List of 70 mm films

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The following movies were filmed using 65mm or 70mm negative stock. Titles are followed by the photographic process(es) employed.

Releases produced in Todd-AO, Todd-70, Super Panavision 70 (also known as Panavision 70), Panavision System 65 (also known as Panavision Super 70), Dimension 150, Arri 765 and Superpanorama 70 (also known as MCS 70 and MCS Superpanorama 70) were photographed with spherical optics on 65 mm film with five perforations per frame, yielding an aspect ratio of 2.20:1.

Sovscope 70 and DEFA 70 releases were identical with the exception that they were photographed on 70mm negative stock.

MGM Camera 65 and Ultra Panavision 70 releases employed the same film format, but the use of 1.25X anamorphic optics yielded a super-wide aspect ratio of approximately 2.75:1.

70 mm Cinerama releases were projected with special optics onto a deeply curved screen in an attempt to mimic the effect of the original 3-strip Cinerama process.

Hi Fi Stereo 70 (also known as Triarama and Stereovision 70) was a 3-D process.[1] Two anamorphic images, one for each eye, were captured side by side on 65mm film.[1] A special lens on a 70mm projector added polarization and merged the two images on the screen.[1] A similar Soviet system known as Stereo 70 did not employ anamorphics, resulting in an aspect ratio of 1.37:1.[2]

Stereospace 2000 (a 3D process) and Kodak-Disney 3D used dual 65mm cameras operating at 30fps.

Standard 70mm theater prints were 70 mm wide, with the extra space used to accommodate the 6-channel magnetic soundtracks, consisting of five full-range channels (left, left-center, center, right-center and right) arrayed behind the screen, with the sixth channel providing surround effects.

Far and Away (1992), Baraka (1992) and Hamlet (1996) employed a modified arrangement of speakers, with left, center and right channels behind the screen, left and right surround channels and a low-frequency effects channel.

This list does not include any of the hundreds of 35 mm films which have been optically enlarged to 70 mm for deluxe exhibition, including such titles as Logan's Run, Jesus Christ Superstar and Akira.

Also not included are 70mm releases which originated on horizontal 35mm negative such as Vistavision and Technirama (see List of Technirama films), nor films made in the Showscan process. For Imax, see List of IMAX films.

American 65/70 mm films[edit]

European 65/70 mm films[edit]

  • Flying Clipper – Traumreise unter weissen Segeln (West Germany 1962) – Superpanorama 70. A re-edited version was shown as Mediterranean Holiday (1964) in 70 mm Cinerama and in Wonderama in the USA
  • Shéhérazade (France/Spain/Italy 1963) – Superpanorama 70
  • La Tulipe noire/The Black Tulip (France/Italy/Spain 1964) – Superpanorama 70; shown in 70mm Cinerama
  • Old Shatterhand (West Germany/Yugoslavia/France/Italy 1964) – Superpanorama 70
  • Onkel Toms Hütte /La Case de l'Oncle Tom/Uncle Tom's Cabin (France/Italy/West Germany/Yugoslavia 1965) – Superpanorama 70
  • Der Kongress amüsiert sich/Congress of Love (West Germany/Austria 1966) – Superpanorama 70
  • El Fantástico Mundo del Dr Coppelius /Dr. Coppelius (Spain/US 1966) – Superpanorama 70
  • Pampa Salvaje/Savage Pampas (Spain/Argentina/US 1966) – Superpanorama 70
  • Play Time (France 1967) – filmed with 65mm Mitchell cameras, with an aperture masked for a non-standard aspect ratio of approximately 1.7:1
  • Con la muerte a la espalda/With Death On Your Back (Spain/France/Italy 1967) – Hi-Fi Stereo 70 [1]
  • La Marca del Hombre Lobo (Spain 1968) – Hi Fi Stereo 70. Re-edited with new footage and released in the USA in 35mm 3D as Frankenstein's Bloody Terror.[2]
  • Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (United Kingdom 1968) – Super Panavision 70
  • Ryan's Daughter (United Kingdom 1970) – Super Panavision 70
  • Liebe in drei Dimensionen/Love in 3D (West Germany 1973) – Triarama
  • Map of the Human Heart (Australia/United Kingdom 1993) – Panavision System 65. Released in 35mm only.
  • As Wonderland Goes By (Australia/Bulgaria 2012) - Panavision System 65

