List of American women's firsts

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sally Ride was the first American woman to become an astronaut.

This is a list of American women's firsts, noting the first time that an American woman or women achieved a given historical feat. Inclusion on the list is reserved for achievements by American women that have significant historical impact.

Contents

17th century
18th century
19th century: 1820s1830s1840s1850s1860s1870s1880s1890s
20th century: 1900s1910s1920s1930s1940s1950s1960s1970s1980s1990s
21st century: 2000s2010s
See also
References

17th century[edit]

  • 1635
Anne Hutchinson was the first American woman to start a Protestant sect.[1]
  • 1640
Anne Bradstreet was the first poet in the British North American colonies to be published.[2]
  • 1647
Margaret Brent was the first American woman to demand the right to vote.[3]
  • 1649
Mary Hammon and Goodwife Norman were charged with "lewd behavior upon a bed"; they are the first American women to be convicted of lesbian activity.[4]

18th century[edit]

  • 1700s
Henrietta Johnston becomes the first female artist working in the colonies.[5]
  • 1750
Jane Colden was the first woman in America to win distinction as a botanist.[6]
  • 1756
Lydia Taft was the first woman to vote legally in Colonial America after her husband died and son left her; she was granted permission to vote through a Massachusetts town meeting.[7]
  • 1762
Ann Franklin was the first female newspaper editor in America.[8]
  • 1776
Margaret Corbin was the first woman to assume the role of soldier in the American Revolution and receive a pension for it.[9]
  • 1784
Hannah Adams was the first American woman to become a professional writer.[1]

19th century[edit]

  • 1808
Jane Aitken was the first American woman to print the bible in English.[10]
  • 1809
Mary Kies was the first woman to receive a U.S. patent.[11]

1810s[edit]

  • 1812
Lucy Brewer was the first American woman to join the United States Marine Corps.[12]

1820s[edit]

  • 1828
Sarah Hale was the first American woman to be a major women's magazine editor.[13]

1830s[edit]

  • 1835
Harriot Hunt was one of the first woman to practice medicine, "clearly the first to achieve a marked success".[1][14]

1840s[edit]

  • 1846
Susan Bagley was the first woman in America to be a telegraph operator.[14]
Frances Whitcher was the first significant female comic protagonist in America, and the "first best-selling woman humorist".[15][16]
  • 1848
Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman to be elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[17]
  • 1849
Elizabeth Blackwell was the first woman to earn a medical degree in America.[18]

1850s[edit]

  • 1850
Harriet Tubman was the first American woman to run an underground railroad to help slaves escape. Some scholars label her the "Queen of the Underground Railroad".[19]
  • 1853
Antoinette Brown Blackwell was the first woman in America to be ordained as a minister;[20] she was ordained by the Congregational Church.[21]
  • 1855
Anne McDowell was the first American woman to publish a newspaper completely run by women; it was circulated weekly and titled, "Women's Advocate".[22][23]

1860s[edit]

  • 1865
Mary Surratt was the first woman hanged by the federal government; she was hanged for conspiring with John Wilkes Booth in the murder of President Abraham Lincoln.[24]
  • 1866
Mary Walker was the first woman in America to be a recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor.[25]
  • 1866
Lucy Hobbs Taylor was the first woman in America to graduate from dental school.[26]
  • 1869
Arabella Mansfield was the first female lawyer in America; she was admitted to the Iowa bar in 1869.[27]

1870s[edit]

  • 1870
Louisa Ann Swain was the first woman in the United States to vote in a general election. She cast her ballot on September 6th, 1870, in Laramie, Wyoming.[28][29]
  • 1870
Esther Hobart Morris was the first woman in America to serve as Justice of the Peace.[30]
  • 1870
Ada Kepley was the first woman to graduate from law school in America.[31]
  • 1871
Frances Willard (suffragist) was the first American woman to be a college president. She also presided over the Women's Christian Temperance Union[32]
  • 1872
Victoria Woodhull was the first woman to run for United States President.[33]
  • 1873
Ellen Swallow Richards becomes the first women admitted to MIT (which made her the first accepted to any school of science or technology), and the first American woman to earn a degree in Chemistry.[34]
  • 1876
Louise Blanchard Bethune was the first woman to work as a professional architect in America.[35]
  • 1877
Helen Magill White was the first woman in America to earn the Ph.D. degree.[14]
  • 1878
Emma Abbott was the first American woman to form her own opera company.[23]

1880s[edit]

  • 1880
Belva Lockwood became the first woman to argue a case before the U.S. Supreme Court. [36]
  • 1887
Susanna Salter was the first woman to be elected to the office of mayor in the United States.[37]
Phoebe Couzins was the first American woman to serve as a United States Marshal.[38]

1890s[edit]

  • 1891
Marie Owens, born in Canada, was hired as America's first female police officer, joining the Chicago Police Department.[39]
  • 1892
Wilhelmina Weber Furlong was the first American woman Modernist studio painter from the early American Modernism scene in Manhattan, New York [40]
  • 1896
May Irwin was the first actress in America to kiss on screen, which she did in the film The Kiss (1896 film).[41]
  • 1899
Eleonora de Cisneros was the first American trained opera singer the Metropolitan Opera company hired.[42]

20th century[edit]

  • 1900
Margaret Abbott was the first American woman to win first place in an Olympic event. Specifically, she was the first American woman, and the second woman overall, to win first place at the Olympics in golf.[43]
  • 1905
May Sutton was the first American woman to win Wimbledon.[44]
  • 1907
Dorothy Tyler was the first known woman in America to be a jockey.[45]
  • 1908
The first Mother's Day (U.S.) was observed; Anna Jarvis is noted as the driving force for recognition of this holiday.[46]
The first U.S. Navy nurses, known as the Sacred Twenty, were appointed; they were all women, and were the first women to formally serve in the U.S. Navy.[47]
Poet Julia Ward Howe was the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.[48]

1910s[edit]

