List of Amtrak routes

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Amtrak operates the following intercity and long-distance passenger train routes.

To-scale map of Amtrak services

Current routes[edit]

Name Route Origin Numbers Frequency FY2009 Passengers[1] FY2013 Passengers[2] Route miles Yearly Ridership per mile
Acela Express BostonWashington, DC (high-speed rail) PC 2100–2290 15 trips per weekday, 4 trips per Saturday, 8 trips per Sunday 3,019,627 3,343,143 456 6,622
Adirondack MontrealNew York via Albany D&H 68–69 daily 104,681 133,008 381 275
Amtrak Cascades Vancouver, BCEugene, Oregon via Portland and Seattle NP, GN, and UP 500–517 5 trips daily (2 Seattle-Eugene, 1 Seattle-Portland, 1 Vancouver-Portland, 1 Vancouver-Seattle) 740,154 811,692 467 1,585
Auto Train Lorton, VirginiaSanford, Florida ATC 52–53 daily 232,955 265,274 855 272
Blue Water ChicagoPort Huron, Michigan GTW 364–365 daily 132,851 191,106 319 416
California Zephyr ChicagoEmeryville, California (Oakland/San Francisco) CB&Q, D&RGW, WP 5–6 daily 345,558 376,932 2,438 142
Capitol Corridor Auburn, CaliforniaSacramentoSan Jose via Oakland SP 518–553, 720–751 16 trips per weekday (8 Oakland-Sacramento, 7 San Jose-Sacramento, 1 Oakland-Auburn), 11 trips per Saturday/Sunday (6 San Jose-Sacramento, 4 Oakland-Sacramento, 1 San Jose-Auburn) 1,599,625 1,701,185 172 9,300
Capitol Limited ChicagoWashington, DC via Cleveland and Pittsburgh B&O 29–30 daily 215,371 229,668 764 282
Cardinal ChicagoNew York via Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Washington, DC PC, C&O 50–51 3 trips per week 108,614 113,103 1,147 95
Carl Sandburg ChicagoQuincy, Illinois CB&Q 381–382 daily 202,558 228,722 including the Illinois Zephyr 258 785
Carolinian New YorkCharlotte, North Carolina SOU 79–80 daily 277,740 317,550 704 395
City of New Orleans ChicagoNew Orleans IC 58–59 daily 196,659 256,816 926 212
Coast Starlight SeattleLos Angeles via Sacramento and Oakland SP 11, 14 daily 432,565 479,522 1,377 314
Crescent New YorkNew Orleans via Atlanta SOU 19–20 daily 286,576 306,733 1,377 208
Downeaster Brunswick, MaineBoston PAR 680–699 5 trips daily 460,474 559,977 116 3,970
Empire Builder ChicagoPortland, Oregon/Seattle via MinneapolisSt. Paul GN 7–8, 27–28 daily 515,444 536,391 2,206 miles (Chicago–Seattle)

2,257 miles (Chicago–Portland)

199
Empire Service New YorkNiagara Falls, New York via Albany PC 230–288 9 trips per weekday, (7 Albany-New York, 2 Niagara Falls-New York), 4 trips per Saturday (2 Albany-New York, 2 Niagara Falls-New York), 5 trips per Sunday (3 Albany-New York, 2 Niagara Falls-New York) 925,746 1,081,329 460 2,012
Ethan Allen Express New YorkRutland, Vermont via Albany D&H 290–296 daily 46,748 53,271 241 194
Heartland Flyer Oklahoma City, OklahomaFort Worth, Texas ATSF 821–822 daily 73,564 81,226 206 357
Hiawatha Service ChicagoMilwaukee, Wisconsin MILW 329–342 7 trips daily 738,231 820,789 86 8,584
Hoosier State ChicagoIndianapolis PC 850, 851 4 trips per week 31,384 36,768 196 160
Illini ChicagoCarbondale, Illinois IC 392–393 daily 259,630 340,741 including Saluki 310 838
Illinois Zephyr ChicagoQuincy, Illinois CB&Q 380,383 daily 202,558 228,722 combined with Carl Sandburg 258 785
Keystone Service New YorkHarrisburg, Pennsylvania via Philadelphia PC 600–672 13 trips per weekday (9 Harrisburg-New York, 4 Harrisburg-Philadelphia), 7 trips per Saturday/Sunday (6 Harrisburg-New York, 1 Harrisburg-Philadelphia) 1,215,785 1,466,504 195 6,235
Lake Shore Limited New YorkChicago via Albany with connection from Boston PC 48, 49, 448, 449 daily 334,456 395,455 959 (Chicago – New York)

