List of African Union member states by political system

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African Union (AU) member states have various forms of government. The Constitutive Act of the African Union makes no provision for what type of government a member state may or must have, but Article 30 states:

Governments which shall come to power through unconstitutional means shall not be allowed to participate in the activities of the Union.

This clause has only been applied to Mauritania after its 2005 coup d'état, to Madagascar as a result of the 2009 Malagasy political crisis and to Togo during its political crisis in April 2005.

Several political systems of governance are represented in the AU, including stable, competitive democracies (Botswana, Cape Verde), systems dominated by single parties, and even a failed state that exists in a de jure capacity (Somalia) and a government in exile (Western Sahara's Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.)

Monarchism and republicanism[edit]

  non-AU state

At present, two sovereign monarchies are members of the African Union: Lesotho (ruled by King Letsie III), and Swaziland (ruled by King Mswati III, with Ntombi.) Lesotho is a constitutional monarchy, in which the king or queen serves a largely ceremonial function; he no longer possesses any executive authority and is proscribed from actively participating in political initiatives. According to the constitution, the leader of the majority party in the assembly automatically becomes prime minister; the monarch is hereditary, but, under the terms of the constitution which came into effect after the March 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to determine who is next in the line of succession, who shall serve as regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age, and may even depose the monarch. Swaziland is an absolute monarchy, currently in the process of democratization. According to current Swazi law and custom, the monarch holds supreme executive, legislative, and judicial powers. The king ("Ngwenyama") is a hereditary leader, receiving assistance from a council of ministers and a national legislature. The senior queen ("Ndlovukati") is in charge of national rituals, and acts as regent if her counterpart Ngwenyama dies and the heir has not performed royal adulthood rituals or is indisposed. If the king's mother is no longer living, one of the king's wives may act as Ndlovukati. The king has constitutional protection from arrest and trial.

In several other African states there are subnational monarchs, but only a select few are vested with constitutional and\or legal powers, and therefore the majority of them are little more than traditional notables in practice. The Ashanti Confederacy in Ghana is led by Asantehene (King) Otumfuo Nana Osei Tutu II; the succession is decided by a series of councils of local nobles and other royal family members. KwaZulu-Natal (or Zululand) is led by the king of the Zulu Nation, currently Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu. Although he does not hold any direct political power, he is provided a stipend by the government of South Africa, and holds considerable sway over more traditionalist Zulu people in the KwaZulu-Natal Province. Both the Asantehene and the Zulu monarch are part of complex networks of other kings and chiefs that constitutionally serve as traditional leaders of their respective countries.

Due to constitutional reform in Uganda in 1993, several traditional monarchies have been politically reconstituted by the government of Yoweri Museveni. These are:

Elsewhere, in Botswana, the kgosis (or chieftains) of the various tribes are constitutionally empowered to serve as advisors within the national legislature as members of the Ntlo ya Dikgosi. Meanwhile, in Nigeria, the various traditional polities that currently exist are politically defined by way of the ceding of definite authority from the provincial governments, which in turn receive their powers to do so from a series of chieftaincy laws that have been legislatively created. Beyond this, residual powers are also derived by the Nigerian traditional rulers from both pre-existing customary laws and the remnants of the indirect rule policy of the colonial era.

Historically, there have been several monarchies throughout the African continent. Since decolonization, many have been abolished in favor of republics. The following African monarchies have existed in the twentieth century:

Several African colonies were under the sovereignty of the King or Queen of the United Kingdom. Upon independence, several states became Commonwealth realms (formerley known as Dominions), with the British monarch as a titular sovereign. Currently, no former British colonies in Africa are Commonwealth realms:

In spite of this, several African states are affiliated with the Commonwealth of Nations:

Form of government[edit]

  presidential republics, full presidential system
  presidential republics, executive presidency linked to a parliament
  presidential republics, semi-presidential system
  parliamentary republics
  parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch does not personally exercise power
  non-AU state
Somalia and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic are colored according to their de jure form of government. The former is a failed state, the latter is mostly under military occupation by Morocco, although the SADR does administer some territory.
  non-electoral democracy
  electoral democracy
  non-AU state
[1]Freedom House index of electoral democracies in AU member states, from Freedom in the World 2006.
  6-6.9
  5-5.9
  4-4.9
  3-3.9
  2-2.9
  1-1.9
  not ranked
  non-AU state
The Corruption Perceptions Index is published by Transparency International and provides data on perceived corruption. Every African state has a problem with corruption according to this survey.