  • 1910
Alice Stebbins Wells was the first American-born woman to be sworn in as a police officer, which occurred in Los Angeles.[49]
Florence Lawrence was America's first movie star.[50]
  • 1911
Harriet Quimby was the first woman to be licensed as an airplane pilot in America.[51]
  • 1912
Girl Guides of America (now Girl Scouts of the USA) was established as the first voluntary organization for girls.[1]
  • 1914
Caresse Crosby was the first woman to patent a brassiere.[52]
  • 1916
The first birth control clinic was opened by Margaret Sanger.[53][54]
Jeannette Rankin was the first woman in America to be elected to Congress.[55]
  • 1917
Loretta Perfectus Walsh was the first woman to enlist in the United States Navy.[56]
  • 1918
Annette Adams was the first female United States attorney general, "...the highest judicial position any woman in the world had ever held".[57]
Opha Mae Johnson was the first woman to enlist in the United States Marines.[58]
Twin sisters Genevieve and Lucille Baker of the Naval Coastal Defense Reserve were the first uniformed women to serve in the U.S. Coast Guard.[59]
Sara Teasdale was the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry (for her work Love Songs.) [60]

1920s[edit]

  • 1920
Marie Luhring was the first woman in America to become an automotive engineer.[61]
  • 1921
Edith Wharton was the first woman in America to win the Pulitzer Prize.[62]
Margaret Gorman was the first "Miss America".[63][64]
Alice Mary Robertson was the first woman to preside over the House of Representatives; however, she was opposed to women's suffrage.[57]
Zona Gale was the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama (for Miss Lulu Bett.) [65]
  • 1922
Rebecca Felton was sworn in as the first female Senator in the United States.[55]
  • 1924
Juliana R. Force was the first woman to present folk art in an official public showing exhibition in America.
  • 1925
Nellie Tayloe Ross was the first woman in America to be elected governor, and the only one since that has served in Wyoming.[63]
  • 1926
Gertrude Ederle was the first woman to swim across the English Channel.[66]
  • 1928
Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic ocean.[67]
Genevieve R. Cline was the first woman appointed as a United States federal judge.[68]

1930s[edit]

  • 1930
Ellen Church was the first female flight attendant in America. She suggested the idea of female nurses on board to Boeing Air Transport, claiming that if people felt safer they would fly more.[69]
  • 1931
Jane Addams was the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Peace; she shared the prize with Nicholas Murray Butler.[70][71]
  • 1932
Hattie Caraway was the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate.[72]
  • 1933
Francis Perkins was the first woman to serve as a cabinet member, under Franklin Roosevelt, and as such the first woman to serve as Secretary of Labor.[73][74][75][76]
  • 1934
Gertrude Atherton was the first woman to be president of the (American) National Academy of Literature.[77]
Lettie Pate Whitehead was the first woman to serve as a director of a major corporation (The Coca-Cola Company).
  • 1937
Grace Hudowalski was the ninth person and first woman to climb all 46 of the Adirondack High Peaks. [78][79] [80]
  • 1938
Pearl S. Buck was the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.[81]

1940s[edit]

  • 1940s
Lois Fegan Farrell was the first female reporter to cover a professional hockey team in America.[82]
  • 1942
Anna Leah Fox was the first woman to receive the Purple Heart, which she received for being wounded in the attack on Pearl Harbor.[83]
  • 1943
Nellie Neilson was the first woman to be president of the American Historical Association.[84]
  • 1944
Cordelia E Cook was the first woman to receive both the Bronze Star Medal and the Purple Heart.[85]
Ann Baumgartner was the first woman to fly a jet aircraft, the Bell YP-59A on October 14, 1944.[86]
  • 1946
Frances Xavier Cabrini was the first American canonized by the Roman Catholic church as a saint.[87]
  • 1947
Gerty Cori was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; she shared the prize with Carl Ferdinand Cori and Bernardo Alberto Houssay.[88][89] Although born in Prague, Gerty Cori is considered the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in medicine.[90] She had become a U.S. citizen in 1928.[91]
  • 1948

edit

Esther McGowin Blake was the first woman in the U.S. Air Force. She enlisted in the first minute of the first hour of the first day regular Air Force duty was authorized for women on July 8th, 1948.[92]
  • 1949
Georgia Neese Clark was the first woman Treasurer of the United States, under President Harry Truman.[93]
Eugenie Anderson was the first woman to be a United States Ambassador, under President Harry Truman.[94]
Shirley Dinsdale was the first recipient of the Emmy Award.[95]
Sara Christian was the first woman to compete in a major-league stock car race, competing in NASCAR's inaugural Strictly Stock (now Sprint Cup Series) event.[96]

1950s[edit]

  • 1951
Paula Ackerman was the first woman in America to perform rabbinical functions.[97]
  • 1953
Fae Adams was the first female to receive regular commission as a doctor in the United States Army.[98]
Oveta Culp Hobby was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.[99]
  • 1955
Betty Robbins, born in Greece, was the first female cantor (hazzan) in the 5,000 year old history of Judaism.[100] She was appointed cantor of the reform [101] Temple Avodah in Oceanside, New York in 1955,[102] when she was 31 and the Temple was without a cantor for the High Holidays.[103][104]
  • 1956
Tenley Albright was the first woman in America to win the Olympic gold medal in figure skating.[105]
  • 1957
Decoy: Police Woman was the first television show to feature a female police officer, and in fact the first to be built around a female protagonist. [106]

1960s[edit]