1,018 (Chicago – Boston)

349
Lincoln Service ChicagoSt. Louis, Missouri GM&O 300–307 4 trips daily 506,235 655,465 284 1,783
Maple Leaf New YorkToronto, Ontario via Albany PC 63–64 daily 354,492 (2008) 406,973 544 652
Missouri River Runner St. LouisKansas City MP 311, 313, 314, 316 daily 190,628 199,470 283 785
Northeast Regional Boston, Massachusetts/Springfield, MassachusettsNew YorkPhiladelphiaBaltimoreWashington, DCNorfolk, Virginia/Newport News, Virginia PC 66, 67, 78, 82–88, 93–95, 99, 110, 111, 121, 125, 127, 129–131, 133–143, 145–148, 150–199 20 per weekday (13 Boston-Washington, 2 Boston-Richmond, 2 Boston-Newport News, 1 Boston-Norfolk, 1 Boston-Lynchburg, 1 Springfield-Washington), 17 per Saturday/Sunday (9 Boston-Washington, 2 Boston-Richmond, 2 Boston-Newport News, 2 Springfield-Washington, 1Boston-Norfolk, 1 Boston-Lynchburg) 6,920,610 8,044,216

186,125 to Lynchburg 578,368 to Newport News 127,937 to Norfolk

664 10,423
Pacific Surfliner San Luis Obispo, CaliforniaSan Diego, California via Los Angeles ATSF 562–597, 763–799 12 per weekday, (7 Los Angeles-San Diego, 3 Goleta-San Diego, 1 San Luis Obispo-San Diego, 1 San Luis Obispo-Los Angeles), 13 per weekday, (8 Los Angeles-San Diego, 3 Goleta-San Diego, 1 San Luis Obispo-Los Angeles, 1 San Luis Obispo-San Diego) 2,592,996 2,705,823 350 7,409
Palmetto New YorkSavannah, Georgia SCL 89–90 daily 171,316 207,915 829 207
Pennsylvanian New YorkPittsburgh, Pennsylvania via Philadelphia PC 42–44 daily 199,484 218,917 444 449
Pere Marquette ChicagoGrand Rapids, Michigan C&O 370–371 daily 103,246 104,491 176 587
Piedmont Raleigh, North CarolinaCharlotte, North Carolina SOU 73–76 2 trips daily 68,427 170,266 173 396
Saluki ChicagoCarbondale, Illinois IC 390–391 daily 259,630 340,741 including Illini 310 838
San Joaquins Oakland/SacramentoBakersfield, California SP 701–718 6 trips daily (4 Oakland-Bakersfield, 2 Sacramento-Bakersfield) 929,172 1,219,818 318 (Bakersfield–Oakland)

280 (Bakersfield–Sacramento)