There are several types of government systems in African politics:

Even in other states with elections, actual opposition may not exist. The following have been or are considered dominant-party systems:

The politics of Africa have been blighted by severe problems with corruption and nepotism, coups d'état, and civil war. Corruption is a severe problem in much of the continent, with the vast majority of African states ranking below a five out of ten in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index. Five of the ten most corrupt governments are AU member states:

  1. Angola (2.0)
  2. Côte d'Ivoire (1.9)
  1. Equatorial Guinea (1.9)
  1. Nigeria (1.9)
  1. Chad (1.7)

The following AU states are in ongoing wars, or have recently ceased hostilities:

Degree of self-governance[edit]

  non-AU state
See also: Self-governance

Forty-five of the African Union's member states are unitary states, which means that most of the competences lie with the central government and only minor or local issues are within the authority of regional governments. However, four states are federations (Comoros, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Sudan) of states or regions with equal competences, Somalia's Transitional Federal Parliament is also a federation; Madagascar has devolved certain powers to its six provinces; and the United Republic of Tanzania is a federacy of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the latter of which elects its own president for internal affairs. Former federations and confederations in Africa from the twentieth century include:

Legislatures[edit]

  non-AU state

A further distinction is the number of chambers in the national legislature; either with one or two houses. There is no clear trend towards either model as of 2006, and there's also no real common factor which determines whether a country's legislature is unicameral or bicameral, except for the fact that federations and countries with strong regional differences or regional identities are normally bicameral to reflect the regions' interests in national bills.

The function and form of the houses vary widely; some are directly elected, others indirectly or appointed, some have legal provisions for minority representation, based either or ethnicity, religious affiliation, or gender. In Cameroon and Malawi, there are legally two houses, but only one is functional. Due to the no-party politics of Libya, there is no legislature per se, but a complex mixtures of local councils loyal to Muammar al-Gaddafi.

There are presently 34 unicameral legislatures and 19 bicameral legislatures in among AU member states.

Listed by form of government[edit]

State Government Head of state Head of government
 Algeria parliamentary unitary republic President of the Republic Prime Minister
 Angola presidential unitary republic President of Angola
 Benin presidential unitary republic President of Benin
 Botswana presidential unitary republic President of Botswana
 Burkina Faso presidential unitary republic Président du Faso
 Burundi presidential unitary republic President of Burundi
 Cameroon presidential unitary republic President of Cameroon
 Cape Verde parliamentary unitary republic President of Cape Verde Prime Minister of Cape Verde
 Central African Republic presidential unitary republic President of the Central African Republic
 Chad presidential unitary republic President of Chad
 Comoros presidential federal republic President of Comoros
 Democratic Republic of the Congo semi-presidential unitary republic President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Republic of the Congo presidential unitary republic President of the Republic of the Congo
 Ivory Coast presidential unitary republic President of Côte d'Ivoire
 Djibouti semi-presidential unitary republic President of Djibouti Prime Minister of Djibouti
 Egypt semi-presidential unitary republic President of Egypt Prime Minister of Egypt
 Equatorial Guinea presidential unitary republic President of Equatorial Guinea
 Eritrea presidential unitary republic President of Eritrea
 Ethiopia semi-presidential federal republic President of Ethiopia Prime Minister of Ethiopia
 Gabon semi-presidential unitary republic President of Gabon Prime Minister of Gabon
 Gambia presidential unitary republic President of the Gambia
 Ghana presidential unitary republic President of Ghana
 Guinea presidential unitary republic President of Guinea
 Guinea-Bissau semi-presidential unitary republic President of Guinea-Bissau Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau
 Kenya presidential unitary republic President of Kenya
 Lesotho parliamentary unitary constitutional monarchy King of Lesotho Prime Minister of Lesotho
 Liberia presidential unitary republic President of Liberia
 Libya parliamentary republic President of the General National Congress of Libya Prime Minister of Libya
 Madagascar semi-presidential devolved republic President of Madagascar Prime Minister of Madagascar
 Malawi presidential unitary republic President of Malawi
 Mali presidential unitary republic President of Mali
 Mauritania presidential republic President of Mauretania
 Mauritius semi-presidential unitary republic President of Mauritius Prime Minister of Mauritius
 Mozambique presidential unitary republic President of Mozambique
 Namibia presidential unitary republic President of Namibia
 Niger semi-presidential unitary republic President of Niger Prime Minister of Niger
 Nigeria presidential unitary federation President of Nigeria
 Rwanda presidential unitary republic President of Rwanda
 São Tomé and Príncipe semi-presidential unitary republic President of São Tomé and Príncipe Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe
 Senegal presidential unitary republic President of Senegal
 Seychelles presidential unitary republic President of Seychelles
 Sierra Leone presidential unitary republic President of Sierra Leone
 Somalia semi-presidential federal republic President of Somalia Prime Minister of Somalia
 South Africa semi-presidential unitary republic President of South Africa
 Sudan presidential federal republic President of Sudan
 Swaziland unitary absolute monarchy King of Swaziland
 Tanzania presidential federacy republic President of Tanzania
 Togo presidential unitary republic President of Togo
 Tunisia presidential unitary republic President of Tunisia
 Uganda presidential unitary republic President of Uganda
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic semi-presidential unitary republic President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Prime Minister of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
 Zambia presidential unitary republic President of Zambia
 Zimbabwe presidential unitary republic President of Zimbabwe