  • 1963
Merry Lepper was the first American woman to run a marathon; she is recognized by the International Association of Athletics Federations as having set a world best in the marathon on December 16th, 1963, with a time of 3:37:07 at the Western Hemisphere Marathon in Culver City, California.[107][108][109][nb 1]
Maria Goeppert Mayer was the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in Physics; she shared the prize with Eugene Paul Wigner and J. Hans D. Jensen.[112][113] She was born in Poland, but became a U.S. citizen in 1933.[113][114]
  • 1964
Jerrie Mock was the first woman to fly solo around the world, which she did in a Cessna 180.[115][116] The trip ended April 17th, 1964, in Columbus, Ohio,[117] and took 29 days, 21 stopovers and almost 22,860 miles.[118]
Carol Doda was the first woman in America to perform as a topless entertainer.
Isabel Benham was the first female partner in R.W. Pressprich & Co.’s 55-year history, which also made her the first female partner at any Wall Street bond house.[119][120]
  • 1965
Rachel Henderlite was the first woman ordained in the Presbyterian Church in the United States; she was ordained by the Hanover Presbytery in Virginia.[121][122]
  • 1966
Roberta Louise "Bobbi" Gibb was the first woman to run the entire Boston Marathon.[123]
  • 1967
Kathrine Switzer was the first woman to run the Boston Marathon as a numbered entry.[124]
Muriel Siebert was the first female member of the New York Stock Exchange.[125]
  • 1969
Carol Doda was the first woman in America to perform as a bottomless entertainer.[126]

1970s[edit]

  • 1970
Diane Crump was the first woman in America to ride in the Kentucky Derby, she placed fifteenth.[127]
Patricia Palinkas was the first woman to play professionally in an American football game.[128]
  • 1972
Anna Mae Hays and Elizabeth P. Hoisington were the first women in the United States promoted to brigadier general.[129]
Sally Priesand was ordained on June 3rd, 1972, by the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion's president Rabbi Alfred Gottschalk at Plum Street Temple in Cincinnati,[130] making her the first woman to be ordained as a rabbi in the United States and only the second woman ever to be formally ordained in the history of Judaism.[131]
Katharine Graham was the first female Fortune 500 CEO, as CEO of the Washington Post company.[132][36]
  • 1973
Shirley Muldowney was the first woman to receive a NHRA license to drive Top Fuel dragsters, the highest level of the drag racing sport.[133]
  • 1974
Jeannette Piccard was the first female balloon pilot licensed in the United States; she was also the first woman to ascend to the stratosphere.[134]
Ella T. Grasso was the first woman to be elected a U.S. governor who was not the wife or widow of a governor; she was elected governor of Connecticut.[135]
  • 1975
Barbara Ostfeld-Horowitz was the first female cantor to be ordained in Reform Judaism in 1975.[136]
Carla Hills was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.[137][138]
  • 1976
Shirley Black, aka Shirley Temple, was the first woman to be chief of protocol, which she was for President Gerald Ford.[139]
Lucy Giovinco was the first female in America to win the AMF Bowling World Cup.[140]
Women first began to attend the U.S. service academies.[141]
Shirley Muldowney was the first woman to win a NHRA national event.[133]
  • 1977
Janet Guthrie was the first woman to compete in the Indianapolis 500,[142] and the first woman to lead a NASCAR Winston Cup Series (now Sprint Cup Seres) event.[143]
Shirley Muldowney was the first woman to win a NHRA championship, in the Top Fuel category.[133]
Barbara McClintock was the first woman to win an unshared Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and since she was American, she was the first American woman to do so.[144]
Juanita M. Kreps was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Commerce.[145]
  • 1978
Janet Guthrie was the first woman to compete in the Daytona 500.[142]
Marcia Frederick, at the age of fifteen, was the first woman in America to win Olympic gold in gymnastics.[146]
Mary E. Clarke was the first woman to achieve the rank of major general in the United States Army.[147]
  • 1979
Susan B. Anthony was the first woman in America to be depicted on a coin.[148]
Patricia R. Harris was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Health and Human Services.[149]
Shirley Hufstedler was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Education.[149]

1980s[edit]

  • 1981
Sandra Day O'Connor was the first woman to be a member on the United States Supreme Court.[150]
  • 1983
Sally Ride was the first American woman in space.[151]
Elizabeth Dole was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Transportation.[149]
  • 1984
Geraldine Ferraro was the first woman in America to run for vice president on a major-party platform.[152]
Joan Benoit won the first women's Olympic marathon.[153]
  • 1985
Penny Harrington was appointed as Chief of Police, making her the first woman to lead a major-city police department.[154]
Libby Riddles was the first woman to win the Iditarod.[155]
  • 1986
Ann Bancroft was the first woman to reach the North Pole by foot and dogsled, "...she became the first known woman to cross the ice to the North Pole."[156]
  • 1987
Aretha Franklin was the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[157]
  • 1988
Shawna Robinson was the first woman to win a NASCAR-sanctioned stock car race, winning in the Charlotte/Daytona Dash Series at New Asheville Speedway.[158]

1990s[edit]

  • 1992
Manon Rhéaume was the first woman to play in a National Hockey League game; although she was Canadian, "She played goalie for the Tampa Bay Lightning..."[159]
Mona Van Duyn was the first woman named US poet laureate.[160]
  • 1993
Halli Reid was the first woman to swim across Lake Erie, swimming from Long Point, Ontario, to North East, Pennsylvania, in 17 hours.[161][162][163]
Janet Reno was the first woman to serve as Attorney General of the United States under President Bill Clinton.[164]
Hazel R. O'Leary was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Energy.[149]
  • 1994
Judith Rodin was the first permanent female president of an Ivy League University (specifically, the University of Pennsylvania.) [165]
  • 1997
Madeleine Albright, born in Prague, was the first woman to serve as Secretary of State; she served under President Bill Clinton.[166]
Liz Heaston was the first woman to play and score in a college football game, kicking two extra points in the 1997 Linfield vs. Willamette football game.[167]
  • 1998
Julie Taymor was the first woman to win a Tony award for best director of a musical.[168][169]

21st century[edit]

