List of 1920s jazz standards

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Short-haired black man in his fifties blowing into a trumpet. He is wearing a light-colored sport coat, a white shirt and a bow tie. He is faced left with his eyes looking upwards. His right hand is fingering the trumpet, with the index finger down and three fingers pointing upwards. The man's left hand is mostly covered with a handkerchief and it has a shining ring on the little finger. He is wearing a wristwatch on the left wrist.
Trumpeter, bandleader and singer Louis Armstrong was an important innovator of early jazz.[1][2] He introduced many contemporary popular songs to the jazz world that are now considered standards.

Jazz standards are musical compositions that are widely known, performed and recorded by jazz artists as part of the genre's musical repertoire. This list includes compositions written in the 1920s that are considered standards by at least one major fake book publication or reference work. Some of the tunes listed were already well-known standards by the 1930s, while others were popularized later. The time of the most influential recordings of a song, where appropriate, is indicated on the list.

A period known as the "Jazz Age" started in the United States in the 1920s. Jazz had become popular music in the country, although older generations considered the music immoral and threatening to old cultural values.[3] Dances such as the Charleston and the Black Bottom were very popular during the period, and jazz bands typically consisted of seven to twelve musicians. Important orchestras in New York were led by Fletcher Henderson, Paul Whiteman and Duke Ellington. Many New Orleans jazzmen had moved to Chicago during the late 1910s in search of employment; among others, the New Orleans Rhythm Kings, King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band and Jelly Roll Morton recorded in the city. However, Chicago's importance as a center of jazz music started to diminish toward the end of the 1920s in favor of New York.[4]

In the early years of jazz, record companies were often eager to decide what songs were to be recorded by their artists. Popular numbers in the 1920s were pop hits such as "Sweet Georgia Brown", "Dinah" and "Bye Bye Blackbird". The first jazz artist to be given some liberty in choosing his material was Louis Armstrong, whose band helped popularize many of the early standards in the 1920s and 1930s.[5]

Some compositions written by jazz artists have endured as standards, including Fats Waller's "Honeysuckle Rose" and "Ain't Misbehavin'". The most recorded 1920s standard is Hoagy Carmichael and Mitchell Parish's "Stardust".[6] Several songs written by Broadway composers in the 1920s have become standards, such as George and Ira Gershwin's "The Man I Love" (1924), Irving Berlin's "Blue Skies" (1927) and Cole Porter's "What Is This Thing Called Love?" (1929). However, it was not until the 1930s that musicians became comfortable with the harmonic and melodic sophistication of Broadway tunes and started including them regularly in their repertoire.[4]

1920–1923[edit]

Al Jolson's original recording of "Avalon".

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1924–1925[edit]

Stocky African-American man sitting and playing the piano. He has black hair and thick black eyebrows, and is grinning and looking to the left. The man is wearing a striped black suit, white shirt and a tie.
Jazz pianist Fats Waller wrote many of the early jazz standards, including "Squeeze Me" (1925), "Ain't Misbehavin'" (1929) and "Honeysuckle Rose" (1929).

1926–1927[edit]

Caucasian man in his thirties smiling and looking to the camera. He has a round face, full lips and large dark eyes, and his short dark hair is combed to the side. He is wearing a dark jacket, a white shirt and a black tie with white dots.
Cole Porter was one of the few Tin Pan Alley songwriters to write both lyrics and music for his songs.[76] His standards include "What Is This Thing Called Love?" (1929), "Love for Sale" (1930) and "Night and Day" (1932).

1928[edit]

1929[edit]