2,364
Shuttle Springfield, MassachusettsNew Haven, Connecticut PC 401, 405, 450, 460, 463, 464, 466, 467, 470, 475, 476, 479, 488, 490, 493–495, 497 4 per weekday, 5 per Saturday/Sunday 325,518 390,027 63 5,167
Silver Meteor New YorkMiami, Florida SCL 97–98 daily 330,734 373,162 1,389 238
Silver Star New YorkMiami, Florida SCL 91–92 daily 371,235 414,077 1,522 244
Southwest Chief ChicagoLos Angeles via Kansas City, Missouri and Albuquerque, New Mexico ATSF 3–4 daily 318,025 355,815 2,256 141
Sunset Limited Orlando, FloridaLos Angeles via New Orleans and Houston SP 1–2 3 trips per week. New Orleans-Orlando segment suspended since Hurricane Katrina. 78,775 102,924 1,995 39
Texas Eagle ChicagoSan Antonio, Texas via St. Louis and Fort Worth MP 21–22 daily 260,467 340,081 1,306 (Chicago – San Antonio)

2,728 (Chicago – Los Angeles)

95
Vermonter St. Albans, VermontWashington, DC CV NECR 54–57 daily 74,016 84,109 611 121
Wolverine ChicagoPontiac via Detroit PC 350–355 3 trips daily 444,127 509,100 304 1,461

Full listing, including discontinued routes[edit]

Note that intercity trains were operated after 1971 by the Alaska Railroad, Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad, Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad, Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, Georgia Railroad, Reading Company, and Southern Railway. The Southern Railway and D&RGW routes were taken over by Amtrak in 1979 and 1983 respectively. In addition, the Canadian Pacific Railway's Atlantic, taken over by Via Rail in 1978, crossed northern Maine.

Northeast Corridor[edit]

Most Northeast Corridor trains were renamed NortheastDirect in the late 1990s, then Acela Regional and later just Regional. Currently most of the below named trains are called Northeast Regional. Some of these train names were changed prior to the late 1990s.

