List of American federal politicians convicted of crimes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This list consists of American politicians convicted of crimes either committed or prosecuted while holding office in the federal government. It includes politicians who were convicted or pleaded guilty in a court of law; and does not include politicians involved in unprosecuted scandals (which may or may not have been illegal in nature), or politicians who have only been arrested or indicted. The list also does not include crimes which occur outside the politician’s tenure unless they specifically stem from acts while they were in office.

Although the convicted politicians are arranged by presidential terms starting with the most recent, many of the crimes have little or no connection to who is President.

2009– (Barack Obama (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

  • Senator Mike Crapo (R-ID) was arrested on December 23, 2012 and later pleaded guilty to drinking and driving in a Virginia court. The court fined him 250 dollars. He was sentenced to 180 days in prison, but served no time. (2013)[1][2][3]
  • Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D-IL) pleaded guilty on February 20, 2013 to one count of wire and mail fraud in connection with his misuse of $750,000 of campaign funds. Jackson was sentenced to two and half years imprisonment. (2013)[4]
  • Rick Renzi (R-AZ) on June 12, 2013 was found guilty of 17 of the 32 counts against him, including wire fraud, conspiracy, extortion, racketeering, money laundering and making false statements to insurance regulators. (2013)[5]
  • Trey Radel (R-FL) was convicted of misdemeanor possession of cocaine in November, 2013. As a first time offender, he was sentenced to one year probation and fined $250. Radel announced he would take a leave of absence, but did not resign. Later, under pressure from a number of Republican leaders, he announced through a spokesperson that he would do so. (2013)[6][7][8][9]

Judicial Branch[edit]

2001–2009 (George W. Bush (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • William J. Jefferson (D-LA) in August 2005 the FBI seized $90,000 in cash from Jefferson's home freezer. He was re-elected anyway, but lost in 2008. He was convicted of 11 counts of bribery and sentenced to 13 years in prison on November 13, 2009. (2009)[13] Jefferson's Chief of Staff Brett Pfeffer, was sentenced to 84 months for bribery. (2006) [14]
  • Vito Fossella (R-NY) US Congressman convicted of drunken driving in 2008, appealed the charge, but then pled guilty in 2009.[15]
  • Jack Abramoff CNMI scandal involves the efforts of Abramoff to influence Congressional action concerning U.S. immigration and minimum wage laws. See Executive branch convictions. Congressmen convicted in the Abramoff scandal include:
  1. Bob Ney (R-OH) pleaded guilty to conspiracy and making false statements as a result of his receiving trips from Abramoff in exchange for legislative favors. Ney received 30 months in prison. (2007)[16]
  • Senator Larry Craig (R-ID) Married Senator and vocal critic of Clinton's affair, pled guilty to disorderly conduct in a Minneapolis airport men's room, after having been arrested on a charge of homosexual lewd conduct.(2007) [17]
  • Duke Cunningham (R-CA) pleaded guilty on November 28, 2005 to charges of conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, wire fraud and tax evasion in what came to be called the Cunningham scandal. Sentenced to over eight years in prison. (2005)[18]
  • Frank Ballance (D-NC) admitted to federal charges of money laundering and mail fraud in October 2005 and was sentenced to 4 years in prison. (2005)[19]
  • Bill Janklow (R-SD) convicted of second-degree manslaughter for running a stop sign and killing a motorcyclist. Resigned from the House and given 100 days in the county jail and three years probation. (2003)[20]
  • Jim Traficant (D-OH) found guilty on 10 felony counts of financial corruption was sentenced to 8 years in prison and expelled from the US House of Representatives. (2002) [21]


Judicial branch[edit]