  • 2001
Gale Norton was the first woman to serve as Secretary of the Interior.[149]
Ann Veneman was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Agriculture.[149]
  • 2002
Melanie Wood was the first American woman and the second woman overall to be named a Putnam Fellow.[170]
  • 2005
Danica Patrick was the first woman to lead the Indianapolis 500.[171]
  • 2006
Effa Manley was the first woman to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum.[172]
  • 2007
Nancy Pelosi was the first female Speaker of the United States House of Representatives; she is currently the highest ranking woman politician in American history.[173]
  • 2008
Hillary Clinton becomes the first woman in U.S. history to win a presidential primary after winning the New Hampshire Democratic presidential primary.
Danica Patrick was the first woman to win an IndyCar Series by winning the 2008 Indy Japan 300.[174]
Sarah Palin was the first female vice presidential nominee of the Republican Party.[175]
Ann E. Dunwoody was the first female four-star general in the U.S. Army.[176]
  • 2009
Kathryn Bigelow was the first woman to win the Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing, for The Hurt Locker (2008).[177]
Elinor Ostrom was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Economics, and since she was American, the first American woman to do so; she shared the prize with Oliver E. Williamson.[178]
Janet Napolitano was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Homeland Security.[149]
  • 2010
Kathryn Bigelow was the first woman to win the Academy Award for Best Director,[177][179] the BAFTA Award for Best Direction,[180] and the Critics' Choice Award for Best Director, all for The Hurt Locker (2008).[181]
Jennifer Gorovitz was the first woman to lead a large Jewish federation in America (specifically, the Jewish Community Federation, based in San Francisco).[182]
  • 2012
Elizabeth MacDonough was the first female appointed as Parliamentarian of the United States Senate. [183]
Janet Wolfenbarger was the first female four-star general in the U.S. Air Force.[184]
  • 2013
Danica Patrick was the first woman to win a pole in the 2013 Daytona 500.[185]
Danica Patrick was the first woman to lead the Daytona 500.[186]
Rosie Napravnik rode the filly Unlimited Budget to a 6th place finish in the 2013 Belmont, becoming the first woman to ride all three Triple Crown races in the same year.[187]
Davie Jane Gilmour was the first woman to lead the Board of Directors for Little League.[188]
Ashley Freiberg was the first woman to claim an overall GT3 Cup Challenge victory in North America, winning the Porsche IMSA GT3 Cup Challenge.[189]
UFC 157, which took place in February, featured not only the first women’s fight in UFC history but also the first UFC event to be headlined by two female fighters (Ronda Rousey and Liz Carmouche).[190]
Rabbi Deborah Waxman was elected as the President of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College. As the President, she is believed to have been the first woman and first lesbian to lead a Jewish congregational union, and the first female rabbi and first lesbian to lead a Jewish seminary; RRC is both a congregational union and a seminary.[191][192][193]
Julia Morgan was the first woman to receive the American Institute of Architects' Gold Medal, which she received posthumously.[194]
Erika Schmidt was the first female director of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis.[195]
Mia Hamm was the first woman to be inducted into the World Football Hall of Fame in Pachuca, Mexico.[196]
General Motors named Mary Barra as its first female CEO and the first female CEO of a major automaker.[197]
Deborah Rutter was named as the first female president of the Kennedy Center.[198]
Jodi Eller was the first woman to complete the 1,515 mile Florida Circumnavigational Saltwater Paddling Trail.[199]
The American Council of the Blind (ACB) voted unanimously to elect Kim Charlson as its president, making her the first female president of a major national blindness consumer advocacy organization in the United States.[200]
Lauren Silberman was the first woman to try out at an NFL Regional Scouting Combine, and thus the first woman to try out for the NFL (she tried out as a kicker), but she did not succeed. [201]
  • 2014
Janet Yellen was confirmed by the Senate as the first woman to lead the Federal Reserve.[202]
The first women competed in ski jumping at the Olympics, including three American women- Lindsey Van, Jessica Jerome and Sarah Hendrickson.[203]
Lauryn Williams was the first American woman to win a medal in both the Summer and Winter Olympic games.[204][205]
Jennifer Welter was the first woman non-kicker or placekick-holder to play in a men’s pro football game; she played running back for the Texas Revolution.[206]
Michelle J. Howard began her assignment as the U.S. Navy's first female and first African-American admiral on July 1, 2014.[207] [208]
Katie Higgins was the first female pilot to join the Blue Angels, the United States Navy's flight demonstration squadron. [209]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to the Association of Road Racing Statisticians, the course for the Western Hemisphere Marathon was short in 1962 and 1963.[110] The ARRS also notes the date of the race as December 14, 1963.[110][111]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Read, Phyllis J., and Bernard Witlieb (1992). The Book of Women's Firsts: Breakthrough Achievements of Almost 1,000 American Women. New York, NY: Random House.
  2. ^ Female Firsts- Anne Bradstreet, the first female poet
  3. ^ Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture, and New York Public Library. The Woman's Athenaeum For the Intellectual, Industrial and Social Advancement of Women. New York: Woman's Athenaeum, 1912.
  4. ^ Alyson Publications (1990). The Alyson Almanac: A Treasury of Information for the Gay and Lesbian Community. Boston: Alyson Publications.
  5. ^ Saunders, Richard H. and Ellen G. Miles. American Colonial Portraits · 1700-1776. Washington, D.C.; Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987. pp. 94-96
  6. ^ Humphrey, H. B (1961). Makers of North American Botany. New York: Ronald.
  7. ^ "Women in Politics." International women's democracy center. International Women, n.d. Web. 26 Apr 2012.http://www.iwdc.org/resources/timeline.htm
