List of American federal politicans convicted of crimes

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This list consists of American politicians convicted of crimes either committed or prosecuted while holding office in the federal government. It includes politicians who were convicted or pleaded guilty in a court of law; and does not include politicians involved in unprosecuted scandals (which may or may not have been illegal in nature), or politicians who have only been arrested or indicted. The list also does not include crimes which occur outside the politician’s tenure unless they specifically stem from acts while they were in office.

Although the convicted politicians are arranged by presidential terms starting with the most recent, many of the crimes have little or no connection to who is President.

2009– (Obama (D) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

  • Michael Grimm (R-NY) pleaded guilty of felony tax evasion. This was the 4th count in a 20 count indictment brought against him for improper use of campaign funds. The guilty plea has the maximum sentence of 3 years. He was sentenced to three months in prison. (2015)[2]
  • Trey Radel (R-FL) was convicted of possession of cocaine in November 2013. As a first time offender, he was sentenced to one year probation and fined $250. Radel announced he would take a leave of absence, but did not resign. Later, under pressure from a number of Republican leaders, he announced through a spokesperson that he would do so. (2013)[3][4][5]
  • Rick Renzi (R-AZ) was found guilty on 17 of 32 counts against him June 12, 2013, including wire fraud, conspiracy, extortion, racketeering, money laundering and making false statements to insurance regulators. (2013)[2]
  • Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D-IL) pleaded guilty February 20, 2013, to one count of wire and mail fraud in connection with his misuse of $750,000 in campaign funds. Jackson was sentenced to two and one-half years imprisonment. (2013)[6]

2001–2009 (George W. Bush (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

  • Lewis Libby (R) Chief of Staff to Vice President Dick Cheney (R). 'Scooter' was convicted of perjury and obstruction of justice in the Plame Affair on March 6, 2007 and was sentenced to 30 months in prison and fined $250,000. His sentence was commuted by George W. Bush (R) on July 1, 2007. (2007)[7]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • William J. Jefferson (D-LA) was charged in August 2005 after the FBI seized $90,000 in cash from his home freezer. He was re-elected to the House in 2006, but lost in 2008. He was convicted November 13, 2009, of 11 counts of bribery and sentenced to 13 years in prison. (2009)[8] Jefferson's Chief of Staff Brett Pfeffer, was sentenced to 84 months for bribery. (2006) [9]
  • Jack Abramoff CNMI scandal involves the efforts of Abramoff to influence Congressional action concerning U.S. immigration and minimum wage laws. See Executive branch convictions. Congressmen convicted in the Abramoff scandal include:
  1. Bob Ney (R-OH) pleaded guilty to conspiracy and making false statements as a result of his receiving trips from Abramoff in exchange for legislative favors. Ney received 30 months in prison. (2007)[10]
  • Duke Cunningham (R-CA) pleaded guilty November 28, 2005, to charges of conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, wire fraud and tax evasion in what came to be called the Cunningham scandal and was sentenced to over eight years in prison. (2005)[11]
  • Frank Ballance (D-NC) admitted to federal charges of money laundering and mail fraud in October 2005 and was sentenced to four years in prison. (2005)[12]
  • Bill Janklow (R-SD) was convicted of second-degree manslaughter for running a stop sign and killing a motorcyclist. Resigned from the House and given 100 days in the county jail and three years probation. (2003)[13]
  • Jim Traficant (D-OH) was found guilty on ten felony counts of financial corruption, sentenced to eight years in prison and expelled from the House of Representatives. (2002) [14]