1993–2001 (Clinton (D) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Mel Reynolds (D-IL) was convicted on 12 counts of sexual assault, obstruction of justice and solicitation of child pornography. (1997) Was later convicted of 12 counts of bank fraud. (1999) [22]
  • Walter R. Tucker III (D-CA) was sentenced to 27 months in prison in 1996 for extortion and tax evasion. (1995)
  • Wes Cooley (R-OR), Cooley was convicted of having lied on the 1994 voter information pamphlet about his service in the Army. He was fined and sentenced to two years probation (1997)[23]
  • Austin Murphy (D-PA) convicted of one count of voter fraud for filling out absentee ballots for members of a nursing home. (1999) [24]
  • House banking scandal [25] The House of Representatives Bank found that 450 members had overdrawn their checking accounts, but not been penalized. Six were convicted of charges, most only tangentially related to the House Bank itself. Twenty two more of the most prolific over-drafters were singled out by the House Ethics Committee. (1992)
  1. Buz Lukens (R-Ohio) convicted of bribery and conspiracy.[26]
  2. Carl C. Perkins (D-Kentucky) pleaded guilty to a check kiting scheme involving several financial institutions (including the House Bank).[27]
  3. Carroll Hubbard (D-Kentucky) convicted of illegally funneling money to his wife's 1992 campaign to succeed him in congress.[28]
  4. Mary Rose Oakar (D-Ohio) pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor campaign finance charge not related to the House Bank.[29]
  5. Walter Fauntroy (D-District of Columbia) convicted of filing false disclosure forms in order to hide unauthorized income.[30]
  1. Dan Rostenkowski (D-IL) Rostenkowski was convicted and sentenced to 18 months in prison, in 1995.[32]
  2. Joe Kolter (D-Pennsylvania) Convicted of one count of conspiracy [33] and sentenced to 6 months in prison.[34]
  • Jay Kim (R-CA) accepted $250,000 in illegal 1992 campaign contributions and was sentenced to two months house arrest (1992) [35]

1989–1993 (George H. W. Bush (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Nicholas Mavroules (D-Massachusetts) convicted of extortion, accepting illegal gifts and failing to report them on congressional disclosure and income tax forms. Mavroules pleaded guilty to fifteen counts in April 1993 and was sentenced to a fifteen-month prison term. (1993) [37][38][39]
  • Albert Bustamante (D-Texas) convicted of accepting bribes. (1993) [40]
  • David Durenberger Senator (R-Minnesota) denounced by Senate for unethical financial transactions and then disbarred (1990). He pleaded guilty to misuse of public funds and given one year probation (1995) [41]

Judicial Branch[edit]

1981–1989 (Reagan (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

  1. James G. Watt (R) United States Secretary of the Interior, 1981–1983, charged with 25 counts of perjury and obstruction of justice. Sentenced to five years probation, fined $5,000 and 500 hours of community service[45]
  2. Deborah Gore Dean, (R) Executive Assistant to (Samuel Pierce, Secretary of HUD 1981–1987, and not charged). Dean was convicted of 12 counts of perjury, conspiracy, bribery. Sentenced to 21 months in prison (1987).[46]
  3. Phillip D. Winn (R) Assistant Secretary of HUD, 1981–1982, pleaded guilty to bribery in 1994.[46]
  4. Thomas Demery, (R) Assistant Secretary of HUD, pleaded guilty to bribery and obstruction.[46]
  5. Joseph A. Strauss, (R) Special Assistant to the Secretary of HUD, convicted for accepting payments to favor Puerto Rican land developers in receiving HUD funding.[47]
  • Wedtech scandal Wedtech Corporation convicted of bribery for Defense Department contracts.[48]
  1. Mario Biaggi (D-New York) sentenced to 2½ years. (1987)[49]
  2. Robert Garcia (D-New York) sentenced to 2½ years.[50]
  • Iran-Contra Affair (1985–1986); A secret sale of arms to Iran, to secure the release of hostages and allow U.S. intelligence agencies to fund the Nicaraguan Contras, in violation of the Boland Amendment.[51]
  1. Caspar Weinberger (R) United States Secretary of Defense, was indicted on two counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice on June 16, 1992. [14]. Weinberger received a pardon before his trial from George H. W. Bush on December 24, 1992.[52]
  2. Robert C. McFarlane (R) National Security Adviser, convicted of withholding evidence. Given 2 years probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush[53]
  3. John Poindexter (R) National Security Advisor, was convicted on April 7, 1990 for his role in the Iran-Contra Affair. The convictions were reversed in 1991 on appeal .[54]
  4. Oliver North (R) Member of the National Security Council, was fired by President Reagan on the same day Poindexter resigned.[55][56] North was found guilty of perjury and conspiracy, but the charges were overturned on appeal.
  5. Elliott Abrams (R) Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, convicted of withholding evidence. Given 2 years probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush.[57] http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/summpros.htm.
#Rita Lavelle (R), assistant EPA Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency misused ‘superfund' monies and was convicted of perjury. She served six months in prison, was fined $10,000 and given five years probation. (1984) [59]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Donald E. "Buz" Lukens (R-Ohio), Convicted of two counts of bribery and conspiracy. (1996) [60] See also Sex scandals.
  • Abscam FBI sting involving fake 'Arabs' trying to bribe 31 congressmen.(1980) [61] The following Congressmen were convicted:
  1. Harrison A. Williams Senator (D-New Jersey) Convicted on 9 counts of bribery and conspiracy. Sentenced to 3 years in prison.[62]
  2. John Jenrette Representative (D-South Carolina) sentenced to two years in prison for bribery and conspiracy.[63]
  3. Richard Kelly (R-Florida) Accepted $25K and then claimed he was conducting his own investigation into corruption. Served 13 months.[64]
  4. Raymond Lederer (D-Pennsylvania) "I can give you me" he said after accepting $50K. Sentenced to 3 years.[65]
  5. Michael Myers (D-Pennsylvania) Accepted $50K saying, "...money talks and bullshit walks." Sentenced to 3 years and was expelled from the House.[66]
  6. Frank Thompson (D-New Jersey) Sentenced to 3 years.[67]
  7. John M. Murphy (D-New York) Served 20 months of a 3-year sentence.[68]
  • Mario Biaggi (D-New York), Convicted of obstruction of justice and accepting illegal gratuities he was sentenced to 2½ years in prison and fined $500K for his role in the Wedtech scandal, see above. Just before expulsion from the House, he resigned. The next year he was convicted of another 15 counts of obstruction and bribery. (1988) [69]
  • Pat Swindall (R-Georgia) convicted of 6 counts of perjury. (1989) [70][71]
  • George V. Hansen (R-Idaho) censured for failing to file out disclosure forms. Spent 15 months in prison.[72]
  • Frederick W. Richmond (D-New York),Convicted of tax evasion and possession of marijuana. Served 9 months (1982) [73]
  • Dan Flood (D-Pennsylvania) censured for bribery. After a trial ended in a deadlocked jury, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to a year's probation.[74][75]
  • Joshua Eilberg (D-Pennsylvania) pleaded guilty to conflict-of-interest charges. In addition, he convinced president Carter to fire the U.S. Attorney investigating his case.[76]