  8. ^ Hanaford, Phebe A (1882). Daughters of America; or, Women of the Century. Augusta, Me: True and Co.
  9. ^ Pennington, Reina (2003). Amazons to Fighter Pilots: A Biographical Dictionary of Military Women. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
  10. ^ Metzger, Bruce Manning (2001). The Bible in Translation: Ancient and English Versions. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.
  11. ^ Schwabach, Aaron (2007). Intellectual Property A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
  12. ^ Lacy, Linda Cates (2004). We Are Marines!: World War I to the Present. [North Carolina]: Tar Heel Chapter, NC-1, Women Marines Association.
  13. ^ Burt, Olive Woolley(1960). First Woman Editor: Sarah J. Hale. New York: Julian Messner.
  14. ^ a b c James, Edward T., Janet Wilson James, and Paul S. Boyer (1971). Notable American Women, 1607-1950; A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  15. ^ Stevens, Peter F (1993). The Mayflower Murderer and Other Forgotten Firsts in American History. New York: Morrow.
  16. ^ Lauter, Paul, and Bruce-Novoa (1990). The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath.
  17. ^ Maria Mitchell
  18. ^ Robbins, Trina, Cynthia Martin, and Anne Timmons (2007). Elizabeth Blackwell: America's First Woman Doctor. Mankato, Minn: Capstone Press.
  19. ^ Stein, R. Conrad (2010). Harriet Tubman: "on My Underground Railroad I Never Ran My Train Off the Track". Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers.
  20. ^ Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs (1993). Women Public Speakers in the United States, 1800-1925: A Bio-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
  21. ^ "Antoinette Brown Blackwell". Retrieved 3 June 2012. 
  22. ^ Frost-Knappman, Elizabeth, and Sarah Kurian (1994). The ABC-CLIO Companion to Women's Progress in America. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
  23. ^ a b Heinemann, Sue (1996). Timelines of American Women's History. New York: Berkley Pub. Group.
  24. ^ Larson, Kate Clifford (2008). The Assassin's Accomplice: Mary Surratt and the Plot to Kill Abraham Lincoln. New York: Basic Books.
  25. ^ Mikaelian, Allen, and Mike Wallace (2002). Medal of Honor: Profiles of America's Military Heroes from the Civil War to the Present. New York: Hyperion.
  26. ^ Oakes, Elizabeth H (2001). Encyclopedia of World Scientists. New York: Facts on File.
  27. ^ Iowa Commission on the Status of Women
  28. ^ Women vote in the West: the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1869–1896. New York: Garland Science. 1986. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8240-8251-2. 
  29. ^ Danilov, Victor J. (2005). Women and museums: a comprehensive guide. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7591-0854-7. 
  30. ^ Loewen, James W (1999). Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong. New York: New Press.
  31. ^ http://www25-temp.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/adamiserkepley.html
  32. ^ Gordon, Anna A. (1898). The Beautiful Life of Frances E. Willard, A Memorial Volume. Chicago: Woman's Temperance Pub. Association.
  33. ^ Havelin, Kate (2007). Victoria Woodhull: Fearless Feminist. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.
  34. ^ Ellen H. Swallow Richards | Chemical Heritage Foundation
  35. ^ A Century After Her Death, America's First Female Architect Gets Her Due | Co.Design | business + design
  36. ^ a b Knowledge Center | Catalyst.org
  37. ^ Grout, Pam (2002). Kansas Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities & Other Offbeat Stuff. Guilford, Conn: Globe Pequot Press.
  38. ^ Willard, Frances E., and Mary Ashton Rice Livermore(1973). American Women: Fifteen Hundred Biographies with Over 1,400 Portraits; a Comprehensive Encyclopedia of the Lives and Achievements of American Women During the Nineteenth Century. Detroit: Gale Research Co.
  39. ^ MAKERS
  40. ^ The Biography of Wilhelmina Weber Furlong: The Treasured Collection of Golden Heart Farm by Clint B. Weber, ISBN 0-9851601-0-1ISBN 978-0-9851601-0-4
  41. ^ Cullen, Frank (2004). Vaudeville, old and new: an encyclopedia of variety performers. New York: Routledge.
  42. ^ "Eleonora de Cisneros". Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  43. ^ Buchanan, Andrea J., Miriam Peskowitz, and Alexis Seabrook (2007). The daring book for girls. New York: Collins.
  44. ^ Conner, Floyd (2002). Tennis's most wanted: the top 10 book of baseline blunders, clay court wonders, and lucky lobs. London: Brassey's.
  45. ^ Miller, Ernestine G. 2002. Making her mark: firsts and milestones in women's sports. Chicago: Contemporary Books.
  46. ^ Sterling, Mary Ellen, and Dona Rice (1997). The 20th century. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
  47. ^ Nurses and the U.S. Navy before WWII
  48. ^ First woman elected to American Academy of Arts and Letters, Jan. 28, 1908 - Andrew Glass - POLITICO.com
  49. ^ Newton, Michael. (2007). The encyclopedia of American law enforcement. New York: Facts On File.
  50. ^ Brown, Kelly R (1999). Florence Lawrence, the Biograph girl: America's first movie star. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co.
  51. ^ Betz, Paul R., and Mark C. Carnes (2002). American national biography. Supplement. New York: Oxford University Press.
  52. ^ Shaw, Charles (2011). The Untold Stories of Excellence From a Life of Despair and Uncertainty to One That Offers Hope and a New Beginning. Xlibris Corp.
  53. ^ Whitelaw, Nancy (1994). Margaret Sanger: "every child a wanted child". New York: Dillon Press.
  54. ^ Sanger, Margaret (1938). Margaret Sanger an autobiography. New York: Norton.
  55. ^ a b Schultz, Jeffrey D., and Laura A. Van Assendelft (1999). Encyclopedia of women in American politics. Phoenix, Ariz: Oryx Press.
  56. ^ Kane, Joseph Nathan (1981). Famous first facts: a record of first happenings, discoveries, and inventions in American history. New York: H.W. Wilson.
  57. ^ a b O'Dea, Suzanne (1999). From suffrage to the Senate: an encyclopedia of American women in politics. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
  58. ^ Lacy, Linda Cates (2004). We are Marines!: World War I to the present. [North Carolina]: Tar Heel Chapter, NC-1, Women Marines Association.
  59. ^ Women's History Chronology
