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Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Legal status ?
CAS number 100324-81-0 N
ATC code ?
PubChem CID 501254
ChemSpider 438549 YesY
UNII L1F2Q2X956 YesY
Synonyms 1-(5-Hydroxyhexyl)-3,7-dimethylxanthine (HDX)
Chemical data
Formula C13H20N4O3 
Mol. mass 280.32 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Lisofylline (LSF) is a synthetic small molecule with novel anti-inflammatory properties. LSF can effectively prevent type 1 diabetes in preclinical models and improves the function and viability of isolated or transplanted pancreatic islets. It is a metabolite of pentoxifylline.

As well, LSF improves cellular mitochondrial function and blocks interleukin-12 (IL-12) signaling and STAT-4 activation in target cells and tissues. IL-12 and STAT-4 activation are important pathways linked to inflammation and autoimmune damage to insulin producing cells. Therefore, LSF and related analogs could provide a new therapeutic approach to prevent or reverse type 1 diabetes. LSF also directly reduces glucose-induced changes in human kidney cells suggesting that LSF and analogs have the potential to treat the complications associated with diabetes.

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