Judicial branch scandals[edit]

  • Alcee Hastings (D-Florida), Federal District court judge impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate of soliciting a bribe (1989).[77] Subsequently elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1992)
  • Harry Claiborne (D-Nebraska), Federal District court Judge impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate on two counts of tax evasion. He served over one year in prison.[78]

1977–1981 (Carter (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Fred Richmond (D-New York) – Convicted of tax fraud and possession of marijuana. Served 9 months in prsion. Charges of soliciting sex from a 16-year-old boy were dropped after he submitted to counseling. (1978) [79]
  • Charles Diggs (D-Michigan), convicted on 29 charges of mail fraud and filing false payroll forms which formed a kickback scheme with his staff. Sentenced to 3 years (1978) [80]
  • Michael Myers (D-Pennsylvania) Received suspended six-month jail term after pleading no contest to disorderly conduct charged stemming from an incident at a Virginia bar in which he allegedly attacked a hotel security guard and a cashier.[81]
  • Frank M. Clark (D-Pennsylvania) pleaded guilty to mail fraud and tax evasion on June 12, 1979 and sentenced to two years in prison.[82]
  • Koreagate scandal involving alleged bribery of more than 30 members of Congress by the South Korean government represented by Tongsun Park.[83]
  • Richard Tonry (D-Louisiana) pleaded guilty to receiving illegal campaign contributions.[84]

1974–1977 (Ford (R) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • James F. Hastings (R-New York), convicted of kickbacks and mail fraud, he also took money from his employees for personal use. Served 14 months at Allenwood penitentiary. (1976) [85]
  • John V. Dowdy (D-Texas), Allegedly tried to stop a federal invesitgation of a construction firm. He served 6 months in prison for perjury. (1973) [86][87]
  • Bertram Podell (D-New York), pleaded guilty to conspiracy and conflict of interest. He was fined $5,000 and served four months in prison. (1974)[88]
  • Frank Brasco (D-New York) Sentenced to three months in jail and fined $10,000 for conspiracy to accept bribes from a reputed Mafia figure who sought truck leasing contracts from the Post Office and loans to buy trucks.[76]
  • Richard T. Hanna (D-CA), convicted in an influence-buying scandal. (1974)[89]