  • "Ain't Misbehavin'"[49][137][138] is a song from the musical revue Hot Chocolates, composed by Fats Waller and Harry Brooks with lyrics by Andy Razaf. Leo Reisman and His Orchestra was the first to take the song to the pop charts in 1929, followed by several artists including Bill Robinson, Gene Austin and Louis Armstrong. At the intermission of Hot Chocolates at the Hudson Theatre, Armstrong made his Broadway debut playing a trumpet solo on the song.[139] Waller's original instrumental recording was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1984.[71]
  • "Black and Blue"[140][141] is a song from the musical Hot Chocolates, composed by Fats Waller with lyrics by Harry Brooks and Andy Razaf. It was introduced by Louis Armstrong. Ethel Waters's 1930 version became a hit.[142] The song is also known as "What Did I Do to Be So Black and Blue".[142]
  • "Honeysuckle Rose"[8][49][143][144] is a song from the musical revue Load of Coal, composed by Fats Waller with lyrics by Andy Razaf. It was popularized by Fletcher Henderson and His Orchestra in 1933.[145] Waller's 1934 recording of the song was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1999.[71] Benny Goodman's Orchestra played a 16-minute jam session on the tune in their 1938 Carnegie Hall concert, featuring members from the bands of Count Basie and Duke Ellington. Charlie Parker used a part of the song's harmony in "Scrapple from the Apple" (1947).[145]
  • "Just You, Just Me"[146] is a song from the film Marianne, composed by Jesse Greer with lyrics by Raymond Klages. It was introduced by Marion Davies and Cliff Edwards. Lester Young recorded the tune several times. Thelonious Monk's 1948 composition "Evidence" was loosely based on it.[147]
  • "Liza (All the Clouds'll Roll Away)" is a show tune from the Broadway musical Show Girl, composed by George Gershwin with lyrics by Ira Gershwin and Gus Kahn. It was introduced on stage by Ruby Keeler and Dixie Dugan, accompanied by the Duke Ellington Orchestra.[148][149] Keeler's husband and popular singer Al Jolson appeared at the opening performance and sang a chorus of the song from the third row, creating a sensation and popularizing the song.[148]
  • "Mean to Me"[150][151] is a song composed by Fred E. Ahlert with lyrics by Roy Turk. It was first recorded by Ruth Etting. The song was a regular number in Billie Holiday's repertoire, and Holiday's 1937 recording with saxophonist Lester Young is considered the definitive vocal version. Young later made an instrumental recording with Nat King Cole and Buddy Rich.[152]
  • "More Than You Know"[8][153] is a Broadway show tune composed by Vincent Youmans with lyrics by Edward Eliscu and Billy Rose. Introduced by Mayo Methot in Great Day, the song became a hit even though the musical only lasted for 29 performances. Ruth Etting took it to number nine in 1930, and saxophonist Benny Carter played an acclaimed trumpet solo on his 1939 recording, despite the trumpet not being his main instrument.[154]
  • "Rockin' Chair"[155][156][157] is a song by Hoagy Carmichael. It was first recorded by Louis Armstrong in a duet with the composer.[158] Carmichael has said that he wrote the song as a kind of sequel to his 1926 "Washboard Blues", which had lyrics by Fred Callahan.[159] The song was made famous by Mildred Bailey, who used it as her theme song.[160] Bailey's first hit recording was made in 1937.[161]
  • "Stardust"[8][162][163] is a song composed by Hoagy Carmichael with lyrics by Mitchell Parish. Originally recorded by Carmichael as a mid-tempo jazz instrumental, the 1930 romantic ballad rendition by Isham Jones and His Orchestra became a top-selling hit. Louis Armstrong recorded an influential ballad rendition in 1931. The song is arguably the most recorded popular song, and one of the top jazz standards. Billboard magazine conducted a poll of leading disk jockeys in 1955 on the "popular song record of all time"; four different renditions of "Stardust" made it to the list, including Glenn Miller's (1941) at third place and Artie Shaw's (1940) at number one.[164] The title was spelled "Star Dust" in the 1929 publication, and both spellings are used.
  • "What Is This Thing Called Love?"[49] is a song written by Cole Porter for the musical revue Wake Up and Dream. It was introduced by Elsie Carlisle in London. Ben Bernie's and Fred Rich's recordings made the charts in 1930. One of the best-known instrumental versions was recorded by Clifford Brown and Max Roach with Sonny Rollins in 1956. The song's chord progression has inspired several later compositions, including Tadd Dameron's bebop standard "Hot House".[165]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ruhlmann, William. "Louis Armstrong Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 16 April 2010. 
  2. ^ Collier 1985, p. 3
  3. ^ Faulkner, Anne Shaw (August 1921). "Does Jazz Put the Sin in Syncopation?". Ladies Home Journal: 16–34. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  4. ^ a b Tyle, Chris. "Jazz History: The Standards (1920s)". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