70mm releases from 3-strip negative[edit]

List of Short Subjects[edit]

Partial list of Special Venue Films[edit]

  • Journey to the Stars (1962) – Cinerama 360 (a 10/70 dome system using a circular image). 24fps. Shown at the Seattle World's Fair.
  • To the Moon and Beyond (1964) – Cinerama 360 (a 10/70 dome system using a circular image). 18fps. Shown in the Transportation and Travel Pavilion at the New York World's Fair. Later reduced to 35mm, renamed Cosmos and shown in a traveling inflatable theater.
  • Motion (Canada 1967) – Superpanorama 70
  • Harmony: Nature and Man (1969) – Dimension 150. Shown in the Washington State Pavilion at the 1970 Osaka World's Fair.
  • Voyage to the Outer Planets (1973) – A multimedia presentation which included sequences filmed in standard 65mm and in Dynavision (8/70 negative using a modified Todd-AO camera, blown up to OMNIMAX).
  • The Circus (1973) – Todd-AO. Shot with the camera on its side and projected onto a tall narrow screen.
  • Cosmos (aka Cosmos: The Universe of Loren Eisley) (1974) – Dynavision (8/70 negative using a modified Todd-AO camera, blown up to OMNIMAX). Shown at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center in San Diego.
  • Alaska The Great Land (1981) – 70mm Omnivision (8 perf); Alaska Experience Theatre
  • Symbiosis (1982) – Super Panavision 70 at 30fps. Disney Epcot short subject. Employed an unusual 12-channel sound system designed for the special theater in which it was shown.
  • Magic Journeys (1982) – Kodak-Disney 3D
  • Hawaii Island of the Gods (1984) – 70mm Omnivision (8 perf); Hawaii Experience Theatre.
  • Water, The Source of Life (1984) – Stereospace 2000. Made for the United States Pavilion at the 1984 World's Fair in New Orleans.[5]
  • Earth Song - Erika's Dream (1985) – Stereospace 2000. Made for the 3D Fantasium exhibit of the Sumitomo Pavilion at Expo '85 in Tsukuba, Japan.[5][6]
  • Norway – The Film (1989) – Super Panavision 70. Epcot short subject.
  • Jim Henson's Muppet*Vision 3D (1991) – Dual camera 70mm 3D.
  • Captain EO (1994) – Kodak-Disney 3D
  • Honey, I Shrunk the Audience! (1994) – Kodak-Disney 3D
  • T2 3D: Battle Across Time (1996) – 3 x dual camera 65mm 3D @ 30fps
  • The Witness (1997) – Arri 765 (some scenes in Panavision System 65); shown at Mashantucket Pequot Museum
  • It's Tough to Be a Bug! (1998) – Dual camera 70mm 3D.[7]
  • 100% (1999) – Arri 765. 10 minute short shown in a transportable theatre at NASCAR races.

Films partially shot in 65 mm[edit]

Soviet Bloc 70mm films[edit]