1969–1974 (Nixon (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

  • Watergate (1972–1973) Republican 'bugging' of the Democratic Party National Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel led to a burglary which was discovered. The cover up of the affair by President Richard Nixon (R) and his staff resulted in 69 government officials being charged and 48 pleading guilty, including 7 for actual burglary. Eventually, Nixon resigned his position.[90]
  1. John N. Mitchell (R) former Attorney General, convicted of perjury.[91]
  2. Frederick C. LaRue (R) Advisor to John Mitchell, convicted of obstruction of justice.[92]
  3. Richard Kleindienst (R) Attorney General, found guilty of "refusing to answer questions" given one month in jail.[93]
  4. H. R. Haldeman (R) Chief of Staff for Nixon, convicted of perjury [94]
  5. John Ehrlichman (R) Counsel to Nixon, convicted of perjury.[95]
  6. Egil Krogh (R) Aide to John Ehrlichman, sentenced to 6 months.[92]
  7. John W. Dean III (R) Counsel to Nixon, convicted of obstruction of justice.[92]
  8. Dwight L. Chapin (R) Deputy Assistant to Nixon, convicted of perjury.[92]
  9. Charles W. Colson (R) Special Consul to Nixon, convicted of obstruction of justice.[93]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Cornelius Gallagher (D-New Jersey) pleaded guilty to tax evasion, and served two years in prison.[96]
  • J. Irving Whalley (R-Pennsylvania) Received suspended three-year sentence and fined $11,000 in 1973 for using mails to deposit staff salary kickbacks and threatening an employee to prevent her from giving information to the FBI.[76]
  • Martin B. McKneally (R-New York) Placed on one-year probation and fined $5,000 in 1971 for failing to file income tax return. He had not paid taxes for many years prior.[97]
  • New York US Representative James Fred Hastings (R-NY) was a delegate to the 1968 Republican National Convention and the 1972 Republican National Convention. He was elected to Congress in 1968 and served from January 3, 1969, until he resigned on January 20, 1976 after being convicted of kickbacks and mail fraud. He served 14 months at Allenwood penitentiary (1976).[85]

1963–1969 (Lyndon B. Johnson (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Ted Kennedy Senator (D-Massachusetts) drove his car into the channel between Chappaquiddick Island and Martha's Vineyard, killing passenger Mary Jo Kopechne. Kennedy pleaded guilty to leaving the scene of an accident and received a suspended sentence of two months [98] (1969)
  • Daniel Brewster (D-Maryland) Senator pleaded no contest to accepting " an unlawful gratuity without corrupt intent ".[99]
  • Frank W. Boykin Congressman (D-AL) was convicted of conspiracy and conflict of interest in July 1963.[100]

1961–1963 (Kennedy (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Thomas F. Johnson (D-Maryland) was convicted of conspiracy and conflict of interest regarding the receipt of illegal gratuities.[101]
  • Frank Boykin (D-Alabama) Was placed on probation and fined $40,000 following conviction in a case involving a conflict of interest and conspiracy to defraud the government. He was pardoned by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965.[102]

1953–1961 (Eisenhower (R) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Thomas J. Lane (D-Massachusetts) convicted for evading taxes on his congressional income. Served 4 months in prison, but was re-elected three more times.[103] before his 1962 defeat due to re-districting. (1956) [104]
  • Ernest K. Bramblett (R-California) Received a suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine in 1955 for making false statements in connection with payroll padding and kickbacks from congressional employees.[105]

1945–1953 (Truman (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • Walter E. Brehm (R-Ohio) convicted of accepting contributions illegally from one of his employees. Received a 15 month suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine.[106]
  • J. Parnell Thomas (R-New Jersey): a member of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), was convicted of salary fraud and given an 18-month sentence and a fine, resigning from Congress in 1950. He was imprisoned in Danbury Prison with two of the Hollywood Ten he had helped put there. After serving his 18 months he was pardoned by Truman (D) in 1952,[107]
  • Andrew J. May (D-Kentucky) Convicted of accepting bribes in 1947 from a war munitions manufacturer. Was sentenced to 9 months in prison, after which he was pardoned by Truman (D) in 1952.[108]
  • James M. Curley (D-Massachusetts) fined $1,000 and served six-months for fraud before Harry S. Truman commuted the rest of his sentence.[109]

1933–1945 (Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) presidency)[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  • John H. Hoeppel (D-CA) convicted in 1936 of selling an appointment to the West Point Military Academy. He was fined $1,000 and sentenced to 4–12 months in jail.[110]