Listed by type of legislature[edit]

State Unicameral/
bicameral
Overall name of legislature Method of election
Lower house (members) Upper house (members)
 Algeria bicameral Parliament Members of the People's National Assembly are directly elected every five years. The Council of the Nation has two-thirds of its members elected by regional and municipal authorities; one-third are appointed by the president to six-year terms with one-half of the seats up for election or reappointment every 3 years.
People's National Assembly (380) Council of the Nation (144)
 Angola unicameral National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional) (220) Members are elected for a four-year term, 130 by proportional representation and 90 in provincial districts.
 Benin unicameral National Assembly (83) Members are elected every four years by party-list proportional representation.
 Botswana bicameral Parliament Members of the National Assembly are elected to five-year terms by plurality vote for 57 members, four posts are co-opted, and two are ex officio (the president and attorney-general.) The Ntlo ya Dikgosi represent the eight principal subgroups of the Batswana people represented by one member, with hereditary membership; four members are appointed by sub-chiefs in the districts of North-East, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, and North-West; three members are elected by the aforementioned twelve.
Ntlo ya Dikgosi (15) National Assembly (63)
 Burkina Faso unicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) (111) Members are elected to five-year terms by proportional representation, 21 from one national constituency and 90 from 13 regional constituencies, with two to 10 per region, using the party-list proportional representation system.
 Burundi bicameral Parliament Members of the National Assembly are elected for five-year terms in 17 multi-member constituencies by the D'Hondt method of proportional representation with a 2% barrier; 100 are directly elected and between 18 and 21 are co-opted. Constitutionally, 60% of members be from the Hutu ethnic group, while the remaining 40% come from the Tutsi ethnic group. Members of the Senate are elected for five-year terms by electoral colleges of communal councilors. Two Senators, one Hutu and one Tutsi, are chosen by electoral colleges of communal councilors in each of the country's 17 provinces. Voting takes place using a three round system. In the first two rounds, a candidate must receive a super-majority (two-thirds, or 67% of the vote) to be elected. If no candidate is elected in these rounds, a third round is organized for the two leading candidates, of which the candidate receiving the majority of votes is elected. Former heads of state automatically become Senators. In both houses, three co-opted members represent the Twa ethnic group and women must occupy at least 30% of the seats; extra seats can be added to ensure that ethnic and gender quotas are met.
National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) (118-121) Senate (Sénat) (37-54)
 Cameroon bicameral N/A Members of the National Assembly are elected for five-year terms in 49 single- and multi-seat constituencies. The Constitution of Cameroon established of a 100-member senate as part of a bicameral legislature, with one-third of senators to be appointed by the President of Cameroon, and the remaining two-thirds to be chosen by indirect election. The government has yet to establish the Senate.
National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) (180) Senate (Sénat) (100)
 Cape Verde unicameral National Assembly (Asembleia Nacional) (72) Members are elected to five-year terms by proportional representation, in 16 multi-member constituencies by the D'Hondt method of proportional representation.
 Central African Republic unicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) (105) Members are elected for a five-year term using two-round run-off voting.
 Chad unicameral National Assembly (155) Members are elected by for four-year terms in 25 single-member constituencies and 34 multi-member constituencies.
 Comoros unicameral Assembly of the Union of the Comoros (33) Members are elected to five-year terms; 18 directly in single member constituencies using two-round run-off voting, 15 from local assemblies on each of the three islands of Anjouan, Mohéli, and Grande Comore.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo bicameral Parliament Members of the National Assembly are elected by direct suffrage, senators are elected by the legislatures of the 26 provinces.
National Assembly (500) Senate (120)
 Republic of the Congo bicameral Parliament Parlement Members of the National Assembly are elected to five-year terms in single-seat constituencies. Members of the Senate are elected to six-year terms by the district, local, and regional councils.
National Assembly Assemblée Nationale (153) Senate Sénat (66)
 Ivory Coast unicameral National Assembly Assemblée Nationale (225) Members are elected for five-year terms in single-seat constituencies.