1993–2001 (Clinton (D) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Mel Reynolds (D-IL) was convicted on 12 counts of sexual assault, obstruction of justice and solicitation of child pornography. (1997) He was later convicted of 12 counts of bank fraud. (1999) [18]
  • Walter R. Tucker III (D-CA) was sentenced to 27 months in prison in 1996 for extortion and tax evasion. (1995)[19]
  • Wes Cooley (R-OR), was convicted of having lied on the 1994 voter information pamphlet about his service in the Army. He was fined and sentenced to two years probation (1997)[20] After leaving office, Cooley was convicted of income tax fraud connected to an investment scheme. He was sentenced to one year in prison and to pay restitution of $3.5 million to investors and $138,000 to the IRS.[21]
  • Austin Murphy (D-PA) was convicted of one count of voter fraud for filling out absentee ballots for members of a nursing home. (1999) [22]
  • House banking scandal [23] The House of Representatives Bank found that 450 members had overdrawn their checking accounts, but not been penalized. Six were convicted of charges, most only tangentially related to the House Bank itself. Twenty two more of the most prolific over-drafters were singled out by the House Ethics Committee. (1992)
  1. Buz Lukens (R-Ohio) convicted of bribery and conspiracy.[24]
  2. Carl C. Perkins (D-Kentucky) pleaded guilty to a check kiting scheme involving several financial institutions (including the House Bank).[25]
  3. Carroll Hubbard (D-Kentucky) was convicted of illegally funneling money to his wife's 1992 campaign to succeed him in congress.[26]
  4. Mary Rose Oakar (D-Ohio) pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor campaign finance charge not related to the House Bank.[27]
  5. Walter Fauntroy (D-District of Columbia) was convicted of filing false disclosure forms to hide unauthorized income.[28]
  1. Dan Rostenkowski (D-IL) was convicted and sentenced to 18 months in prison, in 1995.[30]
  2. Joe Kolter (D-Pennsylvania) pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy and sentenced to 6 months in prison.[31][32]
  • Jay Kim (R-CA) accepted $250,000 in illegal 1992 campaign contributions and was sentenced to two-months house arrest and a $5,000 fine. (1992) [33]

1989–1993 (George H. W. Bush (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Nicholas Mavroules (D-Massachusetts) was convicted of extortion, accepting illegal gifts and failing to report them on congressional disclosure and income tax forms. Mavroules pleaded guilty to fifteen counts in April 1993 and was sentenced to a fifteen-month prison term. (1993) [35][36]
  • Albert Bustamante (D-Texas) was convicted of accepting bribes and sentenced to three and one-half years in prison. (1993) [37]
  • David Durenberger Senator (R-Minnesota) denounced by Senate for unethical financial transactions and then disbarred (1990). He pleaded guilty to misuse of public funds and given one year probation (1995) [38]

1981–1989 (Reagan (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

  1. James G. Watt (R) United States Secretary of the Interior 1981–1983, was charged with 25 counts of perjury and obstruction of justice. Sentenced to five years probation, fined $5,000 and 500 hours of community service[40]
  • Wedtech scandal Wedtech Corporation was convicted of bribery in connection with Defense Department contracts.[41]
  1. Mario Biaggi (D-New York) sentenced to 2½ years. (1987)[42]
  2. Robert Garcia (D-New York) sentenced to 2½ years.[43]
  • Iran-Contra Affair (1985–1986); A secret sale of arms to Iran, to secure the release of hostages and allow U.S. intelligence agencies to fund the Nicaraguan Contras, in violation of the Boland Amendment.[44]
  1. Elliott Abrams (R) Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, convicted of withholding evidence. Given 2 years probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush.[45] https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/summpros.htm.

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Donald E. "Buz" Lukens (R-Ohio), was convicted of two counts of bribery and conspiracy. (1996) [47]
  • Abscam FBI sting involving fake 'Arabs' trying to bribe 31 congressmen.(1980) [48] The following Congressmen were convicted:
  1. Harrison A. Williams Senator (D-New Jersey) Convicted on 9 counts of bribery and conspiracy. Sentenced to 3 years in prison.[49]
  2. John Jenrette Representative (D-South Carolina) sentenced to two years in prison for bribery and conspiracy.[50]
  3. Richard Kelly (R-Florida) Accepted $25K and then claimed he was conducting his own investigation into corruption. Served 13 months.[51]
  4. Raymond Lederer (D-Pennsylvania) "I can give you me" he said after accepting $50K. Sentenced to 3 years.[52]
  5. Michael Myers (D-Pennsylvania) Accepted $50K saying, "...money talks and bullshit walks." Sentenced to 3 years and was expelled from the House.[53]
  6. Frank Thompson (D-New Jersey) Sentenced to 3 years.[54]
  7. John M. Murphy (D-New York) Served 20 months of a 3-year sentence.[55]
  • Mario Biaggi (D-New York), Convicted of obstruction of justice and accepting illegal gratuities he was sentenced to 2½ years in prison and fined $500K for his role in the Wedtech scandal, see above. Just before expulsion from the House, he resigned. The next year he was convicted of another 15 counts of obstruction and bribery. (1988) [56]
  • Pat Swindall (R-Georgia) convicted of 6 counts of perjury. (1989) [57][58]
  • George V. Hansen (R-Idaho) censured for failing to file out disclosure forms. Spent 15 months in prison.[59]
  • Frederick W. Richmond (D-New York),Convicted of tax evasion and possession of marijuana. Served 9 months (1982) [60]
  • Dan Flood (D-Pennsylvania) censured for bribery. After a trial ended in a deadlocked jury, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to a year's probation.[61][62]
  • Joshua Eilberg (D-Pennsylvania) pleaded guilty to conflict-of-interest charges. In addition, he convinced president Carter to fire the U.S. Attorney investigating his case.[63]