Name Route Dates operated Notes
Afternoon Congressional WashingtonNew York May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
Bankers SpringfieldWashington October 26, 1975 October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Bay State New YorkBoston May 1, 1971 (PC) November 14, 1971
WashingtonBoston November 14, 1971 October 29, 1972
PhiladelphiaBoston October 29, 1972 April 29, 1973
New HavenBoston April 29, 1973 March 1, 1975
Beacon Hill BostonNew Haven April 30, 1978 October 24, 1981 Replaced Clamdigger
Benjamin Franklin PhiladelphiaBoston February 15, 1977 Replaced Bicentennial
Bicentennial PhiladelphiaBoston February 15, 1976 February 14, 1977 Replaced Bunker Hill; replaced by Benjamin Franklin
Betsy Ross WashingtonNew York February 15, 1976
Big Apple PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker; also the name of a Keystone Service train
Bostonian New YorkBoston May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
May 19, 1974 April 29, 1978
Bowery WashingtonNew York
Bunker Hill PhiladelphiaBoston November 14, 1971 February 15, 1976 Replaced by Bicentennial
Capitol WashingtonNew York April 26, 1981
Capitol Hill WashingtonNew York
Capitol Hill Express
Capitol Sunrise PhiladelphiaWashington
Central Park PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 April 26, 1980
Charter Oak New YorkSpringfield November 14, 1971 October 28, 1972
October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Chesapeake WashingtonNew York April 29, 1973 June 11, 1977
PhiladelphiaWashington April 30, 1978 October 29, 1983 Maryland/Pennsylvania-funded commuter service
New YorkRichmond October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Clamdigger New HavenProvidence October 31, 1976 October 28, 1977
January 8, 1978 April 30, 1978 Replaced by Beacon Hill
Clockers PhiladelphiaNew York October 25, 1981 October 28, 2005 Unnamed 1971–1979; carried individual names 1979–1981
Colonial WashingtonBoston May 1, 1971 (PC) April 28, 1973
February 15, 1976 June 15, 1976
Newport NewsBoston June 15, 1976 October 26, 1992 Replaced by Old Dominion
Concord WashingtonBoston:
Congressional WashingtonNew York November 14, 1971 December 16, 1971
April 30, 1978
BostonWashington October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Connecticut Connector SpringfieldNew Haven October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Connecticut Valley Service SpringfieldNew Haven October 25, 1981 Previously unnamed
Connecticut Yankee WashingtonSpringfield November 14, 1971 October 29, 1972
WashingtonNew Haven October 29, 1972 April 29, 1973
PhiladelphiaSpringfield April 29, 1973 June 11, 1977
WashingtonSpringfield October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
East Wind New YorkBoston November 14, 1971 October 28, 1973
WashingtonBoston October 28, 1973 February 14, 1976
Edison PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker
Embassy WashingtonNew York May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
October 31, 1976 April 25, 1981
Evening Executive Washington, D.C.New Haven November 14, 1971 June 10, 1972
Evening Liberty Express PhiladelphiaBoston April 30, 1978 October 27, 1979
Evening Metropolitan WashingtonNew York
PhiladelphiaNew York
Executive Sleeper WashingtonNew York April 27, 1986 August 19, 1994 Washington-New York section of the Night Owl; renamed from Washington Executive
Fairfield
Fast Mail WashingtonBoston/Springfield October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Federal WashingtonBoston
First State
Flying Yankee New YorkBoston May 19, 1974 April 29, 1978 Replaced Shoreliner
Foggy Bottom WashingtonNew York
Free State WashingtonNew York November 14, 1971 October 28, 1973
Garden State PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker
Garden State Special
Georgetown WashingtonNew York
Gotham PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker
Gotham Express Boston/SpringfieldNew York October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Gotham Limited Newport NewsNew York
Herald Square PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker
WashingtonNew York October 25, 1981 Replaced Times Square
Independence New YorkWashington October 25, 1981
WashingtonSpringfield October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
James River Newport NewsWashington October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Jeffersonian New YorkWashington, D.C. October 25, 1981
John Adams PhiladelphiaBoston June 12, 1977 April 29, 1978
Keystone PhiladelphiaNew York October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker; also the name of a Keystone Service train
Knickerbocker New YorkBoston May 19, 1974 June 11, 1977
Legislator WashingtonNew York May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
Liberty Bell PhiladelphiaNew York
Liberty Express PhiladelphiaBoston October 28, 1979
Mail Express
Manhattan New YorkBoston, Massachusetts May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
August 15, 1973 October 28, 1973 Replaced Manhattan Turbo
Manhattan Express RichmondNew York October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Manhattan Limited PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker
WashingtonNew York October 25, 1981
