List of étude composers
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An étude is a musical composition (usually short) designed to provide practice in a particular technical skill in the performance of a solo instrument.
For the piano
- Daniel Steibelt (1765–1823): wrote 50 Études (Op.78)
- Johann Baptist Cramer (1771–1858): wrote 84 Études, Op. 50, Short Studies, Op. 100
- Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778–1837): wrote 24 études (Op. 125)
- Carl Czerny (1791–1857): wrote many études, of which the best known are his Opp. 299 and 599
- Ignaz Moscheles (1794–1870): wrote 24 études (Op. 70), 12 character études (Op. 95), three concert études (Op. 51)
- Henri Bertini (1798–1876): wrote 24 études (Op. 29)
- Amédée Méreaux (1802–1874): wrote 60 études, op. 63
- Henri Herz (1803–1888): wrote Études de l'agilité (Op.179), 30 Etudes progressives (Op.119), 24 Etudes (Op.151), 24 Etudes (Op.152)
- Friedrich Burgmüller (1806–1874): wrote many études, of which the best known are his 25 Études faciles et progressives, Op. 100, and 12 Études, Op. 105
- Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847) wrote three études (Op. 104)
- Robert Schumann (1810–1856): wrote the Studies (Op. 3) and Études (Op. 10) after Paganini's Caprices; and the Symphonic Studies (Op. 13, in three revisions: 1834, 1852, and posthumously 1893).
- Frédéric Chopin (1810–1849): wrote 24 études in two sets of 12 each (Opp. 10 and 25), plus three more (a little easier), for a total of 27.
- Franz Liszt (1811–1886): wrote the set of Transcendental Études, with its two previous versions being Étude en douze exercises and Douze Grandes Études; six études, also with an earlier set, on themes by Niccolò Paganini (among them the famous La Campanella); and six concert études (one set of three, another set of two and Ab Irato which also has an earlier version). In contrast with Chopin's études, which tend to stress a specific aspect of performance difficulty, Liszt's études tend to stress mastery of performance as a whole. Liszt also wrote 12 books of Technical Studies (S.146) between 1868 and 1880.
- Charles-Valentin Alkan (1813–1888): wrote Trois Études de bravoure (Op. 16); études in all 12 major keys (Op. 35) and in all 12 minor keys (Op. 39); and also three Grande Études (Op. 76). He also wrote three other études: Op. 17 (Le preux), Op. 27 (Le chemin de fer), and two without opus number.
- Stephen Heller (1813–1888): 24 Études Op. 16, 25 Études Op. 45, 30 Études Op. 46, 25 Études Op. 47, 24 Nouvelles études d'expression et de rhythme Op. 125, 4 Études d'après Der Freischütz Op. 127, 21 Études techniques pour préparer à l'exécution des ouvrages Op. 154, among others
- Adolf von Henselt (1814–1889): wrote 24 études, Opp. 2 and 5.
- Theodor Kirchner (1823–1903): wrote 12 études, Op. 38 (1878), Études rythmiques et mélodiques, Op. 105
- Bedřich Smetana (1824–1884): wrote a concert étude, Am Seegestade - Eine Erinnerung
- Julius Schulhoff (1825–1898): wrote 12 études
- Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829–1869): wrote Tremolo and Manchega, two concert études.
- Johannes Brahms (1833–1897): wrote 51 Exercises for Piano (published in 1893)
- Camille Saint-Saëns (1835–1921): wrote two sets of 6 études each (Opp. 52 and 111) and 6 études for the left hand (Op. 135)
- Théodore Lack (1846–1921): wrote 12 Études elégantes Op.30, Études de bravoure Op.43, Études artistiques Op.91
- Agathe Backer-Grøndahl (1847–1907): wrote 19 Concert Études.
- Moritz Moszkowski (1854–1925): wrote three concert studies (Op. 24), Ecole des doubles notes (Op. 64), 15 Études de Virtuositié (Op. 72), 12 studies for the left hand alone (Op. 92), and 20 technical studies (Op. 91).
- Anatoly Lyadov (1855–1914)
- Sergei Lyapunov (1859–1924): wrote Douze études d'exécution transcendante in memory of Liszt
- Edward MacDowell (1860–1908): wrote a concert étude (Op. 36) and 12 études (Op. 46)
- Georgy Catoire (1861–1926): wrote one étude (Op. 8).
- Claude Debussy (1862–1918): wrote 12 études (L. 136)
- Emil von Sauer (1862–1942)
- Felix Blumenfeld (1863–1931): wrote 18 études.
- Gabriel Pierné (1863–1937): wrote a concert étude (Op. 13)
- Jean Sibelius (1865–1957)
- Ferruccio Busoni (1866–1924): wrote six études (Op. 16); an Étude en forme de variations (Op. 17); and Six Polyphonic Études.