1929-1933 (Herbert Hoover (R) presidency)[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

  • Harry E. Rowbottom, (R-IN) was convicted in Federal court of accepting bribes from persons who sought post office appointments. He served one year in Leavenworth.(1931)[111]

1923–1929 Calvin Coolidge (R) Administration[edit]

  • George English (D) U.S. District Judge of Illinois, impeached for taking an interest-free loan from a bank of which he was director. Resigned before his Senate trial. (1926)[112]
  • John W. Langley (R-KY) Resigned from the US Congress in January 1926, after losing an appeal to set aside his conviction of violating the Volstead Act (Prohibition). He’d also been caught trying to bribe a Prohibition officer. He was sentenced to two years after which, his wife ran for Congress in his place and won two full terms.[113][114]

1921–1923 Warren G. Harding (R) presidency[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

The Harding administration was marred by scandals stemming from his appointment of men in his administration whom he had known in Ohio. They came to be known as the Ohio Gang. They include;

  1. Albert Fall (R) Secretary of the Interior who was bribed by Harry F. Sinclair for control of the Teapot Dome federal oil reserves in Wyoming. He was the first U.S. cabinet member to ever be convicted; he served two years in prison. (1922) [115]
  2. Charles R. Forbes (R) appointed by Harding as the first director of the new Bureau of Veterans Affairs. After constructing and modernizing VA hospitals, he was convicted of bribery and corruption and sentenced to two years in jail.[116]
  3. Thomas W. Miller (R), Head of the Office of Alien Property: convicted of fraud by selling valuable German patents seized after World War I for far below market price as well as bribery. Served 18 months.[117]

1901-1909 (Theodore Roosevelt (R) presidency)[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1891-1895 (William McKinley (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

  • Oregon US Federal District Attorney John Hicklin Hall (R) was appointed by President William McKinley. In 1903, Hall was ordered to investigate land fraud in what became known as the Oregon land fraud scandal and was put on trial for failing to prosecute land companies engaging in fraudulent activities, and for using his knowledge of illegal activities to blackmail his political opponents. On February 8, 1908, a jury found Hall guilty of the charges.(1907)[122] He was later pardoned by President William Howard Taft.[123]

1869–1877 (Grant (R) presidency)[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

  1. John J. McDonald (R) Supervisor of the Internal Revenue Service. Convicted and sentenced to three years.[124][125]

1777–1868[edit]

  • John Pickering, Federal Judge appointed by George Washington was impeached and convicted in absentia by the U.S. Senate for drunkenness and use of profanity on the bench in spite of the fact neither act was a high crime or misdemeanor. (1804)[128]

See also[edit]

Federal politicians:

State and local politics:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2013/01/04/179031/idaho-sen-mike-crapo-pleads-guilty.html#.UgXE2WQae0w
  2. ^ http://guardianlv.com/2013/01/idaho-senator-joe-crapo-convicted-in-a-virginia-court/
  3. ^ Horowitz, Jason (January 5, 2013). "Sen. Mike Crapo pleads guilty to drunken driving". The Washington Post. 
  4. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (February 20, 2013). "Jesse Jackson Jr. Pleads Guilty in Campaign Money Case". The New York Times. 
  5. ^ "Former GOP Rep Convicted On Corruption Charges". Huffington Post. June 11, 2013. 
  6. ^ November 19, 2013, Florida Rep. Trey Radel Charged With Cocaine Possession by Scott Neuman [1]
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ abc.news, November 11, 2013, ‘Florida Rep. Trey Radel to Take Leave of Absence After Cocaine Charge by MIKE LEVINE and MARYALICE PARKS [3]
  9. ^ http://www.tcpalm.com/news/2014/jan/27/spokesman-announces-us-rep-trey-radel-resign/
  10. ^ Powell, Stewart (2009-06-19). "U.S. House impeaches Kent". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/front/6488310.html. Retrieved 2009-06-19. (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5hfRJRw37)
  11. ^ Michael A. Memoli (2010-12-09). "Senate convicts Louisiana federal judge in impeachment trial". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-12-09. "The Senate also voted to bar him from ever holding public office in the future... The vote on the first count was unanimous, 96-0. On subsequent counts, the votes were 69-27, 88-8, and 90-6. Impeachment required a vote of two-thirds of the Senate." 
  12. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/dec/8/senate-convicts-la-judge-impeachment-charge/
  13. ^ Christian Science Monitor, www.csmonitor, Nov. 13, 2009, "Former Representative William Jefferson Sentenced to 13 years in Prison" by Dave Cook
  14. ^ AnaGannett News Service, 1/11/2006, "Former congressional aide pleads guilty to bribery" by Ana Radelat
  15. ^ "Ex-Rep. Fossella Pleads Guilty to DUI". Fox News. April 13, 2009. 
  16. ^ Schmidt, Susan; Grimaldi, James V. (January 20, 2007). "Ney Sentenced to 30 Months In Prison for Abramoff Deals". The Washington Post. 
  17. ^ Murphy, Patti; David Stout (2007-08-29). "Idaho Senator Says He Regrets Guilty Plea in Restroom Incident". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/29/washington/29craig.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
  18. ^ Babcock, Charles R.; Weisman, Jonathan (November 29, 2005). "Congressman Admits Taking Bribes, Resigns - washingtonpost.com". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-12-03. 
  19. ^ http://www.abclocal.go.com, October 12, 2005, "Former Congressman Frank Ballamce Sentenced" by AP and Eyewitness News, [4]
  20. ^ probationhttp://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/2003/12/05_hetlandc_janklowdefense/
  21. ^ http://www.CNN.com, LawCenter, April 12, 2002
  22. ^ http://www.cnn.com, November 7, 1996, "ExCongressman Reynolds Wife Indicted for Fraud
  23. ^ ^ Walsh, Edward (2009-01-29). "Wes Cooley indicted on federal fraud charges". Oregonian. http://www.oregonlive.com/politics/index.ssf/2009/01/wes_cooley_indicted_on_federal.html.
  24. ^ "Post-Gazette.com". Nl.newsbank.com. 1999-05-25. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  25. ^ "The 22 Worst". USA Today. April 17, 1992.
  26. ^ http://cincinnati.com/blogs/politics/2010/05/21/dispatch-buz-lukens-near-death/
  27. ^ http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/Pre_96/December94/697.txt.html
  28. ^ Associated Press (January 2, 1974). "Carroll Hubbard announces for Representative's seat". Kentucky New Era. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=FO4rAAAAIBAJ&sjid=42gFAAAAIBAJ&pg=4016,969049. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
  29. ^ http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/Pre_96/February95/102.txt.html
  30. ^ http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/Pre_96/March95/153.txt.html
  31. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, July 20, 1993, "House Aide Links a Top Lawmaker to Embezzlement" by Stephen Labaton
  32. ^ http://www.usnews.com, May 5, 1994, Money and Business, "Rosentkowski's Last Stand" by Gloria Borger
  33. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com, May 8, 1996, "Kolter Guilty in Post Office Scandal" by Toni Locy
  34. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, August 1, 1996, "Ex-congressman Gets 6 Months in Prison"
  35. ^ "Kim Pleads Guilty to Illegal Donations", Asian Week, August 1998.
  36. ^ Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of Justice, "Former U.S. Treasurer Sentenced", (press release) DOJ.gov (September 1994).
  37. ^ http://www.boston.com, 12/26/03, "Nicholas Movroules, at 74: served 7 terms in US House" by David Abel, [5]