  • Povesti Plamennikh Let/Chronicle of Flaming Years (Soviet 1961) – credited as Todd-AO but shot with Soviet 70mm cameras.[8][9] Optically converted to 3-strip Kinopanorama.
  • Sud sumasschedshikh/The Trial of Madmen (Soviet 1962) – Sovscope 70. Optically converted to 3-strip Kinopanorama.
  • Batmanova, Singing Slave (Soviet 1962) – Kinopanorama 70. Optically converted to 3-strip Kinopanorama.
  • Zakon Antarktidy/The Law of the Antarctic (Soviet 1963) – Sovscope 70. Optically converted to 3-strip Kinopanorama.
  • Krepostnaya Aktrisa/Serf Actress (Soviet 1963) – Sovscope 70
  • Na podvodnikh skuterakh (Soviet 1963) – Kinopanorama 70. Optically converted to 3-strip Kinopanorama.
  • Optimisticheskaya Tragediya/The Optimistic Tragedy (Soviet 1963) – Sovscope 70. Optically converted to 3-strip Kinopanorama.
  • Kosmicheskiy Splav/Cosmic Alloy (Soviet 1964) – Sovscope 70
  • Metel/The Blizzard (Soviet 1964) - Sovscope 70
  • Zacharovannaya Desna/Enchanted Desna (Soviet 1964) – Sovscope 70
  • Sekret Uspekha/Bolshoi Ballet 67 (Soviet 1964) – Sovscope 70. Optically converted to 3-strip Kinopanorama.
  • SON/The Dream (Soviet 1964) – Sovscope 70
  • Spyashchaya krasavitsa/The Sleeping Beauty (Soviet 1964) – Sovscope 70. Optically converted to 3-strip Kinopanorama.
  • Geroy nashego vremeni/Hero of Our Time (Soviet 1965) - Sovscope 70
  • God kak zhizn/A Lifetime in One Year (Soviet 1965) – Sovscope 70
  • Zalp Avrory/The Salvos of the Aurora Cruiser (Soviet 1965) - Sovscope 70
  • My, Russkiy Narod/We, The Russian People (Soviet 1965) – Sovscope 70
  • Yarost/Fury (Soviet 1966) – Sovscope 70
  • Aybolit-66/Oh How It Hurts 66 (Soviet 1966) - Sovscope 70
  • Katerina Izmailova (Soviet 1966) - Sovscope 70
  • Korolevskaya regata (Soviet 1966) - Sovscope 70
  • Net i da (Soviet 1966) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Skazka o tsare Saltane/The Tale of Tsar Saltan (Soviet 1966) - Sovscope 70
  • Tretya molodost/La nuit des adieux/Nights of Farewell (Soviet/France 1966) - Sovscope 70
  • Tri tolstyaka/Three Fat Men (Soviet 1966) - Sovscope 70
  • Anna Karenina (Soviet 1967) - Sovscope 70
  • Arena (Soviet 1967) - Sovscope 70
  • Bereg Nadezhdy/The Riverside of Hope (Soviet 1967) - Sovscope 70
  • Buryan (Soviet 1967) - Sovscope 70
  • Zheleznyy potok/Torrents of Steel (Soviet 1967) - Sovscope 70
  • Nezabyvayemoye/The Unforgettable (Soviet 1967) - Sovscope 70
  • Svadba v Malinovke/Wedding in Malinovka (Soviet 1967) - Sovscope 70
  • Tumannost Andromedy/Andromeda Nebula (Soviet 1967) - Sovscope 70
  • Vecher nakanune Ivana Kupala/The Eve of Ivan Kupalo (Soviet 1968) - Sovscope 70
  • Daleko na zapade (Soviet 1968) - Sovscope 70
  • Dnevnye zvyozdy/The Stars of the Day (Soviet 1968) - Sovscope 70
  • War and Peace (Soviet 1966-67) – Sovscope 70
  • Hauptmann Florian von der Mühle (East Germany 1968) – DEFA-70
  • Ludi Na Nile/Al-nass wal Nil/Those People of the Nile (Soviet/Egypt 1968) - Sovscope 70
  • Oni zhivut ryadom (Soviet 1968) - Sovscope 70
  • Pervorossiyanye (Soviet 1968) - Sovscope 70
  • Tainstvennyy monakh/The Mysterious Monk (Soviet 1968) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Chaykovskiy (Soviet 1969) - Sovscope 70
  • Goluboy lyod/Blue Ice (Soviet 1969) - Sovscope 70
  • Direktor (Soviet 1969) - Sovscope 70
  • Duma o Britanke (Soviet 1969) - Sovscope 70
  • Du bist Min – Ein deutsches Tagebuch (East Germany 1969) – DEFA-70