- José Vianna da Motta (1868–1948): wrote "Exercices de Virtuosite" (1908), based on Alkan's works.
- Charles Tournemire (1870–1939): wrote Études de chaque jour (Op. 70)
- Leopold Godowsky (1870–1938): wrote 60 Studies on Chopin's études, of which 53 are published; three original Concert Studies (Op. 11), and the Étude Macabre.
- Alexander Scriabin (1872–1915): wrote 26 études (Opp. 2, 8, 42, 49, 56 and 65)
- Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873–1943): wrote two sets of Études-Tableaux (Opp. 33 and 39).
- Charles Ives (1874–1954): wrote 23 studies for piano between 1910 and 1923
- Josef Hofmann (1876–1957)
- Ernő Dohnányi (1877–1960): wrote six "Concert Études" (Op. 28).
- Béla Bartók (1881–1945): wrote three études (Op. 18)
- Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971): wrote Quatre études (Op. 7)
- Karol Szymanowski (1882–1937): wrote 4 études Op. 4 and 12 études Op. 33
- Alfredo Casella (1883–1947)
- Sergei Prokofiev (1891–1953): wrote 4 études (Op. 2)
- Samuil Feinberg (1890–1962): wrote a Suite (Op. 11) In Étude Form.
- Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji (1892–1988): wrote Études transcendantes (100) (1940–44)
- Virgil Thomson (1896–1989): wrote 9 études
Born after 1899
- Lennox Berkeley (1903–1989)
- Louise Talma (1906–1996): wrote Six Études (1954) for piano
- Olivier Messiaen (1908–1992): wrote Quatre études de rythme
- John Cage (1912–1992): wrote Etudes Australes and Etudes Boreales
- Maurice Ohana (1913–1992): wrote Douze Études d'interprétation
- Witold Lutosławski (1913–1994): wrote two études (1940–1941)
- George Perle (born 1915) wrote two sets of Études
- Earl Wild (1915–2010): wrote Seven Virtuoso Études (1976) on popular songs of George Gershwin
- Ned Rorem (born 1923): wrote a set of eight études (1975)
- György Ligeti (1923–2006): wrote three volumes of Études (1985, 1988–1994 and 1995)
- Robert Starer (1924–2001): wrote The Contemporary Virtuoso, a set of 7 études
- Einojuhani Rautavaara (born 1928): wrote six études (Op. 42)
- Pierre Max Dubois (1930–1995)
- H. Leslie Adams (born 1932): wrote "Twenty-six Études for Solo Piano."
- Philip Glass (born 1937): wrote his first volume of études in 1994
- Nikolai Kapustin (born 1937): wrote Eight Concert Études (Op. 40), Three Études (Op. 67), Five Études in Different Intervals (Op. 68)
- William Bolcom (born 1938): won the Pulitzer Prize for Music in 1988 for his Twelve New Études for Piano
- Tomáš Svoboda (born 1939): wrote two volumes of Nine Études in Fugue Style (Op. 44) and (Op. 98) for piano
- Bill Hopkins (1943–1981): wrote nine Études en série (1965–72) in three Cahiers
- Pascal Dusapin (born 1955): wrote Études for piano (1998–99)
- Ezequiel Viñao (born 1960): wrote his first book of études in 1993
- Marc-André Hamelin (born 1961): wrote 12 études in minor keys, and an étude after Rimsky-Korsakov (which was the previous 1st piece of the 12 études set, but it was replaced by the Triple Étude after Chopin-Godowsky)
- Unsuk Chin (born 1961): currently working on a set of 12 Piano Studies, of which five have been completed
- Juan María Solare (born 1966) wrote the cycle Postales submarinas (études for inside piano) in 2011.