 Djibouti unicameral National Assembly Assemblée Nationale (65) Members are elected to five-year terms in multi-seat constituencies (between four and 37 each); legally, 33 are Issa and 32 are Afar.
 Egypt bicameral Parliament Members of the People’s Assembly are elected to five-year terms; 444 are directly elected, renewable every election, with two for each of Egypt's constiuencies, and up to ten may be appointed by the President of Egypt, who can also call for elections. constitutionally, fifty percent of the assembly seats are reserved for "workers and peasants." Four hundred seats are voted on using proportional representation while the remaining forty-four are elected in local majority votes. In case no candidate obtains the majority of votes, run-off elections take place between the highest four of the candidates, of whom at least two must be of the farmers/workers category. Members of the Shura Council are elected to six-year terms, with one-half renewed every three years; 174 are directly elected and 88 are appointed by the president.
People's Assembly (مجلس الشعب or Majilis Al-Sha’ab) (454) Shura Council (مجلس الشورى or Majilis Al-Shura) (264)
 Equatorial Guinea unicameral Chamber of People's Representatives (Cámara de Representantes del Pueblo)(100) Members are elected for five-year terms by party-list proportional representation in multi-member constituencies.
 Eritrea unicameral National Assembly (Hagerawi Baito) The National Assembly has 104 members; 60 appointed and 44 representing the members of the Central Committee of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice.
 Ethiopia bicameral Federal Parliamentary Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe) Members of the House of People's Representatives are elected to five-year terms in single-seat constituencies; 22 of these seats are reserved for minority nationalities and peoples. Members of the House of Federation are elected by State Councils that may either have direct elections or chose their member of the House. Constitutionally, "[E]ach Nation, Nationality and People shall be represented in the House of the Federation by at least one member. Each Nation or Nationality shall be represented by one additional representative for each one million of its population."
House of People's Representatives (የሕዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት (Yehizbtewekayoch Mekir Bet))(547) House of Federation (የፌዴሬሽን ምክር ቤት (Yefedereshn Mekir Bet))(112)
 Gabon bicameral Parliament (Parlement)) Members of the National Assembly are elected for five-year terms in single-seat constituencies, with nine members appointed by the President of Gabon. Members of the Senate are elected for six-year terms in single-seat constituencies by local and departmental councillors.
National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) (120) Senate (Sénat)(91)
 Gambia unicameral National Assembly (53) Members are elected to five-year terms in single-member constituencies with plurality voting; 48 are directly elected while the remaining five are appointed by the President of the Gambia.
 Ghana unicameral Parliament (231) Members are elected to four-year terms - except in times of war, when their mandate can extend to five years - from single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote.
 Guinea unicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale)(114) Members are elected to five-year terms, 38 in single-seat constituencies with plurality voting, and 76 by proportional representation using national party-lists.
 Guinea-Bissau unicameral National People's Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular)(102) Members are elected for five-year terms in multi-member constituencies, with 100 members elected through a system of party-list proportional representation and two seats reserved for Guinea-Bissau citizens living overseas, but they were not filled in the most recent election.
 Kenya unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (224) Members are elected for five-year terms; 210 in single-seat constituencies, 12 nominated by political parties on a proportional representation basis, and 2 ex officio appointments, the Attorney-General and the Speaker.
 Lesotho bicameral Parliament Members of the National Assembly are elected for five-year terms; 80 in single-seat constituencies, with plurality voting, 40 through proportional representation and national party-lists. In the Senate, 22 members are hereditary principal chiefs and 11 are nominated by the King of Lesotho, all for five-year terms.
National Assembly (120) Senate (33)
 Liberia bicameral Legislature Members of the House are elected for six-year terms in single-seat constituencies distributed among Liberia's fifteen counties based on its total number of registered voters. Each county is guaranteed by law to have at least two seats. Members of the Senate ar elected for nine-year terms in single-seat constituencies with two Senators for each of Liberia's counties.
House of Representatives (64) Senate (30)