Manhattan Turbo New YorkBoston, Massachusetts October 29, 1972 August 15, 1973 Replaced by Manhattan
Mayflower WashingtonBoston May 19, 1974 September 12, 1975
October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Merchants WashingtonBoston November 20, 1977 April 30, 1978 Renamed from and to Merchants Limited
Merchants Limited New YorkBoston May 1, 1971 (PC) November 14, 1971
WashingtonBoston November 14, 1971 October 28, 1995 Named Merchants (November 20, 1977 – April 30, 1978); replaced by NortheastDirect
Metroliner WashingtonNew York May 1, 1971 (PC) October 27, 2006
Morning Executive Washington, D.C.New Haven November 14, 1971 June 10, 1972
Metropolitan Washington, D.C.New York April 26, 1981
Midday Congressional WashingtonNew York May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
Minute Man PhiladelphiaBoston June 12, 1972 April 29, 1973
WashingtonBoston April 29, 1973 October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Morning Liberty Express PhiladelphiaBoston April 30, 1978 October 27, 1979
Mount Vernon WashingtonNew York May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
February 15, 1976 June 14, 1976
April 27, 1980
Murray Hill New YorkBoston May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
WashingtonNew York October 28, 1973 October 28, 1978
PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker
Narragansett New YorkBoston November 14, 1971 October 27, 1973
PhiladelphiaBoston February 15, 1976 June 11, 1976
New England Express RichmondBoston October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
New England Zip
New Englander PhiladelphiaBoston May 19, 1974 October 25, 1975
New Jerseyan
New York Executive
New Yorker New YorkBoston May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
WashingtonNew York April 29, 1973 October 31, 1976
PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker
WashingtonNew York October 25, 1981
Nightcap WashingtonNew York November 14, 1971 June 10, 1972
October 28, 1973 February 14, 1976
Night Owl WashingtonBoston June 12, 1972 July 10, 1997 Replaced by Twilight Shoreliner
Nutmeg State WashingtonSpringfield October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Old Dominion Newport NewsBoston Replaced Colonial
SpringfieldRichmond October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Patriot WashingtonBoston May 1, 1971 (PC) October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Philadelphian PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Previously unnamed; renamed Clocker
Pilgrim PhiladelphiaBoston October 28, 1973 February 15, 1976
New YorkBoston February 15, 1976 April 29, 1978
Potomac WashingtonBoston October 25, 1981
Newport NewsNew York
President WashingtonNew York May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
Quaker PhiladelphiaBoston October 28, 1973 May 18, 1974
Quaker City PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker
October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Representative WashingtonNew York May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
Rittenhouse PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker
Schuylkill PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 April 26, 1980
Senator WashingtonBoston May 1, 1971 (PC) October 24, 1981
October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Shoreliner New YorkBoston January 6, 1974 May 19, 1974 Replaced by Flying Yankee
October 28, 1979
Statesman WashingtonBoston October 28, 1973 February 14, 1977
Sundown WashingtonBoston October 28, 1973 February 14, 1976
New YorkBoston February 15, 1976 April 26, 1978
Tidewater Newport NewsNew York July 30, 1978 October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Tidewater Express BostonNewport News October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Times Square WashingtonNew York April 26, 1981 October 24, 1981 Replaced by Herald Square
Turbo ProvidenceBoston October 29, 1972 April 28, 1973
Turboservice New YorkBoston May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
Turbo Yankee Clipper New YorkBoston November 14, 1971 October 29, 1972 Renamed Yankee Clipper Turbo
Turbo York Clipper New YorkBoston November 14, 1971 January 16, 1972 Renamed Turbo Yankee Clipper
Twilight Shoreliner Newport NewsBoston
Valley Forge PhiladelphiaBoston November 14, 1971 June 12, 1972
WashingtonBoston June 12, 1972 April 29, 1973
PhiladelphiaNew Haven April 29, 1973 October 29, 1973
HarrisburgNew York October 29, 1973
Verrazano WashingtonNew York October 25, 1981
Virginian Newport News/RichmondNew York
Wall Street WashingtonNew York
Washington Executive WashingtonNew York October 28, 1984 April 26, 1986 Washington-New York section of the Night Owl; renamed Executive Sleeper
Washington Express Washington-New York October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Weekend Metroliner WashingtonNew York
William Penn PhiladelphiaNew York October 28, 1979 October 24, 1981 Renamed Clocker
Yankee Clipper New YorkBoston May 1, 1971 (PC) November 13, 1971
August 15, 1973 February 15, 1976
New YorkProvidence February 15, 1976 September 9, 1976
WashingtonBoston October 28, 1979 October 28, 1995 Replaced by NortheastDirect
Yankee Clipper Turbo New YorkBoston October 29, 1972 August 14, 1973 Renamed from Turbo Yankee Clipper