  38. ^ http://www.boston.com, May 4, 2006, “Peabody set to honor Mavroules , Scandal tainted years of service” by John Laidler, Globe Correspondent, [6]
  39. ^ articles.latimes.com, December 27, 2003, “N. Mavroules, 74; 7-Term Congressman From Massachusetts” by Times Staff and Wire Reports, [7]
  40. ^ "A Guide to the Albert Bustamante Papers".
  41. ^ ^ David Durenberger at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  42. ^ "Nation IN BRIEF : LOUISIANA : Federal Judge Gets 6 Years in Bribe Plot". Los Angeles Times. September 7, 1991. 
  43. ^ http://www.jfc.gov/searchlet/tgetinfo?jid=1772 Walter Nixon at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
  44. ^ "HUD Scandals". Downsizing The Federal Government. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  45. ^ RollingStone.com, November 18, 2003, "Crimes Against Nature" by Robert F. Kennedy Jr.
  46. ^ a b c http://www.nytimes.com, October 27, 1993, "Ex-Official Convicted in HUD Scandal of 80's" by Stephan Labaton
  47. ^ Washington Post, October 15, 1999, "Strauss Convicted" by Toni Locy
  48. ^ "The Outlandish Story of Wedtech". Entertainment Weekly. July 27, 1990. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  49. ^ Washington Post, August 5, 1988, "Rep. Biaggi, 4 Others Guilty in Wedtech Case" by George Lardner Jr.
  50. ^ Washington Post, October 21, 1989, "Rep. Garcia, Wife Indicted" by Howard Kurtz and Laurie Goodstein
  51. ^ http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/source.htm
  52. ^ FAS.org
  53. ^ ^ Pichirallo, Joe (March 12, 1988). "McFarlane Enters Guilty Plea Arising From Iran-Contra Affair; Former Reagan Adviser Withheld Information From Congress". Washington Post.
  54. ^ needs reference
  55. ^ "White House Shake-Up: A Task is Handed to State Dept.; Poindexter and North Have Limited Options". The New York Times. 1986-11-26. Retrieved 2008-06-07. 
  56. ^ "Timeline of Ronald Reagan's life". PBS. 2000. Retrieved 2008-06-07. 
  57. ^ Walsh, Lawrence E. (August 4, 1993). "Final Report of the Independent Counsel For Iran/Contra Matters Vol. I: Investigations and Prosecutions". Summary of Prosecutions. U. S. Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia.
  58. ^ Guide to Federal Records, Michael Deaver". National Archives. http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/449.html#449.6.
  59. ^ "AROUND THE NATION; Conviction of Ex-Official Of E.P.A. Is Upheld". The New York Times. January 19, 1985. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  60. ^ Washington Post, March 16, 1996, "Lukens Convicted of Taking Bribes"
  61. ^ "Abscam Scandal". Nndb.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  62. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, November 11, 2001, "Ex-Senator Harrison Williams Jr. Dies" by Douglas Martin,
  63. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, April 6, 1985, "Around the Nation" by the AP.
  64. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, August 26, 2005, "Richard Kelly, 81, Congressman Who Went to Prison in Scandal, Dies" by Wolfgang Saxon,
  65. ^ http://www.nytimes, December 3, 2008, "Raymond Lederer, Abscam Figure, Is Dead at 70 " by the AP
  66. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, June 23, 1983, "Around the Nation" by UPI
  67. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, July 24, 1989, "Frank thompson, 70 Career in Congress Ended with Abscam" by Joseph Fried
  68. ^ "Abscam conspirator begins prison term", The New York Times, 16 July 1983.
  69. ^ New York Times (August 6, 1988) "Biaggi Quits, Will Not Seek an 11th Term"
  70. ^ The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, November 22, 2009, "Pat Swindall fights in court on multiple fronts" by Steve Visser
  71. ^ "Pat Swindall", congressionalbadboys.com.
  72. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. George v. Hansen, Defendant-appellant.united States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. John F. Scoresby, Defendant-appellant - 19 F.3d 30 - Justia US Court of Appeals Cases and Opinions". Cases.justia.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  73. ^ http://www.nytimes, October 23, 1987, "Life After Jail; Politicians Get Help From Their Friends" by Frank Lynn
  74. ^ Lyons, Richard D. (1994-05-29). "Daniel Flood, 90, Who Quit Congress in Disgrace, Is Dead - Obituary; Biography". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  75. ^ [8] Censure Citations
  76. ^ a b c http://books.google.com/books?id=aQTKaXdhSUgC&pg=PA403&lpg=PA403&dq=frank+m.+clark+convicted&source=bl&ots=8_weFEcZN8&sig=JM0i7QEFUWdrwq7cVPD9h87HlsU&hl=en&ei=fTE1TNzMCIXGlQegsoDTBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=frank%20m.%20clark%20convicted&f=false, Paul B. Beers, "Pennsylvania politics today and yesterday: the tolerable accommodation", p.403.
  77. ^ Johnston, David (October 21, 1989). "Hastings Ousted As Senate Vote Convicts Judge". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  78. ^ "News: Ex-federal judge Claiborne kills self". reviewjournal.com. 2004-01-21. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  79. ^ "Heading South", Page Six, New York Post, February 24, 2009