1977–1981 (Carter (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Fred Richmond (D-New York) – Convicted of tax fraud and possession of marijuana. Served 9 months in prsion. Charges of soliciting sex from a 16-year-old boy were dropped after he submitted to counseling. (1978) [64]
  • Charles Diggs (D-Michigan), convicted on 29 charges of mail fraud and filing false payroll forms which formed a kickback scheme with his staff. Sentenced to 3 years (1978) [65]
  • Michael Myers (D-Pennsylvania) Received suspended six-month jail term after pleading no contest to disorderly conduct charged stemming from an incident at a Virginia bar in which he allegedly attacked a hotel security guard and a cashier.[66]
  • Frank M. Clark (D-Pennsylvania) pleaded guilty to mail fraud and tax evasion on June 12, 1979 and sentenced to two years in prison.[67]
  • Richard Tonry (D-Louisiana) pleaded guilty to receiving illegal campaign contributions.[68]

1974–1977 (Ford (R) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • James F. Hastings (R-New York), convicted of kickbacks and mail fraud, he also took money from his employees for personal use. Served 14 months at Allenwood penitentiary. (1976) [69]
  • John V. Dowdy (D-Texas), Allegedly tried to stop a federal investigation of a construction firm. He served 6 months in prison for perjury. (1973) [70][71]
  • Bertram Podell (D-New York), pleaded guilty to conspiracy and conflict of interest. He was fined $5,000 and served four months in prison. (1974)[72]
  • Frank Brasco (D-New York) Sentenced to three months in jail and fined $10,000 for conspiracy to accept bribes from a reputed Mafia figure who sought truck leasing contracts from the Post Office and loans to buy trucks.[63]
  • Richard T. Hanna (D-CA), convicted in an influence-buying scandal. (1974)[73]

1969–1974 (Nixon (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

  • Watergate (1972–1973) Republican 'bugging' of the Democratic Party National Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel led to a burglary which was discovered. The cover up of the affair by President Richard Nixon (R) and his staff resulted in 69 government officials being charged and 48 pleading guilty, including 7 for actual burglary. Eventually, Nixon resigned his position.[74]
  1. John N. Mitchell (R) former Attorney General, convicted of perjury.[75]
  • Spiro Agnew (R) Former Vice President, convicted of income-tax evasion.[76]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Cornelius Gallagher (D-New Jersey) pleaded guilty to tax evasion, and served two years in prison.[77]
  • J. Irving Whalley (R-Pennsylvania) Received suspended three-year sentence and fined $11,000 in 1973 for using mails to deposit staff salary kickbacks and threatening an employee to prevent her from giving information to the FBI.[63]
  • Martin B. McKneally (R-New York) Placed on one-year probation and fined $5,000 in 1971 for failing to file income tax return. He had not paid taxes for many years prior.[78]
  • James Fred Hastings (R-NY) Resigned on January 20, 1976 after being convicted of kickbacks and mail fraud. He served 14 months at Allenwood penitentiary (1976).[69]

1963–1969 (Lyndon B. Johnson (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Ted Kennedy Senator (D-Massachusetts) drove his car into the channel between Chappaquiddick Island and Martha's Vineyard, killing passenger Mary Jo Kopechne. Kennedy pleaded guilty to leaving the scene of an accident and received a suspended sentence of two months [79] (1969)
  • Daniel Brewster (D-Maryland) Senator pleaded no contest to accepting " an unlawful gratuity without corrupt intent ".[80]
  • Frank W. Boykin Congressman (D-AL) was convicted of conspiracy and conflict of interest in July 1963.[81]

1961–1963 (Kennedy (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Thomas F. Johnson (D-Maryland) was convicted of conspiracy and conflict of interest regarding the receipt of illegal gratuities.[82]
  • Frank Boykin (D-Alabama) Was placed on probation and fined $40,000 following conviction in a case involving a conflict of interest and conspiracy to defraud the government. He was pardoned by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965.[83]

1953–1961 (Eisenhower (R) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Thomas J. Lane (D-Massachusetts) convicted for evading taxes on his congressional income. Served 4 months in prison, but was re-elected three more times.[84] before his 1962 defeat due to re-districting. (1956) [85]
  • Ernest K. Bramblett (R-California) Received a suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine in 1955 for making false statements in connection with payroll padding and kickbacks from congressional employees.[86]