  5. ^ Tyle, Chris. "Jazz History". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 18 May 2009. 
  6. ^ "Songs – Top 50". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 15 August 2009. 
  7. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 25
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Listed in The Real Vocal Book
  9. ^ a b c Tyle, Chris. "Avalon (1920)". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 19 August 2009. 
  10. ^ Ruhlmann 2004, p. 42
  11. ^ Furia & Lasser 2006, p. 24
  12. ^ Kenrick, John (2003). "Al Jolson: A Biography". Musicals101.com. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  13. ^ a b c "Margie". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  14. ^ a b Shaw 1989, pp. 106–107
  15. ^ a b c "Sheik of Araby". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  16. ^ Brooks & Spottswood 2004, p. 407
  17. ^ a b "Bugle Call Rag". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  18. ^ Tucker & Ellington 1995, p. 407
  19. ^ a b "China Boy". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  20. ^ Kernfeld 1995, pp. 40–41
  21. ^ "Farewell Blues". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  22. ^ Jasen 2003, p. 358
  23. ^ Lichtenstein & Dankner 1993, p. 60
  24. ^ Kenney 1993, p. 100
  25. ^ Jasen 2002, p. 57
  26. ^ I Wish I Could Shimmy Like My Sister Kate sheet music Tulane University Digital Library; Louisiana Sheet Music
  27. ^ Chilton, John. 1990. sleeve notes to Jazz Classics in Digital Stereo: Muggsy Spanier 1931 and 1939. BBC REB 687
  28. ^ "Charleston". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  29. ^ a b Jasen 2003, pp. 73–74
  30. ^ Phillips 2002, p. 86
  31. ^ a b Studwell 1994, p. 117
  32. ^ "Jazz Standards Songs and Instrumentals (Tin Roof Blues)". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 17 August 2009. 
  33. ^ a b Charters 2008, pp. 198–199
  34. ^ Kernfeld 1995, p. 7
  35. ^ "Tin Roof Blues – 1923 – New Orleans Rhythm Kings". Basinstreet.com. Retrieved 20 August 2009. 
  36. ^ "Everybody Loves My Baby". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  37. ^ a b Shaw 1989, p. 149
  38. ^ Nollen 2004, p. 24
  39. ^ The Real Book, Volume III, p. 138
  40. ^ Jasen 2003, p. 4
  41. ^ a b Jasen 2002, p. 70
  42. ^ "How Come You Do Me Like You Do?". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  43. ^ Tucker 1995, p. 174
  44. ^ a b Jasen 2002, p. 78
  45. ^ "King Porter Stomp". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  46. ^ a b Giddins 2000, p. 517
  47. ^ Jasen 2007, p. 122
  48. ^ Schuller 1991, p. 21
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Listed in The Real Jazz Book
  50. ^ "The Man I Love". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  51. ^ a b "Oh, Lady be Good!". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  52. ^ Schuller 1991, p. 230
  53. ^ Oliphant 1996, pp. 118–119
  54. ^ "Riverboat Shuffle". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  55. ^ Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 201
  56. ^ a b c Jasen 2003, p. 66
  57. ^ Sudhalter 2003, p. 70
  58. ^ The Real Book, Volume I, p. 369
  59. ^ "Somebody Loves Me". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 10 June 2009. 
  60. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 104
  61. ^ a b "Dinah". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  62. ^ a b Jasen 2002, p. 47
  63. ^ Jasen 2003, pp. 6–7
  64. ^ The Real Book, Volume III, p. 377
  65. ^ a b c d "Squeeze Me". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  66. ^ Furia & Lasser 2006, p. 51
  67. ^ Studwell & Baldin 2000, p. 163
  68. ^ a b "Sweet Georgia Brown". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  69. ^ "Alabama Music Hall of Fame". Retrieved 21 April 2009. 
  70. ^ a b c "Tea for Two". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  71. ^ a b c d "Grammy Hall of Fame Award winners". Grammy.com. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  72. ^ Studwell 1994, p. 141
  73. ^ Furia 1992, p. 72
  74. ^ Shaw 1989, p. 158
  75. ^ Zinsser 2006, p. 52
  76. ^ Ginsburg, Murray (March 2006). "The Genius Who Wrote both Words and Music". Journal into Melody (Robert Farnon Society). Retrieved 16 April 2010. 
  77. ^ Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 140
  78. ^ Collier 1985, pp. 175–176
  79. ^ Nettl & Russell 1998, p. 205
  80. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 73
  81. ^ The New Real Book, Volume II, p. 35
  82. ^ a b "Bye Bye Blackbird". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 29 April 2009. 
  83. ^ The Real Book, Volume III, p. 92
  84. ^ "Deed I Do". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 19 August 2009. 
  85. ^ Jasen 2002, p. 45
  86. ^ Jasen 2003, p. 352
  87. ^ Hoffmann & Ferstler 2005, p. 445
  88. ^ "Artists – Ruth Etting". Songwriters Hall of Fame. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  89. ^ a b "If I Could Be With You (One Hour Tonight)". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  90. ^ Diggs & Haddix 2006, p. 89