  • Korol gor i drugie (Soviet 1969) - Sovscope 70
  • Osvobozhdenie/Liberation (Soviet\East Germany\Poland\Italy 1969-71) - Sovscope 70
  • Pochtovyy roman/Romance by Mail (Soviet 1969) - Sovscope 70
  • Syuzhet dlya nebolshogo rasskaza/Subject for a Short Story (Soviet 1969) - Sovscope 70
  • Beg/The Flight (Soviet 1970) - Sovscope 70
  • Signale – Ein Weltraumabenteuer (East Germany/Poland 1970) – DEFA-70
  • Wladimir Iljitsch Uljanow – Lenin (East Germany 1970) – DEFA-70
  • Korol manezha (Soviet 1970) - Sovscope 70
  • Krushenie Imperii (Soviet 1970) - Sovscope 70
  • Lyubov Yarovaya (Soviet 1970) - Sovscope 70
  • More v ogne (Soviet 1970) - Sovscope 70
  • Chermeni/Chermain (Soviet 1970) - Sovscope 70
  • Goya – oder der arge Weg der Erkenntnis (Link to German Wikipedia) (East Germany/Soviet 1971) – DEFA-70 (partly shot in Sovscope 70)
  • KLK AN PTX – Die rote Kapelle (East Germany 1971) – DEFA-70
  • Bilyy ptakh z chornoyu vidznakoyu/The White Bird Marked with Black (Soviet 1971) - Sovscope 70
  • Zakhar Berkut (Soviet 1971) - Sovscope 70
  • Zvezdy Ne Gasnut (Soviet 1971) - Sovscope 70
  • Sever, yug, vostok, zapad (Vsegda Nacheku)/North, South, East, West (Soviet 1971) - Sovscope 70
  • Molodye/Young People (Soviet 1971) - Sovscope 70
  • Russkoye pole/Russian Field (Soviet 1971) - Sovscope 70
  • Tsena bystrykh sekund (Soviet 1971) - Sovscope 70
  • Blokada/Blockade (Soviet 1974-77) - Sovscope 70
  • Vizit vezhlivosti/Courtesy Call (Soviet 1972) - Sovscope 70
  • Vsadnik bez golovy/The Headless Rider (Soviet 1972) - Sovscope 70
  • Gonshchiki/Racers (Soviet 1972) - Sovscope 70
  • Eolomea (East Germany 1972) – DEFA-70
  • Lützower (East Germany 1972) – DEFA-70
  • Sestra Muzykanta (Soviet 1972) - Sovscope 70
  • Sibiryachka/The Siberian Woman (Soviet 1972) - Sovscope 70
  • Tolko ty (Soviet 1972) - Sovscope 70
  • Vozvrata net/No Return (Soviet 1973) - Sovscope 70
  • Vysokoye zvaniye/High Title (Soviet 1973-74) - Sovscope 70
  • Goroda i gody/Towns and Years (Soviet 1973) - Sovscope 70
  • Mnogo shuma iz nichego/Much Ado About Nothing (Soviet 1973) - Sovscope 70
  • Orpheus in der Unterwelt (East Germany 1974) – DEFA-70
  • Avtomobil, skripka i sobaka Klyaksa/A Car, a Violin and a Dog-Spot (Soviet 1974) - Sovscope 70
  • Romans o vlyublyonnykh/A Lover's Romance (Soviet 1974) - Sovscope 70
  • Samyy zharkiy mesyats/The Warmest Month (Soviet 1974) - Sovscope 70
  • Belyy bashlyk (Soviet 1975) - Sovscope 70
  • Dersu Uzala (Soviet 1975) – Sovscope 70
  • Vozdukhoplavatel/The Balloonist (Soviet 1975) - Sovscope 70
  • Ot zari do zari/From Dawn Till Sunset (Soviet 1975) - Sovscope 70
  • Semya Ivanovykh/The Ivanov Family (Soviet 1975) - Sovscope 70
  • Tabor ukhodit v nebo/Gypsies Are Found Near Heaven (Soviet 1975) - Sovscope 70
  • Kafe 'Izotop' (Soviet 1976) - Sovscope 70
  • Teatr Neizvestnogo Aktera (Soviet 1976) - Sovscope 70
  • Vooruzhyon i ochen opasen/Armed and Very Dangerous (Soviet 1977) - Sovscope 70
  • Inkognito iz Peterburga/Incognito from St.Petersburg (Soviet 1977) - Sovscope 70
  • Pravo na lyubov (Soviet 1977) - Sovscope 70
  • Soldaty Svobody/Soldiers of Freedom (Soviet/Poland/Czechoslovakia/East Germany/Bulgaria/Hungary/Romania 1977) - Sovscope 70
  • Solntse, snova solntse (Soviet 1977) - Sovscope 70
  • SOS nad taygoy/SOS from the Taiga (Soviet 1977) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Sudba/Destiny (Soviet 1977) - Sovscope 70