 Libya unicameral General People's Congress (Mu'tammar al-sha'ab al 'âmm)(~2,700) Due to the no-party politics of Libya, there is no legislature per se, but a complex mixture of local councils loyal to Muammar al-Gaddafi. There are, consequently, no methods of election to the legislature. The Congress is the legislative forum that interacts with the General People's Committee, whose members are secretaries of Libyan ministries. It serves as the intermediary between the masses and the leadership and is composed of the secretariats of some 600 local "basic popular congresses".
 Madagascar bicameral Parliament Members of the National Assembly are elected to four-year terms in a mix of single- and two-member constituencies. Members of the Senate are elected to six-year terms, with 10 members for each province chosen by provincial electors and 30 members are appointed.
National Assembly (Antenimieram-Pirenena/Assemblée Nationale)(160) Senate (Sénat)(90)
 Malawi bicameral N/A Members of the National Assembly are elected for five-year terms in single- and multiple-seat constituencies; 147 are directly elected with two-round run-off votes, the other 13 represent the Malawian community abroad on a separate ticket. The Constitution of Malawi established of an 80-member senate as part of a bicameral legislature, with representation for traditional leaders and the different geographical districts, as well as various special interest groups, such as women, youth, and the disabled. The government has yet to establish the Senate.
National Assembly (194) Senate (80)
 Mali unicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale)(160) Members are elected to five-year terms, 147 members elected in single-seat constituencies with party-list proportional representation and 13 members elected by Malians abroad.
 Mauritania bicameral Parliament (Barlamane/Parlement) Members of the National Assembly are elected to five-year terms in single-seat constituencies. Members of the Senate are elected to six-year terms by municipal councillors with one-third renewed every two years and three members elected by Mauritanians abroad.
National Assembly (Al Jamiya al-Wataniyah/Assemblée Nationale) (81) Senate (Majlis al-Shuyukh/Sénat) (56)
 Mauritius unicameral National Assembly (70) Members are elected for four-year terms in single-seat constituencies; 62 are directly elected eight are appointed by the Supreme Court to ensure that ethnic and religious minorities are equitably represented.
 Mozambique unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da República)(250) Members are elected to five-year terms by proportional representation, with a 5% barrier.
 Namibia bicameral Parliament Members of the National Assembly are elected to five-year terms, 72 by proportional representation, and six appointed by the President of Namibia. Members of the National Council are elected to six-year terms in double-seat constituencies (regions).
National Assembly (78) National Council (26)
 Niger unicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale)(113) Members are elected for five-year terms by party-list proportional representation, with a 5% barrier; 105 elected in multi-seat constituencies and eight in single-seat national minority constituences.
 Nigeria bicameral National Assembly Members of the House of Representatives are elected to four-year terms in single-member constituencies using the simple majority system. Members of the Senate are elected to four-year terms in three-member constituencies (one for each of Nigeria's states), except the federal district of Abuja, which has one representative. The House was created to provide proportional representation based on population in Nigeria's states; the Senate represents the states themselves.
House of Representatives (360) Senate (109)
 Rwanda bicameral Parliament (Inteko Ishinga Amategeko/Parlement) Members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected to five-year terms; 53 in direct elections by proportional representation, with a 5% barrier, 24 female members are elected by provincial councils, two are appointed by the National Youth Council, and one by the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled. Members of the Senate are elected or appointed for eight-year terms; 12 are elected by provincial and sectoral councils; eight are appointed by the President of Rwanda to ensure the representation of historically marginalized communities, four are appointed by the Forum of Political Formations, and two are elected by the staff of the universities. Additionally, former presidents can request to be members of the Senate.
Chamber of Deputies (Umutwe w'Abadepite/Chambre des Députés) (80) Senate (Umutwe wa Sena/Sénat) (26)
 São Tomé and Príncipe unicameral National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional)(55) Members are elected for four-year terms in seven multi-member constituencies by party-list proportional representation.
 Senegal unicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale)(120) Members are elected to five-year terms in multi-seat constituencies.
 Seychelles unicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale)(34) Members are elected to five-year terms; 25 in single-member constituencies with plurality voting; nine through a system of proportional representation.