  91. ^ a b c "I've Found a New Baby". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  92. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 188
  93. ^ Woideck 1998, pp. 87–89
  94. ^ "Muskrat Ramble". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 21 June 2009. 
  95. ^ "'Muskrat' Decision May Spark Hassle". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 28. 15 December 1956. ISSN 0006-2510. 
  96. ^ a b c Anderson & Budds 2007, p. 74
  97. ^ Wintz & Finkelman 2004, p. 940
  98. ^ "Someone to Watch Over Me". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  99. ^ a b c "Sugar (That Sugar Baby O' Mine)". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  100. ^ Jasen & Jones 1998, p. 189
  101. ^ Crawford & Magee 1992, p. 77
  102. ^ Studwell & Baldin 2000, p. 49
  103. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 58
  104. ^ Everett & Laird 2002, pp. 226–227
  105. ^ a b c d "Blue Skies". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  106. ^ a b "'S Wonderful!". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  107. ^ Nathaniel Shilkret payroll records
  108. ^ Shilkret, Nathaniel, ed. Shell, Niel and Barbara Shilkret, Nathaniel Shilkret: Sixty Years in the Music Business, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland, 2005. ISBN 0-8108-5128-8
  109. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 37
  110. ^ Listed in The New Real Book, Volume I
  111. ^ "Basin Street Blues". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  112. ^ Jasen 2002, p. 41
  113. ^ "Crazy Rhythm". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  114. ^ a b "The Creole Love Call". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  115. ^ The Real Book, Volume III, p. 88
  116. ^ a b Cipolla & Hunsberger 2006, p. 82
  117. ^ Lawrence 2001, p. 112
  118. ^ Schuller 1986, p. 330
  119. ^ "If I Had You". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  120. ^ The Real Book, Volume III, p. 258
  121. ^ a b "Lover, Come Back to Me". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  122. ^ a b Hischak 2007, p. 168
  123. ^ a b "Mack The Knife". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  124. ^ "Nagasaki". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  125. ^ Crawford & Magee 1992, pp. 53–54
  126. ^ Corliss, Richard (5 October 2001). "That Old Feeling: We Need Harry Warren". Time (Time). 
  127. ^ Magee 2005, p. 182
  128. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 355
  129. ^ "Softly As in a Morning Sunrise". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 28 January 2010. 
  130. ^ Gioia, Ted. "The Modern Jazz Quartet: Softly, As in a Morning Sunrise". Jazz.com. Retrieved 7 April 2010. 
  131. ^ Giddins 2004, p. 129
  132. ^ The New Real Book, Volume III, p. 369
  133. ^ Jimmie Noone: Apex Blues. The Original Decca Recordings. Liner notes by Richard Hadlock. Decca GRD-633, MCA Records and GRP Records 1994.
  134. ^ a b c "Sweet Lorraine". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  135. ^ "Nat "King" Cole at All About Jazz". Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  136. ^ Gourse, Leslie, Unforgettable: The Life and Mystique of Nat King Cole. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991. ISBN 0-312-05982-5
  137. ^ The Real Book, Volume III, p. 13
  138. ^ The New Real Book, Volume II, p. 6
  139. ^ "Ain't Misbehavin'". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  140. ^ "Black and Blue". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  141. ^ The New Real Book, Volume II, p. 22
  142. ^ a b David Tenenholtz. "Fats Waller biography". Jazz.com. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  143. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 167
  144. ^ The New Real Book, Volume II, p. 134
  145. ^ a b "Honeysuckle Rose". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  146. ^ The New Real Book, Volume III, p. 196
  147. ^ "Just You, Just Me". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  148. ^ a b Tyle, Chris. "Liza (All the Clouds'll Roll Away)". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 6 September 2009. 
  149. ^ Jasen 2002, p. 121
  150. ^ The Real Book, Volume III, p. 274
  151. ^ The New Real Book, Volume II, p. 201
  152. ^ "Mean to Me". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  153. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 277
  154. ^ "More Than You Know". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  155. ^ "Rockin' Chair". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  156. ^ The Real Book, Volume III, p. 337
  157. ^ The New Real Book, Volume II, p. 309
  158. ^ Jasen 2003, p. 67
  159. ^ Sudhalter 2003, p. 128
  160. ^ Wilder & Maher 1972, p. 374
  161. ^ Jasen 2002, p. 165
  162. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 367
  163. ^ The New Real Book, Volume II, p. 345
  164. ^ "Star Dust". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  165. ^ "What Is This Thing Called Love?". JazzStandards.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 

Bibliography[edit]

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Fake books[edit]