Empire Corridor[edit]

Trains operating over the Empire Corridor (the former New York Central Railroad Water Level Route) are now collectively known as the Empire Service. Individual names first appeared on the May 19, 1974, timetable.

Name Route Dates operated Notes
Unnamed #483/#484 AlbanySchenectady February 1, 1981
Bear Mountain New YorkAlbany February 15, 1977 April 29, 1978
August 3, 1980 October 25, 1980
April 26, 1981 Renamed from Henry Hudson
Capital City Express
Catskill New YorkAlbany
Cayuga New YorkBuffalo
Central Park AlbanyNew York
DeWitt Clinton New YorkAlbany May 19, 1974 April 25, 1981 Renamed from Empire Service; replaced by Rip Van Winkle
Electric City Express New YorkSchenectady April 26, 1981 Replaced Salt City Express
Empire State Express New YorkBuffalo May 19, 1974 October 30, 1974 Renamed from Empire Service
New YorkBuffaloDetroit October 31, 1974 April 24, 1976 Renamed Niagara Rainbow
New YorkBuffalo January 8, 1978 October 28, 1978 Renamed from Water Level Express
New YorkNiagara Falls October 29, 1978
Half Moon New YorkAlbany
Hendrick Hudson AlbanyNew York
Henry Hudson New YorkAlbany May 19, 1974 April 25, 1981 Renamed from Empire Service; renamed Bear Mountain
Hudson Highlander New YorkAlbany April 26, 1981 Replaced Washington Irving
Hudson River Express[3] New YorkAlbany
Hudson Valley Express New YorkSchenectady
Hudson Valley Service New YorkAlbany
Knickerbocker AlbanyNew York
Mohawk New YorkNew York April 26, 1981
New YorkSyracuse
Niagara Rainbow New YorkBuffaloDetroit April 25, 1976 January 30, 1979 Renamed from Empire State Express
New YorkNiagara Falls January 31, 1979
Nieuw Amsterdam AlbanyNew York
Oneida New YorkSyracuse
Palisades New YorkAlbany
Patroon New YorkAlbany
Rip Van Winkle[3] New YorkAlbany April 26, 1981 Replaced Rip Van Winkle
Salt City Express New YorkSyracuse May 19, 1974 April 25, 1981 Renamed from Empire Service; replaced by Electric City Express
Saratogian[4] New YorkSaratoga Springs
Sleepy Hollow New YorkAlbany
Spa Express New YorkSaratoga Springs
Spuyten Duyvil New YorkAlbany
Storm King AlbanyNew York April 26, 1981
SchenectadyNew York
Washington Irving New YorkAlbany November 15, 1974 January 31, 1981
New YorkSchenectady February 1, 1981 April 25, 1981 Replaced by Hudson Highlander
Water Level Express New YorkBuffalo May 19, 1974 January 7, 1978 Renamed from Empire Service; renamed Empire State Express
Niagara FallsNew York

Keystone Corridor[edit]

Trains operating over the Keystone Corridor (the former Pennsylvania Railroad main line) to Harrisburg are now collectively known as the Keystone Service.

Name Route Dates operated Notes
Big Apple New YorkHarrisburg April 27, 1980 April 30, 1994 Renamed Keystone Service
Harrisburg Express New YorkHarrisburg October 28, 1995 Replaced by Keystone Service
Keystone New YorkHarrisburg April 27, 1980 October 24, 1981 Replaced by Susquehanna
Keystone Executive
Keystone State Express New YorkHarrisburg April 1, 1990 Mid-1990s Replaced Valley Forge; replaced by Keystone Service
New York Express New YorkHarrisburg October 28, 1995 Replaced by Keystone Service
Silverliner Service PhiladelphiaHarrisburg April 29, 1973 November 29, 1975
New YorkHarrisburg November 30, 1975 October 24, 1981 Re-branded Keystone Service
Susquehanna New YorkHarrisburg October 25, 1981 October 29, 1994 Replaced Keystone; replaced by Keystone Service
Valley Forge New YorkHarrisburg October 28, 1973 March 30, 1990 Replaced by Keystone State Express

Northeast[edit]