  60. ^ "Sara Teasdale 1884-1933". Bellefontaine Cemetery. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  61. ^ McCullough, Joan (1980). First of all: significant "firsts" by American women. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  62. ^ Wharton, Edith (1928). The children. New York: D. Appleton and Co.
  63. ^ a b Gourley, Catherine (2008). Flappers and the new American woman: perceptions of women from 1918 through the 1920s. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.
  64. ^ Lurie, Maxine N., and Marc Mappen (2004). Encyclopedia of New Jersey. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
  65. ^ "Miss Lulu Bett | Archives | Mint Theater Company". Minttheater.org. Retrieved 2013-09-05. 
  66. ^ Adler, David A., and Terry Widener (2000). America's champion swimmer: Gertrude Ederle. San Diego: Harcourt.
  67. ^ Van Pelt, Lori (2005). Amelia Earhart: the sky's no limit. New York: Forge.
  68. ^ Felder, Deborah G (1999). A century of women: the most influential events in twentieth-century women's history. Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub. Group.
  69. ^ Gazdik, Mark (2004). Vault guide to flight attendant careers. New York, NY: Vault.
  70. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1931". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  71. ^ "Citizenship]: Jane Addams - Nobel Peace Prize Winner". Congress for Kids. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  72. ^ CARAWAY, Hattie Wyatt - Biographical Information
  73. ^ "Frances Perkins, The First Woman In Cabinet, Is Dead". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). May 15, 1965. Retrieved November 9, 2008. 
  74. ^ Villard, Oswald G. (December 8, 2008). "Roosevelt to Appoint First-Ever Female Cabinet Member". The Nation. Retrieved February 22, 2011. 
  75. ^ Keller, Emily (2006). Frances Perkins: first woman cabinet member. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds Pub.
  76. ^ Hattie Ophelia Wyatt Caraway (1878–1950) - Encyclopedia of Arkansas
  77. ^ Davis, Cynthia J., and Kathryn West (1996). Women writers in the United States: a timeline of literary, cultural, and social history. New York: Oxford University Press.
  78. ^ Adirondack mountain renamed after first woman to scale all 46 High Peaks | syracuse.com
  79. ^ "Tribute to Grace Hudowalski 46er #9". Adirondack Forum. March 14, 2004. Archived from the original on 2006-02-14. Retrieved 2011-05-16. 
  80. ^ "Grace Peak Update 11-23-08". Views From The Top. November 23, 2008. Retrieved 2011-05-16. 
  81. ^ "Biography of Pearl S. Buck | List of Works, Study Guides & Essays". GradeSaver. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  82. ^ Remembering Lois Fegan Farrell: first female reporter to cover a professional hockey team | PennLive.com
  83. ^ Felder, Deborah G (2003). A century of women: the most influential events in twentieth-century women's history. New York: Kensington Publishing Corp.
  84. ^ Scott, Anne Firor (1993). Unheard voices: the first historians of southern women. Charlottesville: University of Virginia.
  85. ^ Kane 1964, p. 358.
  86. ^ "FLYING FOR FREEDOM The Story of the Women Airforce Service Pilots". Teacher Resource Guide. United States: National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  87. ^ Mother Cabrini : Cabrini Mission Foundation
  88. ^ Toobin, Adam (2013-08-18). "Women Nobel Prize Winners: 16 Women Who Defied Odds To Win Science's Top Award (PHOTOS)". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-09-05. 
  89. ^ Anna Grace (2012-02-09). "Sexism on the Stage". eugeneweekly.com. Retrieved 2013-09-05. 
  90. ^ "Top 10 Women Who Changed Missouri: Gerty Cori". MissouriLife.com. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  91. ^ "Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  92. ^ Feature - Esther Blake: First enlisted woman in the Air Force
  93. ^ Leavitt, Judith A (1985). American women managers and administrators: a selective biographical dictionary of twentieth-century leaders in business, education, and government. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
  94. ^ Gollin, James (2010). Pianist: a biography of Eugene Istomin. Bloomington, Ind: Xlibris.
  95. ^ O'Neil, Thomas (2000). The Emmys: the ultimate, unofficial guide to the battle of TV's best shows and greatest stars. New York: Perigee.
  96. ^ Mark, Aumann (August 26, 2011). "Patrick follows in the footsteps of pioneers". NASCAR.com. Turner Sports. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  97. ^ Nadell, Pamela Susan (1998). Women who would be rabbis a history of women's ordination, 1889-1985. Boston: Beacon Press. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volumes/oclc/39013634.html.
  98. ^ Giele, Janet Zollinger, and Leslie F. Stebbins (2003). Women and equality in the workplace: a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
  99. ^ Women's History Month: "Oveta Culp Hobby" by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison | Humanities Texas
  100. ^ "Baltimore Jewish Times". Jewishtimes.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  101. ^ Andres, Holly J. (2008-03-01). "Conservatice Female Cantor Fits In Religion". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  102. ^ "Religion: Woman Cantor". TIME Magazine. 1955-08-15. Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  103. ^ Robbins, Sandra. "Betty Robbins". Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  104. ^ "Woman Named Cantor". The Portsmouth Times (Oceanside, New Jersey). AP. 4 August 1955. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  105. ^ McDougall, Chros (2011). Girls play to win figure skating. Chicago: Norwood House Press.
  106. ^ Decoy: Police Woman was a glimpse of things to come · One-Season Wonders, Weirdos, And Wannabes · The A.V. Club
  107. ^ 50 years later, Culver City honors first female marathoner | Off-Ramp | 89.3 KPCC
  108. ^ "12th IAAF World Championships In Athletics: IAAF Statistics Handbook. Berlin 2009." (pdf). Monte Carlo: IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. 2009. p. 653. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  109. ^ Noakes, Tim (2003). The Lore of Running (Fourth ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 675. ISBN 0-87322-959-2. 
  110. ^ a b "Western Hemisphere Marathon". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Retrieved May 10, 2010. "The 1962-63 courses are considered to have been short." 