  • Front za liniey fronta/Front Beyond the Front Line (Soviet 1977) - Sovscope 70
  • Chyornaya beryoza/The Black Birch (Soviet 1978) - Sovscope 70
  • Vsyo reshayet mgnoveniye/A Moment Decides Everything (Soviet 1978) - Sovscope 70
  • Yemelyan Pugachyov (Soviet 1978) - Sovscope 70
  • Zamurovannye v stekle (Soviet 1978) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Zhnecy (Soviet 1978) - Sovscope 70
  • Pogovorim, brat/Talk with Me, Brother (Soviet 1978) - Sovscope 70
  • Poka bezumstvuyet mechta/While the Dream Is Raving (Soviet 1978) - Sovscope 70
  • Yaroslavna, koroleva Frantsii/Yaroslavna, Queen of France (Soviet 1978) - Sovscope 70
  • Veroy i pravdoy/With Faith and Truth (Soviet 1979) - Sovscope 70
  • Vzlyot/Take-Off (Soviet 1979) - Sovscope 70
  • Vkus khleba (Soviet 1979) - Sovscope 70
  • Zabudte slovo 'smert'/Forget the Word 'Death' (Soviet 1979) - Sovscope 70
  • Zdes, na moey zemle/Here, at My Land (Soviet 1979) - Sovscope 70
  • Krutoe Pole (Soviet 1979) - Sovscope 70
  • Poslednyaya okhota/The Last Hunt (Soviet 1979) - Sovscope 70
  • Eskadron gusar letuchikh (Soviet 1980) - Sovscope 70
  • Koney na pereprave ne menyayut/Horses Aren't Changed at the Crossing (Soviet 1980) - Sovscope 70
  • Les (Soviet 1980/1987) - Sovscope 70
  • Fantaziya na temu lyubvi (Soviet 1980) - Sovscope 70
  • Vsadnik na zolotom kone (Soviet 1980) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • 34-y skoryy/Fire on East Train 34 (Soviet 1981) - Sovscope 70
  • Cherez ternii k zvyozdam/To the Stars by Hard Ways (Soviet 1981) - Sovscope 70
  • Devushka i Grand (Soviet 1981) - Sovscope 70
  • Dusha\Soul (Soviet 1981) - Sovscope 70
  • Lesnaya pesnya. Mavka/A Story of the Forest: Mavka (Soviet 1981) - Sovscope 70
  • Pokhishcheniye veka (Soviet 1981) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Shlyapa/The Hat (Soviet 1981) - Sovscope 70
  • Yaroslav Mudry (Soviet 1981) - Sovscope 70
  • Zvezda i smert Khoakina Muryety (Soviet 1982) - Sovscope 70
  • Vasili Buslayev (Soviet 1982) - Sovscope 70
  • Vishnyovyy omut/Cherry Whirlpool (Soviet 1982) - Sovscope 70
  • Vladivostok, god 1918 (Soviet 1982) - Sovscope 70
  • Vysokyi Pereval (Soviet 1982) - Sovscope 70
  • Yesli vrag ne sdayotsya.../If the Enemy Doesn't Surrender... (Soviet 1982) - Sovscope 70
  • Oslinaya shkura/Donkey's Hide (Soviet 1982) - Sovscope 70
  • Predisloviye k bitve (Soviet 1982) - Sovscope 70
  • Tayny svyatogo Yura (Soviet 1982) - Sovscope 70
  • Front v tylu vraga/Front in the Rear of the Enemy (Soviet/Czechoslovakia 1982) - Sovscope 70
  • Ekzamen na bessmertie (Soviet 1983) - Sovscope 70
  • Legenda o knyagine Olge/The Legend of Princess Olga (Soviet 1983) - Sovscope 70
  • Na ves zolota (Soviet 1983) - Sovscope 70
  • O strannostyakh lyubvi/About Oddities of Love (Soviet 1983) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Retsept yeyo molodosti/Recipe of Her Youth (Soviet 1983) - Sovscope 70
  • Skorost/Speed (Soviet 1983) - Sovscope 70
  • Uchenik lekarya/The Doctor's Pupil (Soviet 1983) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Blistayushchiy mir/The Sparkling World (Soviet 1984) - Sovscope 70
  • Geroy eyo romana/Hero of Her Romance (Soviet 1984) - Sovscope 70
  • I vot prishyol Bumbo.../And Then Came Bumbo... (Soviet 1984) - Sovscope 70
  • I eshchyo odna noch Shekherazady/And Another Shererazade Night (Soviet 1984) - Sovscope 70