1945–1953 (Truman (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Walter E. Brehm (R-Ohio) convicted of accepting contributions illegally from one of his employees. Received a 15-month suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine.[87]
  • J. Parnell Thomas (R-New Jersey): a member of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), was convicted of salary fraud and given an 18-month sentence and a fine, resigning from Congress in 1950. He was imprisoned in Danbury Prison with two of the Hollywood Ten he had helped put there. After serving his 18 months he was pardoned by Truman (D) in 1952,[88]
  • Andrew J. May (D-Kentucky) Convicted of accepting bribes in 1947 from a war munitions manufacturer. Was sentenced to 9 months in prison, after which he was pardoned by Truman (D) in 1952.[89]
  • James M. Curley (D-Massachusetts) fined $1,000 and served six-months for fraud before Harry S. Truman commuted the rest of his sentence.[90]

1933–1945 (Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • John H. Hoeppel (D-CA) convicted in 1936 of selling an appointment to the West Point Military Academy. He was fined $1,000 and sentenced to 4–12 months in jail.[91]

1929-1933 (Hoover (R) presidency)[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

  • Harry E. Rowbottom, (R-IN) was convicted in Federal court of accepting bribes from persons who sought post office appointments. He served one year in Leavenworth.(1931)[92]

1923–1929 Coolidge (R) Administration[edit]

  • John W. Langley (R-KY) Resigned from the US Congress in January 1926, after losing an appeal to set aside his conviction of violating the Volstead Act (Prohibition). He’d also been caught trying to bribe a Prohibition officer. He was sentenced to two years after which, his wife ran for Congress in his place and won two full terms.[93][94]

1921–1923 Harding (R) presidency[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

The Harding administration was marred by scandals stemming from his appointment of men in his administration whom he had known in Ohio. They came to be known as the Ohio Gang. They include;

  1. Albert Fall (R) Secretary of the Interior who was bribed by Harry F. Sinclair for control of the Teapot Dome federal oil reserves in Wyoming. He was the first U.S. cabinet member to ever be convicted; he served two years in prison. (1922) [95]

1901-1909 (Theodore Roosevelt (R) presidency)[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1891-1895 (McKinley (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

  • Oregon US Federal District Attorney John Hicklin Hall (R) was appointed by President William McKinley. In 1903, Hall was ordered to investigate land fraud in what became known as the Oregon land fraud scandal and was put on trial for failing to prosecute land companies engaging in fraudulent activities, and for using his knowledge of illegal activities to blackmail his political opponents. On February 8, 1908, a jury found Hall guilty of the charges.(1907)[100] He was later pardoned by President William Howard Taft.[101]

1777–1868[edit]

Judges[edit]

  • Samuel B. Kent (R), Federal District Judge of the Galveston Division of the U.S. Southern District of Texas, was sentenced May 11, 2009, to 33 months in prison for having lied about sexually harassing two female employees. (2009) [104]
  • Thomas Porteous (D), Federal Judge of the U.S. Eastern District of Louisiana was impeached, convicted and removed from office December 8, 2010, on charges of bribery and lying to Congress. (2010)[105][106]
  • Senior Federal U.S. District Court Jack Camp (R) was arrested in an undercover drug bust while trying to purchase cocaine from an FBI agent. Judge Jack T. Camp resigned his position after pleading guilty to three criminal charges. He was sentenced to 30 days in jail, 400 community service hours and fined.[107][108][109]
  • Alcee Hastings (D-Florida), Federal District court judge impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate of soliciting a bribe (1989).[112] Subsequently elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1992)
  • Harry Claiborne (D-Nebraska), Federal District court Judge impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate on two counts of tax evasion. He served over one year in prison.[113]

See also[edit]

Federal politicians:

State and local politics:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/24/us/david-petraeus-to-be-sentenced-in-leak-investigation.html?rref=us&module=Ribbon&version=context&region=Header&action=click&contentCollection=U.S.&pgtype=article
  2. ^ a b Christina Wilkie (24 December 2014). "Rep. Michael Grimm Pleads Guilty To Felony Tax Fraud". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2-14-12-23.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. ^ Debenedetti, Gabriel (November 20, 2013). "Florida Congressman Radel gets probation on cocaine charge". Yahoo! News. Reuters. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  4. ^ Mike Levine; Maryalice Parks (November 21, 2013). "Florida Rep. Trey Radel to Take Leave of Absence After Cocaine Charge". Good Morning America. 
  5. ^ King, Ledyard (January 28, 2014). "Rep. Trey Radel to resign from Congress". USA Today. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  6. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (February 20, 2013). "Jesse Jackson Jr. Pleads Guilty: 'I Lived Off My Campaign'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  7. ^ Michael J. Sniffen and Matt Apuzzo (Associated Press),"Libby Found Guilty in CIA Leak Trial: Ex-Cheney Aide Libby Found Guilty of Obstruction, Perjury, Lying to the FBI in CIA Leak Case", ABC News, March 6, 2007
  8. ^ Cook, Dave (November 13, 2009). "Former Representative William Jefferson Sentenced to 13 years in Prison". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  9. ^ Radelat, Ana (January 11, 2006). "Former congressional aide pleads guilty to bribery". USA Today. Gannett News Service. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  10. ^ Schmidt, Susan; Grimaldi, James V. (January 20, 2007). "Ney Sentenced to 30 Months In Prison for Abramoff Deals". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  11. ^ Babcock, Charles R.; Weisman, Jonathan (November 29, 2005). "Congressman Admits Taking Bribes, Resigns". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  12. ^ "Ballance completes federal sentence". WRAL-TV News. June 22, 2009. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  13. ^ "Janklow sentenced to 100 days in jail". USA Today. Associated Press. January 21, 2004. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  14. ^ Gillispie, Mark (September 27, 2014). "Convicted ex-congressman James Traficant dies at 73". PBS NewsHour. Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  15. ^ Susan Schmidt (December 15, 2007). "Republican With Links to Abramoff Is Sentenced". Washington Post. 
  16. ^ Former Navy official receives 37 months in prison in child porn case; Los Angeles Times; May 4, 2009
  17. ^ Navy Hero from Vietnam Stripped of Medal; San Diego Union-Tribune; July 28, 2011
  18. ^ O'Connor, Matt (April 17, 1997). "Reynolds Found Guilty On 15 Of 16 Fraud Counts". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  19. ^ Rosenzweig, David. "Tucker Gets Prison Term for Extortion". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  20. ^ Broderick, Chris (January 29, 2009). "Wes Cooley indicted on federal fraud charges". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  21. ^ "Wes Cooley, former Oregon congressman, sentenced to federal prison for tax fraud". The Oregonian. Associated Press. December 11, 2012. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  22. ^ Heltzel, Bill (May 25, 1999). "Election fraud indictment credited to minor official". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  23. ^ Krause, Clifford (April 16, 1992). "House bank scandal backfires on GOP". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  24. ^ "Lukens Convicted of Taking Bribes". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. March 16, 1996. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  25. ^ "Former Congressman Perkins is Charged, Agrees to Plead Guilty" (Press release). Department of Justice. December 13, 1994. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  26. ^ "Ex-Lawmaker, Wife Admit Misusing Funds". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. April 6, 1994. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  27. ^ "Ex-Rep. Oakar Will Admit Breaking Law". Los Angeles Times. September 30, 1997. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  28. ^ "Former Delegate Fauntroy is Charged, Agrees to Plead Guilty" (Press release). Department of Justice. March 22, 1995. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  29. ^ Labaton, Stephen (July 20, 1993). "House Aide Links a Top Lawmaker to Embezzlement". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  30. ^ Jackson, Robert L. (April 10, 1996). "Rostenkowski Pleads Guilty, Gets Prison". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  31. ^ "Ex-house Member Gets 6 Months In Stamp Scandal". Orlando Sentinel. August 1, 1996. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  32. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, August 1, 1996, "Ex-congressman Gets 6 Months in Prison"