  111. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1963". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Retrieved May 10, 2010. 
  112. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  113. ^ a b The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science - Julie Des Jardins - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  114. ^ "Mayer, Maria Goeppert". Astr.ua.edu. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  115. ^ Trailblazing woman pilot honored in bronze in Newark | The Columbus Dispatch
  116. ^ Buchanan, Paul D. (2009-09-15). American Women's Rights Movement: A Chronology of Events and of Opportunities from 1600 to 2008. Branden Books. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-0-8283-2160-0. Retrieved 22 May 2011. 
  117. ^ http://womenaviators.org/JerrieMock.html
  118. ^ Mock, Jerrie: Three-Eight Charlie, First Edition, 1970. ISBN 75118975
  119. ^ Arnold, Laurence (2013-06-12). "Isabel Benham dies; railroad expert first female partner at a Wall Street bond house". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  120. ^ "Obituary: Isabel H. Benham, 103". Railway Age. June 14, 2013. 
  121. ^ NAPC - National Association of Presbyterian Clergywomen
  122. ^ Women Ministers (1955-1966) and Margaret Towner - The Presbyterian Outlook
  123. ^ B.A.A.: Boston Marathon History
  124. ^ Kathrine Switzer Marathon Woman - Author. Activist. Athlete
  125. ^ First Female Member Of NYSE Muriel Siebert Dies At 80 : NPR
  126. ^ Allyn, David (2001). Make love, not war: the sexual revolution, an unfettered history. New York: Routledge.
  127. ^ Kleber, John E (2001). The encyclopedia of Louisville. Lexington, Ky: University Press of Kentucky.
  128. ^ McKechnie, Gary; Howell, Nancy (April 5, 1992). "Pat Parlinkas, The Only Woman To Play Professional Football". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved August 25, 2011. 
  129. ^ Matt Schudel (2005-03-06). "Elizabeth P. Hoisington, 88; pioneering brigadier general led the Women's Army Corps - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2013-09-05. 
  130. ^ Zola, Gary Phillip, ed. (1996). Women Rabbis: Exploration & Celebration: Papers Delivered at an Academic Conference Honoring Twenty Years of Women in the Rabbinate, 1972-1992. Hebrew Union College Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-87820-214-5. 
  131. ^ Blau, Eleanor. "1st Woman Rabbi in U.S. Ordained; She May Be Only the Second in History of Judaism", The New York Times, June 4, 1972. Retrieved September 17, 2009. "Sally J. Priesand was ordained at the Isaac M. Wise Temple here today, becoming the first woman rabbi in this country and it is believed, the second in the history of Judaism."
  132. ^ The Impulse Factor: Why Some of Us Play it Safe and Others Risk it All - Nick Tasler - Google Books
  133. ^ a b c Bill McGuire. "In Their Own Words: Shirley Muldowney / Top Fuel License". Hot Rod Magazine. Retrieved December 19, 2009. 
  134. ^ Shayler, David, and Ian A. Moule (2005). Women in space: -- following Valentina. Chichester, UK: Praxis Pub.
  135. ^ Wald, Matthew L. (1981-02-06). "Ex-Gov. Grasso Of Connecticut Dead Of Cancer". The New York Times. 
  136. ^ Cantors: American Jewish Women | Jewish Women's Archive
  137. ^ Carla Hills - Gerald R. Ford Foundation
  138. ^ Women and Politics: The Pursuit of Equality - Lynne Ford - Google Books
  139. ^ Hightower-Langston, Donna (2002). A to Z of American women leaders and activists. New York: Facts on File.
  140. ^ Woolum, Janet (1992). Outstanding women athletes: who they are and how they influenced sports in America. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.
  141. ^ Women In Military Service For America Memorial
  142. ^ a b "Guthrie wonders why more women haven't followed her". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Lubbock, TX. May 28, 2006. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  143. ^ "Jimmie Johnson wins Daytona 500". Portland Press Herald. Portland, ME. February 24, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  144. ^ Toobin, Adam (2013-08-18). "Women Nobel Prize Winners: 16 Women Who Defied Odds To Win Science's Top Award (PHOTOS)". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-09-05. 
  145. ^ Newspapers, McClatchy (2010-07-08). "Juanita M. Kreps dies at 89; first female secretary of Commerce". Los Angeles Times. 
  146. ^ Miller, Ernestine G (2002). Making her mark: firsts and milestones in women's sports. Chicago: Contemporary Books.
  147. ^ Air Force (1978). Air Force Magazine 61. Air Force Association. p. 37. " US Army has promoted its first woman to the rank of major general. Wearing two stars is Mary Clarke, former Commander of the discontinued Woman's Army Corps" 
  148. ^ Richards, Caroline Cowles, and Kerry A. Graves (2000). A nineteenth-century schoolgirl: the diary of Caroline Cowles Richards, 1852-1855. Mankato, Minn: Blue Earth Books.
  149. ^ a b c d e f g Statistics | National Women's Political Caucus
  150. ^ Biskupic, Joan, and Sandra Day O'Connor (2005). Sandra Day O'Connor: how the first woman on the Supreme Court became its most influential justice. New York: ECCO.
  151. ^ Riddolls, Tom (2011). Sally Ride: the first American woman in space. St. Catharines, Ont: Crabtree Pub. Co.
  152. ^ Hutchison, Kay Bailey (2006). American heroines: the spirited women who shaped our country. New York: Harper.
  153. ^ Cooper, Pamela (1998). The American marathon. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
  154. ^ Penny Harrington, the USA’s 1st Female Chief of Police | The Next Women - Business Magazine
  155. ^ Libby Riddles (1956- ) | America Comes Alive
  156. ^ Roberts, Kate (2007). Minnesota 150: the people, places, and things that shape our state. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press. pp. 9.
  157. ^ Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducts first woman — History.com This Day in History — 1/3/1987
  158. ^ "Shawna Robinson Becomes First Woman to Win a NASCAR Race". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, CA). June 18, 1988. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  159. ^ Charns, Alexander (2006). How hockey saved the world (and defeated George W. Bush, but not necessarily in that order): finding ice during the lost season. New York: iUniverse.pp. 81.