  80. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, August 26, 1998, "Charles Diggs, 75, Congressman Censured Over Kickbacks" by Byron Molotsky
  81. ^ Lawrence Binda, "The Big Bad Book of Mike", p.44.
  82. ^ Beaver County Times - Dec 15, 1985
  83. ^ "Nation: Rogues' Gallery". Time. February 18, 1980. 
  84. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Richard A. Tonry, Defendant-appellant - 605 F.2d 144 - Justia US Court of Appeals Cases and Opinions". Cases.justia.com. 1979-10-09. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  85. ^ a b "U.S. is Suing Legislator to Get $50,000 Returned," New York Times, Mar. 27, 1977
  86. ^ St. Petersburg Times.com, January 23, 1974, "Congressman Ordered to Prison" by UPI
  87. ^ Washington Observer, April 15, 1973.
  88. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com, August 22, 2005, Obituary, "Convicted Politician Bertram Podell, 79"
  89. ^ http://www.latimes, June 13, 2001, "Richard Hanna: Congressman Sent to Prison in Bribery Scandal" by David Haldane [9]
  90. ^ http://www.nytimes.com, October 30, 2005, "Ideas and Trends: When Criminal Charges Hit the White House" by Bill Marsh
  91. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com, November 10, 1988, "John N. Mitchell, Principal in Watergate, Dies at 75" by Lawrence Meyer
  92. ^ a b c d http://www.time.com, March 11, 1974, "The Nation: The Other Nixon Men"
  93. ^ a b http://www.time.com, June 24, 1977, "The Law: Watergate Bargains: Were They Necessary?"
  94. ^ Washington Post profile of Haldeman
  95. ^ Stout, David (February 16, 1999). "John D. Ehrlichman, Nixon Aide Jailed for Watergate, Dies at 73". The New York Times. 
  96. ^ Political corruption in America: an ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  97. ^ Political corruption in America: an ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  98. ^ Russell, Jenna (2009-02-17). "Chapter 3: Chappaquiddick: Conflicted ambitions, then, Chappaquiddick". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2009/02/17/chapter_3_chappaquiddick/. Retrieved 2009-02-24.
  99. ^ Political corruption in America: an ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  100. ^ Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  101. ^ AP (1988-02-03). "Thomas Johnson, 78 - Lost Post in Congress - Obituary". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  102. ^ "BOYKIN, Frank William - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  103. ^ Viser, Matt (2009-11-04). "Embattled Turner calls easy reelection victory ‘significant’ - The Boston Globe". Boston.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  104. ^ Monday, Jan. 10, 1972 (1972-01-10). "TRIALS: Congressman Convicted". TIME. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  105. ^ Rosenzweig, David (1995-12-09). "Tucker Is Fourth California Congressman to Be Convicted Since 1936 - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  106. ^ e. brehm
  107. ^ J. Parnell Thomas at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  108. ^ Time magazine, "Artful Dodger", December 5, 1949.
  109. ^ http://www.congressionalbadboys.com/BadBoys1945.htm
  110. ^ David Rosenzweig, "Tucker Is Fourth California Congressman to Be Convicted Since 1936," Los Angeles Times, December 9, 1995
  111. ^ nytimes.com, April 15, 1931, ROWBOTTOM GUILTY IN POSTAL JOB SALES; Ex-Indiana Representative Gets Year in Leavenworth on BribeTaking Charges,[10]
  112. ^ George W. English at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
  113. ^ [11]
  114. ^ [12]
  115. ^ "Senate Investigates the "Teapot Dome" Scandal". Historical Minutes: 1921–1940. Art & History, United States Senate. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Senate_Investigates_the_Teapot_Dome_Scandal.htm.
  116. ^ Ohio History Central
  117. ^ http://www.time.com, March 31, 1930, "National Affairs: Ohio Gangster"
  118. ^ "A not-so-proud history". Harrisburg Patriot News, archived at webcite.com. 2009-11-05. 
  119. ^ "Governor Edwin Sydney Stuart". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. 
  120. ^ United States Senate History, Expulsion and Censure
  121. ^ www.kshs.org, 'Joseph Ralph Burton'
  122. ^ Greenberg, Gerald S. (2000). Historical Encyclopedia of U.S. Independent Counsel Investigations. Greenwood Press. pp. 164–166. ISBN 978-0-313-30735-5. 
  123. ^ "List of Politicians Who Were Pardoned". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  124. ^ a b Rives, Timothy, "Grant, Babcock, and the Whiskey Ring," Prologue, Fall 2000, Vol. 32, No. 3.
  125. ^ Rives, Timothy, "Grant, Babcock, and the Whiskey Ring," Prologue, Fall 2000, Vol. 32, No. 3.
  126. ^ Matthew Lyon, the Hampden of Congress by James Fairfax McLaughlin, pg 257
  127. ^ [13][dead link]
  128. ^