PDB rendering based on 1ain.
|RNA expression pattern|
Annexin I belongs to the annexin family of Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins that have a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 to 40,000 and are preferentially located on the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane. Annexin I protein has an apparent relative molecular mass of 40 kDa, with phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity.
Effect on innate and addaptive immunity
Glucocorticoids, such as budesonide, cortisol, beclomethasone, are anti-inflammatory mediators that have been successfully used for therapeutic purposes. The usage of glucocorticoids in long term period, however, is bound with a series of possible side effects like immunodeficiency, adrenal insufficiency, and several more. Glucocorticoids exhibit their anti-inflammatory properties by two major mechanisms: genomic mechanisms (involving transactivation or transrepression of gene transcription) and nongenomic mechanisms (that are rapid and independent of de novo protein synthesis). Glucocorticoids regulate the synthesis and function of annexin A1 possibly through a combination of both genomic and non-genomic processes, depending on the cell type and the time of induction.
In resting conditions, human and mouse neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages constitutively contain high levels of annexin A1 in their cytoplasm. Following cell activation (for example, by neutrophil adhesion to endothelial-cell monolayers), annexin A1 is promptly mobilized to the cell surface and secreted. Annexin A1 promotes neutrophil detachment, apoptosis and phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages. On the other hand, it downregulates the levels of neutrophil transmigration.In vitro and in vivo analyses show that exogenous and endogenous annexin A1 counter-regulate the activities of innate immune cells, in particular extra vasation and the generation of proinflammatory mediators, and this ensures that a sufficient level of activation is reached but not exceeded.
Annexin A1 has important opposing properties during innate and adaptive immune responses, as it inhibits innate immune cells and promotes T-cell activation. Activation of T cells results in the release of annexin A1 and the expression of its receptor. This pathway seems to fine-tune the strength of TCR signalling. Higher expression of annexin A1 during pathological conditions could increase the strength of TCR signalling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway, thereby causing a state of hyperactivation of T cells.
Thus, several experimental studies had been performed in order to elucidate further the role of annexin A1 and of its formyl peptide receptor (FPR) on innate and adaptive immune systems. There were evidences that suggested possibility for treatment of some autoimmune diseases, for example rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, via targeting of annexin A1 expression and secretion.
Annexin I has been of interest for use as a potential anticancer drug. Upon induction by modified NSAIDS and other potent anti-inflammatory drugs, annexin I inhibits the NF-κB signal transduction pathway, which is exploited by cancerous cells to proliferate and avoid apoptosis. ANXA1 inhibits the activation of NF-κB by binding to the p65 subunit.
The gene for annexin A1 (ANXA1) is upregulated in hairy cell leukemia. ANXA1 protein expression is specific to hairy cell leukemia. Detection of ANXA1 (by immunocytochemical means) reportedly provides a simple, highly sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.
Exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to high physiological levels (up to 100 nM) of estrogen lead to an up-regulation of annexin-1 expression partially through the activation of CREB, and dependent on activation of the estrogen receptor alpha. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with physiological levels of estrogen (1 nM) induced proliferation while high pregnancy levels of estrogen (100 nM) induced a growth arrest of MCF-7 cells. Silencing of ANXA1 with specific siRNA reverses the estrogen-dependent proliferation as well as growth arrest. ANXA1 is lost in clinical breast cancer, indicating that the anti-proliferative protective function of ANXA1 against high levels of estrogen may be lost in breast cancer. This data suggests that ANXA1 may act as a tumor suppressor gene and modulate the proliferative functions of estrogens.
Annexin-A1 has also been shown to be protective against DNA damage induced by heat in breast cancer cells, adding to the evidence that it has tumor suppressive and protective activities. When ANXA1 is silenced or lost in cancer, cells are more prone to DNA damage, indicating its unidentified diverse role in genome maintenance or integrity.
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