  33. ^ "National News Briefs; Congressman Sentenced For Taking Illegal Funds". The New York Times. March 10, 1998. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  34. ^ "Former United States Treasurer Gets Prison Term for Tax Fraud". The New York Times. September 14, 1994. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  35. ^ Abel, David (December 26, 2003). "Nicholas Movroules, at 74: served 7 terms in US House". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  36. ^ Laidler, John (December 26, 2003). "Peabody set to honor Mavroules, Scandal tainted years of service". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  37. ^ "Ex-Rep. Bustamante Sentenced to 3 1/2 Years for Racketeering". Los Angeles Times. Reuters. October 2, 1993. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  38. ^ "Durenberger Denounced By Senate On 96-0 Vote". Orlando Sentinel. July 23, 1990. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  39. ^ DeHaven, Tad. "HUD Scandals". Cato Institute. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  40. ^ "James Watt Draws a Fine But Not Jail". The New York Times. March 13, 1996. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  41. ^ Traub, James (July 27, 1990). "Too Good to Be True: The Outlandish Story of Wedtech". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  42. ^ "Biaggi Indicted in Wedtech Case: Congressman, Son, 5 Others Charged With Racketeering". work=Los Angeles Times. June 3, 1987. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  43. ^ "Ex-Rep. Garcia, Wife Sentenced to 3-Year Terms in Wedtech Case". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. January 20, 1990. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  44. ^ https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/source.htm
  45. ^ Walsh, Lawrence E. (August 4, 1993). "Final Report of the Independent Counsel For Iran/Contra Matters Vol. I: Investigations and Prosecutions". Summary of Prosecutions. U. S. Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia.
  46. ^ Guide to Federal Records, Michael Deaver". National Archives. http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/449.html#449.6.
  47. ^ Washington Post, March 16, 1996, "Lukens Convicted of Taking Bribes"
  48. ^ "Abscam Scandal". Nndb.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  49. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, November 11, 2001, "Ex-Senator Harrison Williams Jr. Dies" by Douglas Martin,
  50. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, April 6, 1985, "Around the Nation" by the AP.
  51. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, August 26, 2005, "Richard Kelly, 81, Congressman Who Went to Prison in Scandal, Dies" by Wolfgang Saxon,
  52. ^ http://www.nytimes, December 3, 2008, "Raymond Lederer, Abscam Figure, Is Dead at 70 " by the AP
  53. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, June 23, 1983, "Around the Nation" by UPI
  54. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, July 24, 1989, "Frank thompson, 70 Career in Congress Ended with Abscam" by Joseph Fried
  55. ^ "Abscam conspirator begins prison term", The New York Times, 16 July 1983.
  56. ^ New York Times (August 6, 1988) "Biaggi Quits, Will Not Seek an 11th Term"
  57. ^ The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, November 22, 2009, "Pat Swindall fights in court on multiple fronts" by Steve Visser
  58. ^ "Pat Swindall", congressionalbadboys.com.
  59. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. George v. Hansen, Defendant-appellant.united States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. John F. Scoresby, Defendant-appellant - 19 F.3d 30 - Justia US Court of Appeals Cases and Opinions". Cases.justia.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  60. ^ http://www.nytimes, October 23, 1987, "Life After Jail; Politicians Get Help From Their Friends" by Frank Lynn
  61. ^ Lyons, Richard D. (1994-05-29). "Daniel Flood, 90, Who Quit Congress in Disgrace, Is Dead - Obituary; Biography". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  62. ^ [1] Censure Citations
  63. ^ a b c http://books.google.com/books?id=aQTKaXdhSUgC&pg=PA403&lpg=PA403&dq=frank+m.+clark+convicted&source=bl&ots=8_weFEcZN8&sig=JM0i7QEFUWdrwq7cVPD9h87HlsU&hl=en&ei=fTE1TNzMCIXGlQegsoDTBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=frank%20m.%20clark%20convicted&f=false, Paul B. Beers, "Pennsylvania politics today and yesterday: the tolerable accommodation", p.403.
  64. ^ "Heading South", Page Six, New York Post, February 24, 2009
  65. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, August 26, 1998, "Charles Diggs, 75, Congressman Censured Over Kickbacks" by Byron Molotsky
  66. ^ Lawrence Binda, "The Big Bad Book of Mike", p.44.
  67. ^ Beaver County Times - Dec 15, 1985
  68. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Richard A. Tonry, Defendant-appellant - 605 F.2d 144 - Justia US Court of Appeals Cases and Opinions". Cases.justia.com. 1979-10-09. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  69. ^ a b "U.S. is Suing Legislator to Get $50,000 Returned," New York Times, Mar. 27, 1977
  70. ^ St. Petersburg Times.com, January 23, 1974, "Congressman Ordered to Prison" by UPI
  71. ^ Washington Observer, April 15, 1973.
  72. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com, August 22, 2005, Obituary, "Convicted Politician Bertram Podell, 79"
  73. ^ http://www.latimes, June 13, 2001, "Richard Hanna: Congressman Sent to Prison in Bribery Scandal" by David Haldane [2]
  74. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, October 30, 2005, "Ideas and Trends: When Criminal Charges Hit the White House" by Bill Marsh
  75. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com, November 10, 1988, "John N. Mitchell, Principal in Watergate, Dies at 75" by Lawrence Meyer
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