  • Pervaya konnaya/First Cavalry (Soviet 1984) - Sovscope 70
  • Poruchit generalu Nesterovu (Soviet 1984) - Sovscope 70
  • Prikhodi svobodnym (Soviet 1984) - Sovscope 70
  • Sem stikhiy (Soviet 1984) - Sovscope 70
  • Shutki v storonu (Soviet 1984) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Bitva za Moskvu/The Fight for Moscow (Soviet/Czechoslovakia/East Germany/Hungary 1985) - Sovscope 70
  • Chyornaya strela/The Black Arrow (Soviet 1985) - Sovscope 70
  • Zhil otvazhnyy kapitan (Soviet 1985) - Sovscope 70
  • Matveeva radost (Soviet 1985) - Sovscope 70
  • Pryzhok (Soviet 1985) - Sovscope 70
  • Sopernitsy (Soviet 1985) - Sovscope 70
  • Kapitan 'Piligrima' (Soviet 1986) - Sovscope 70
  • Mama, rodnaya, lyubimaya... (Soviet 1986) - Sovscope 70
  • Na zlatom kryltse sideli/Sitting on the Golden Porch (Soviet 1986) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Perekhvat/Interception (Soviet 1986) - Sovscope 70
  • Postaraysya ostatsya zhivym (Soviet 1986) - Sovscope 70
  • Prodelki v starinnom dukhe/Old Times Pranks (Soviet 1986) - Sovscope 70
  • Proryv/Breakthrough (Soviet 1986) - Sovscope 70
  • Rus iznachalnaya/Primary Russia (Soviet 1986) - Sovscope 70
  • Stepnaya eskadrilya (Soviet 1986) - Sovscope 70
  • Tam, gde nas net (Soviet 1986) - Sovscope 70
  • Bayka (Soviet 1987) - Sovscope 70
  • Ivan Veliky (Soviet 1987) - Sovscope 70
  • Oglasheniyu ne podlezhit (Soviet 1987) - Sovscope 70
  • Ona s metloy, on v chyornoy shlyape/She Has a Broom, He has a Black Hat (Soviet 1987) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Serebryanye struny (Soviet 1987) - Sovscope 70
  • Skazka pro vlyublyonnogo malyara (Soviet 1987) - Sovscope 70
  • Sledopyt/The Pathfinder (Soviet 1987) - Sovscope 70
  • Tsyganka Aza (Soviet 1987) - Sovscope 70
  • Bez mundira (Soviet 1988) - Sovscope 70
  • Na pomoshch, bratsy! (Soviet 1988) - Sovscope 70
  • Raz, dva - gore ne beda (Soviet 1988) - Sovscope 70
  • Fantasticheskaya istoriya (Soviet 1988) - Sovscope 70
  • Cyrano de Bergerac (Soviet 1989) - Sovscope 70
  • Kamennaya dusha (Soviet 1989) - Sovscope 70
  • Suvenir dlya prokurora (Soviet 1989) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Vanka-vstanka (Soviet 1990) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Vlyublyonnyy maneken/The Model Who Fell in Love (Soviet 1991) - Stereo 70 (3D)
  • Rys idet po sledu (Russia 1994) - Stereo 70 (3D)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "3D in the mid 60s in Europe with Hi-Fi Stereo 70". in70mm.com. Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  2. ^ a b "3D Film List". 3-D Revolution Productions. Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  3. ^ http://www.altfg.com/blog/awards/to-be-alive-eleanor-roosevelt-story-oscar-documentaries/
  4. ^ a b c d e "The Lost Dominion 70mm Film Festival". in70mm.com. Retrieved 2011-06-24. 
  5. ^ a b An Oral History with Dr. Richard Vetter, Interviewed by Robert Birchard and Natale Zappia, Oral History Program, Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
  6. ^ http://www.in70mm.com/news/2009/mcs_70/english/
  7. ^ "Disney's California Adventure". Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  8. ^ Carr, Robert E.; Hayes, R.M. (1988). Wide Screen Movies. McFarland. p. 432. ISBN 0-89950-242-3. 
  9. ^ "Wide Screen Movies corrections list". Retrieved 2011-02-08.