Linien GmbH for Local Transport. Linz AG. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  12. ^ The Plague Column liwest.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007
  13. ^ The top of the column linz.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007
  14. ^ "St. Martin's Church, Linz (in English)". Linz City Tourist Board. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  15. ^ "Mariendom (New Cathedral in Linz)". Mariendom. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  16. ^ Brucknerhaus andreas-praefcke.de – Retrieved 31 October 2007
  17. ^ "LASK". LASK. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  18. ^ George Tabori. "Mein Kampf: Farce in fünf Akten" (in German). Landestheater. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  19. ^ "Die Spielzeit 2007/2008". Landestheater. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  20. ^ The Lentos homepage lentos.at – Retrieved 10 November 2007
  21. ^ "Welcome Posthof 04 2008". Posthof. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  22. ^ "Stadtwerkstadt". Stadtwerkstadt. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  23. ^ "Pflasterspektakel Festival". Magistrat der Landeshauptstadt Linz. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  24. ^ "European Capital of Culture". Linz Tourist Board. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  25. ^ "Musikpavillon im Donaupark, Nähe Brucknerhaus" (in German). Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  26. ^ "Das Musiktheater am Volksgarten-Linz hat ein neues kulturelles Wahrzeichen" (in German). Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  27. ^ "About". Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  28. ^ "Posthof" (in German). Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  29. ^ "Chronologie" (in German). Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  30. ^ "Ars Electronica Festival – About". Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  31. ^ "Ars Electronica Festival" (in German). Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  32. ^ "CROSSING EUROPE Festival History 2004-2014". Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  33. ^ "Brucknerfest – The Idea". Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  34. ^ "Festivals in Linz – Brucknerfest Linz" (in German). Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  35. ^ "Pflasterspektakel 2014". Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  36. ^ "Fred Astaire (1899–1987) aka Frederick Austerlitz". Hyde Flippo. Retrieved 2008-08-24. [dead link]
  37. ^ "Doug Hammond biog". Doug Hammond. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  38. ^ Sulzer, Balduin. "Das musikalische Nashorn" (in German). Gerhard Brössner. Retrieved 2008-04-06. [dead link]
  39. ^ "Andrew Edge". Andrew Edge. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  40. ^ "Sister Cities of Linz". Retrieved 2011-10-27. 
  41. ^ News Report concerning the Twinning with Linz
  42. ^ "Міста-побратими м. Запоріжжя" [Twin Cities Zaporozhye]. City of Zaporizhia (in Ukrainian). Шановні відвідувачі і користувачі сайту. Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  43. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century
  • "Linz", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424 

External links[edit]