 Sierra Leone unicameral Parliament or House of Representatives (124) Members are elected to five-year terms; 112 through proportional representation in 14 multi-seat constituencies with a constituency threshold of 12.5%, and 12 are paramount chiefs who are indirectly elected.
 Somalia unicameral Transitional Federal Parliament (275) Somalia has not had a functioning government since the beginning of the Somali Civil War in 1991. Members of the parliament were divided between Somalia's four major clans, with 61 seats each, while an alliance of minority clans was awarded 31 seats.
 South Africa bicameral Parliament Members of the National Assembly are elected to five-year terms through proportional representation, half of whom are chosen from nationwide party lists, the other from party lists for each province. Members of the National Council of Provinces are appointed in groups of ten by provincial legislatures for five-year terms.
National Assembly (400) National Council of Provinces (90)
 Sudan bicameral National Legislature Members of the National Legislature are elected to six-year terms. Members of the National Assembly are appointed by the government; members of the Council of States are elected by the state legislatures.
National Assembly (Majlis Watani)(450) Council of States (Majlis Welayat)(50)
 Swaziland bicameral Parliament (Libandla) Members of the House of Assembly are elected to five-year terms in single-member constituencies corresponding to the tinkhundlas (tribal communities): 14 are located in the Hhohho, 11 in Lubombo, 16 in Manzini, and 14 in Shiselweni. Candidates are first nominated at the tinkhundla level and face a primary election, with a run-off for the top three finishers, where the candidate who receives the most votes is declared elected. The King of Swaziland appoints 10 members to the House. Members of the Senate are elected to five-year terms; 20 members are appointed by the King, 10 are elected by the House of Assembly.
House of Assembly (55) National Council (30)
 Tanzania unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (324) Members are elected to five-year terms; 236 elected in single-seat constituencies (181 from Tanganyika, 50 from Zanzibar); 75 (20%) are women nominated by the President of Tanzania by party; 10 are appointed by the president; the remaining two are ex officio members. Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar. The House of Representatives of Zanzibar has 81 members who serve five-year terms, 50 elected in single-member constituencies using plurality voting; 10 appointed by the President of Zanzibar; five are reserved for government-appointed regional commissioners; 15 seats are reserved for women and are filled on a party basis; the final seat is reserved for the Attorney-General.
 Togo unicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale)(81) Members are elected to five-year terms in single-member constituencies in using a two-round run-off system.
 Tunisia unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab)(189) Members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; 20% of the seats are reserved for the opposition.
 Uganda unicameral National Assembly (319) Members of the National Assembly members are elected to five-year terms; 215 in single-member constituencies; 78 from special interest groups, including 69 District Women Representatives, 10 army representatives, five youth representatives, five representatives for the disabled, and five from trade unions; 13 are ex officio members.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic unicameral Sahrawi National Council (101) According to the Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, the Sahrawi National Council is uniquely identified with the Polisario Front as long as the SADR is a government in exile. Delegates are elected at the General Popular Congresses by delegates from the refugee camps of Tindouf, Algeria, supplemented by representatives of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army and the constitutionally-defined popular organizations (representing youth, women, and labor).
 Zambia unicameral National Assembly (159) Members are elected to five-year terms; 150 in single-member constituencies using simple plurality, eight are appointed by the President of Zambia, and one is an ex officio member.
 Zimbabwe bicameral Parliament Members of the House of Assembly are elected to five-year terms; 120 in single-member constituencies using the simple majority, 12 are appointed by the President of Zimbabwe, eight are provincial governors who hold reserved seats; 10 are held by traditional chiefs who are chosen by their peers. In the Senate, 50 members (five from each province) are directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority, six are appointed by the president, and additional members and the remaining 10 seats are held by traditional chiefs who are chosen in separate elections.
House of Assembly (150) Senate (66)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Freedom House (2006-06-27). "2005". Freedom in the World. Retrieved 2006-06-27. 

See also[edit]