  160. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/globe/obituaries/articles/2004/12/03/mona_van_duyn_first_female_poet_laureate/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  161. ^ Martin, Jim (4 June 2012). "What's in a name: Halli Reid Park". Erie Times. 
  162. ^ VICTOR FERNANDES, The Associated Press. "First woman to swim Lake Erie looks back". Philadelphia Daily News. 
  163. ^ "Twenty-Year Anniversary of Halli Reid's Swim Across Lake Erie – People". Reprints.goerie.com. 
  164. ^ Couric, Katie. "First Woman Attorney General Janet Reno=archives.nbclearn.com". 
  165. ^ History of the Presidency : Office of the President : University of Pennsylvania
  166. ^ Kramer, Barbara (2000). Madeleine Albright: first woman Secretary of State. Springfield, N.J.: Enslow Publishers.
  167. ^ "Woman Kicks Extra Points". The New York Times. October 20, 1997. Retrieved April 20, 2011. 
  168. ^ Hollywood.com "The Lion King" Los Angeles Premiere
  169. ^ Best Director of a Musical: Julie Taymor (The Lion King) - Playbill.com
  170. ^ AWM Essay Contest: Leena Shah
  171. ^ Ryan, Nate (2012-11-11). "Danica Patrick remains interested in Indy 500 beyond 2013". USA Today. 
  172. ^ Effa Manley Becomes First Woman in Baseball Hall of Fame | PBS NewsHour | Feb. 28, 2006 | PBS
  173. ^ McElroy, Lisa Tucker (2008). Nancy Pelosi: first woman Speaker of the House. Minneapolis: Lerner.
  174. ^ MAKING HISTORY: Danica Patrick Becomes First Woman to Win IndyCar Series | MAKERS
  175. ^ Sarah Palin Makes History as First Female Vice Presidential Nominee of Republican Party - ABC News
  176. ^ "Army general is nation's first four-star woman". CNN. 2008-11-14. 
  177. ^ a b "First woman to win top Guild’s award". Gulf Times. 2010-01-31. Retrieved 2010-07-10. 
  178. ^ Langer, Emily (2012-06-13). "Elinor Ostrom, first woman to receive Nobel Prize in economics, dies at 78 - Washington Post". Articles.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-09-05. 
  179. ^ "‘Hurt Locker’ wins best picture, director". Today.msnbc.msn.com. 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2010-07-10. 
  180. ^ Reuters (2010-02-21). "Kathryn Bigelow wins best director BAFTA for 'Hurt Locker' over James Cameron's 'Avatar'". New York: NY Daily News. Retrieved 2010-07-10. 
  181. ^ Roberts, Soraya (2010-01-16). "Critic's Choice Awards 2010: Sandra Bullock, Meryl Streep kiss; Kathryn Bigelow is Best Director". New York: NY Daily News. Retrieved 2010-07-10. 
  182. ^ Stepping down: Jennifer Gorovitz, first woman to lead major federation, resigns JCF post | j. the Jewish news weekly of Northern California
  183. ^ Barrett, Ted (January 31, 2012). "Senate welcomes first female parliamentarian". CNN. Retrieved April 12, 2014. 
  184. ^ Janet Wolfenbarger, Air Force’s First Female Four Star, Takes Material Command
  185. ^ Danica Patrick is first woman to win Daytona 500 pole - ESPN
  186. ^ "Danica Patrick, first woman to lead a lap at Daytona 500 - CBS News". CBS News. 
  187. ^ Thomas, Colleen (2013-06-04). "Rosie Napravnik has another shot at history aboard Unlimited Budget at Belmont". Baltimore Sun (baltimoresun.com). Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  188. ^ Gilmour is Little League’s first female board chair - The Sunday Dispatch
  189. ^ Freiberg Becomes The First Female Overall North American GT3 Cup Challenge Winner at The Glen — IMSA GT3 Cup Challenge by Yokohoma
  190. ^ "Women in the UFC: Looking Back at the First Six Months, And What It Means for the Future". http://www.cagepotato.com. Retrieved 2013-09-05. 
  191. ^ Reconstructionists Pick First Woman, Lesbian As Denominational Leader | The Jewish Week
  192. ^ Trailblazing Reconstructionist Deborah Waxman Relishes Challenges of Judaism – Forward.com
  193. ^ http://www.rrc.edu/sites/default/files/ORPHAN_PDFs/RRC_WaxmanPresidentElect-ForPress3.pdf?hero=1615.
  194. ^ "2014 AIA Gold Medal Awarded to Julia Morgan, FAIA". Press Releases. American Institute of Architects. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  195. ^ http://internationalpsychoanalysis.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/ErikaSchmidtRelease.pdf
  196. ^ Hamm is first woman inductee into Pachuca World Football Hall of Fame - Inside World Football
  197. ^ Healey, James R. (2013-12-10). "GM's Barra: First female CEO at major automaker". USA Today. 
  198. ^ Deborah Rutter named Kennedy Center president, is first woman to hold job | WJLA.com
  199. ^ First Woman Completes 1,515 Mile Saltwater Paddling Trail « CBS Miami
  200. ^ Activist Kim Charlson is unanimously elected to lead rights advocacy group - JVIB
  201. ^ Lauren Silberman disappoints as first woman to tryout at NFL Regional Scouting Combine - NY Daily News
  202. ^ http://www.nbcnews.com/business/senate-approves-yellen-fed-chair-2D11869412
  203. ^ Myerberg, Paul (2014-02-11). "Carina Vogt wins historic first women's ski jump gold". USA Today. 
  204. ^ Williams gets silver in bobsled; fifth athlete to win medals in Winter and Summer Olympics - Sun Sentinel
  205. ^ "Lauryn Williams eyes Olympic history". ESPN. February 18, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  206. ^ Jen Welter Becomes First Woman to Play Running Back in a Professional Football Game - Extra Mustard - SI.com
  207. ^ Michelle J. Howard becomes Navy's first female 4-star admiral - Washington Times
  208. ^ Howard becomes Navy’s first woman, first African American four-star admiral - St. Louis American: Local News
  209. ^ Stephen Pope (24 July 2014). "Female Pilot Joins Blue Angels". Flying (magazine). Retrieved 24 July 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Kane, Joseph Nathan; Steven Anzovin and Janet Podell (2006). Famous first facts : a record of first happenings, discoveries, and inventions in American history (6th ed.). New York: H.W. Wilson. ISBN 9780824210656. 
  • Kimmel, Elizabeth Cody (2006). Ladies First: 40 Daring American Women who Were Second to None (1st. ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Books. ISBN 9780792253938. 
  • Plowden, Martha Ward (1933). Famous Firsts of Black Women. Pelican Publishing. ISBN 9781455604098. 
  • Stern, Madeleine B. (1994). We the women : career firsts of nineteenth-century America (1. print. ed.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803292239.