- Daisuke Asakura (born 1967): wrote seven études, one for each disc of his Quantum Mechanics Rainbow series
For other instruments
In chronological order
- Girolamo Diruta (c. 1554–1610) for the organ
- Jean-Louis Duport (1749–1819): for the cello
- Rodolphe Kreutzer (1766–1831): for the violin
- Mauro Giuliani (1781–1829): for the guitar
- Justus Johann Friedrich Dotzauer (1783–1860): for the cello
- Matteo Carcassi (1792–1853): for the guitar
- Theobald Boehm (1794–1881): for the flute
- Friedrich Grützmacher (1832–1903): Op.38 Études for the cello
- Franz Wohlfahrt(1833–1884): wrote 60 Studies for Violin (Op. 45)
- David Popper (1843–1913) : for the cello
- Joachim Andersen (1847–1909): for the flute
- Francisco Tárrega (1852–1909): for the guitar (Douze Études)
- Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971): wrote Quatre études for orchestra, and Étude pour pianola
- Julius Klengel (1859–1933): for the cello
- Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887–1959): for the guitar
- Darius Milhaud (1892–1974): wrote Cinq études, Op. 63, for piano and orchestra (1920); Etude poétique, Op. 333, musique concrète (1954); Études, Op. 442, for string quartet (1973)
- Andrés Segovia (1893–1987): for the guitar
- Herbert Eimert (1897–1972): wrote Etüde über Tongemische, electronic music (1953–54)
- Lillian Fuchs (1903–1991): for the viola
- Alan Rawsthorne (1905–1971): wrote Symphonic Studies, for orchestra (1938)
- Olivier Messiaen (1908–1992): wrote Vocalise-étude, for soprano and piano (1935)
- Pierre Schaeffer (1910–1995): wrote Cinq études de bruits (1948), for musique concrète (turntable technology), consisting of (1) "Étude aux chemins de fer", (2) "Étude aux tourniquets", (3) "Étude au piano I", (4) "Étude au piano II", and (5) "Étude aux casseroles". Also wrote Étude pathétique (1948), Étude violette (1948), both turntable-technology musique concrète, Étude aux sons animés (1958), Étude aux allures (1958), and Étude aux objets (1959), all for tape-technology musique concrète
- John Cage (1912–1992): wrote Freeman Etudes for the violin
- Francis Dhomont (born 1926): wrote Études pour Kafka for electronic sound production
- Jean Barraqué (1928–1973): wrote Étude for three-track tape
- Pierre Boulez (born 1925): wrote Deux études, musique concrète
- Hans Werner Henze (1926–2012): wrote Sinfonische Etüden for orchestra (1956, rev. 1964); Etude philarmonique, for solo violin (1979)
- Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928–2007): wrote Konkrete Etüde, musique concrète, as well as Studie I and Studie II for electronic music
- H. Leslie Adams (1932-): wrote "Twenty-six Etudes for Solo Piano."
- Easley Blackwood (born 1933): wrote Twelve Microtonal Etudes for Electronic Music Media, Op. 28
- Angelo Gilardino (born 1941): wrote five volumes of Studi di virtuosità e di trascendenza for guitar
- Brian Ferneyhough (born 1943): wrote Etudes Transcendantales for mezzo-soprano and chamber ensemble
- Robert deMaine (born 1969): wrote Études-Caprices for cello
- Girolamo Diruta (c. 1554–1610)
- Joachim Andersen (1847–1909)
- Giulio Briccialdi (1818–1881)
- Anton Bernhard Fürstenau (1792–1852)
- Giuseppe Gariboldi (1833–1905)
- Philippe Gaubert (1879–1941)
- Ernesto Köhler (1849–1907)
- Marcel Moyse (1889–1984)
- Ástor Piazzolla (1921–1992)
- Paul Taffanel (1844–1908)
- Trevor Wye (b. 1935)
- Fernando Sor (1778–1839)
- Mauro Giuliani (1781–1829)
- Dionisio Aguado y García (1784–1849)
- Matteo Carcassi (1792–1853)
- Giulio Regondi (1822–1872)
- Francisco Tárrega (1852–1909)
- Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887–1959)
- Andrés Segovia (1893–1987)
- Leo Brouwer (b. 1939)
- Angelo Gilardino (b. 1941)
- Pat Metheny (b. 1954)
- Julian Lage (b. 1987)
- Rodolphe Kreutzer (1766–1831)
- Niccolò Paganini (1782–1840) wrote nothing he called études, but e. g. his Caprices can readily be used as such (as witnessed also by transcriptions etc. under "For piano").[original research?]
- Jakob Dont (1815–1888)
- Otakar Ševčík (1852–1934)
- Franz Wohlfahrt (1833–84)
- John Cage (1912–92)
- Lillian Fuchs (1903–91)
- Jean-Louis Duport (1749–1819)
- Friedrich Dotzauer (1783–1860)
- Joseph Merk (1795–1852)
- Sebastian Lee (1805–1887)
- Auguste Franchomme (1808–1884)
- Bernhard Cossmann (1822–1910)
- Carlo Alfredo Piatti (1822–1901) wrote nothing he called études, but e. g. his op. 25 Twelve Caprices for cello solo, can readily be used as such[original research?]
- Friedrich Grützmacher (1832–1903)
- David Popper (1843–1919)
- Wilhelm Fitzenhagen (1848–1890)
- Julius Klengel (1859–1933)
- August Nölck (1862–1928)
- Mikhail Bukinik (1872–1947)
- Rudolf Matz (1901–1988)
- Robert deMaine (b. 1969)