Name Route Dates operated Notes
Adirondack MontrealNew York August 6, 1974 (1974-08-06) present Joint operation with Empire State Express/DeWitt Clinton until April 1975[5]
Atlantic City Express Washington, D.C.Atlantic City May 21, 1989 (1989-05-21) April 1, 1995 (1995-04-01) Replaced by the New Jersey Transit Atlantic City Line[6]
New YorkAtlantic City
Cape Codder New YorkHyannis May 3, 1986 (1986-05-03) September 29, 1996 (1996-09-29) Seasonal service.[7][8]
Downeaster BostonPortland December 15, 2001 (2001-12-15) November 1, 2012 (2012-11-01) Extended to Brunswick[9]
BostonBrunswick November 1, 2012 (2012-11-01) present [10]
Ethan Allen Express New YorkRutland December 2, 1996 (1996-12-02) present [11]
Fort Pitt PittsburghAltoona April 26, 1981 January 30, 1983
Keystone New YorkPittsburgh May 1, 1971
PC Duquesne
April 30, 1972 named the Duquesne until November 14, 1971[12]
Maple Leaf New YorkAlbanyBuffaloToronto April 26, 1981 present
Montrealer Washington, D.C.New YorkHartfordSpringfieldMontreal September 29, 1972 April 6, 1987 renamed the Vermonter when service to Montreal was cut
July 18, 1989 April 1, 1995
Pennsylvanian New YorkPittsburgh April 27, 1980 November 6, 1998
PhiladelphiaChicago November 7, 1998 January 26, 2003
New YorkPittsburgh January 27, 2003 November 1, 2004 Merged with Three Rivers
March 8, 2005 present renamed from the Three Rivers
Vermonter Washington, D.C.New YorkHartfordSpringfieldSt. Albans April 2, 1995 present renamed from the Montrealer
Washingtonian Washington, DCNew YorkHartfordSpringfieldMontreal September 29, 1972 May 19, 1974 name given to southbound Montrealer[13]

South[edit]

Name Route Dates operated Notes
Auto Train LortonSanford 30 October 1983 (1983-10-30) present
Carolina Coast New YorkSavannah 11 June 1972 (1972-06-11) 10 September 1972 (1972-09-10) [14]
Carolina Special New YorkJacksonville 15 June 1973 (1973-06-15) 3 September 1973 (1973-09-03) [15]
Carolinian New YorkCharlotte 28 October 1984 (1984-10-28) 1 September 1985 (1985-09-01)
12 May 1990 (1990-05-12) present
Champion New YorkSt. Petersburg 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) 1 October 1979 (1979-10-01) Inherited from the PC/RF&P/SCL Champion. Consolidated with the Silver Meteor.[16]
Crescent New YorkNew Orleans 1 February 1979 (1979-02-01) present Conveyed from the Southern Railway's Southern Crescent.
Florida Special New YorkMiami 17 December 1971 (1971-12-17) 14 April 1972 (1972-04-14) Replaced by the Vacationer for the 1972-1973 season.[17]
Floridian ChicagoSt. Petersburg 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) 7 October 1979 (1979-10-07) Inherited from the PC/L&N/SCL South Wind; named the South Wind until November 14, 1971.[18]
Gulf Breeze New YorkMobile 27 October 1989 (1989-10-27) 1 April 1995 (1995-04-01) Through operation with the Crescent.[19][20]
Gulf Coast Limited New OrleansMobile 29 April 1984 (1984-04-29) 6 January 1985 (1985-01-06) [21][22]
28 June 1996 (1996-06-28) 31 March 1997 (1997-03-31) [23][24]
Meteor BostonMiami/St. Petersburg 11 June 1972 (1972-06-11) 10 September 1972 (1972-09-10) Joint operation of Silver Meteor and Champion.[25]
Miamian New YorkMiami 15 December 1974 (1974-12-15) 10 January 1975 (1975-01-10) Replaced the Vacationer.[26]
Palmetto New YorkSavannah 15 June 1976 (1976-06-15) December 1988 (1988-12) [27][28]
New YorkJacksonville December 1988 (1988-12) October 1994 (1994-10)
New YorkTampa October 1994 (1994-10) 1 February 1995 (1995-02-01) Replaced the Silver Meteor's Tampa section.[29][30]
New YorkMiami 1 May 2002 (2002-05-01) 1 November 2004 (2004-11-01) Renamed from the Silver Palm.
New YorkSavannah 1 November 2004 (2004-11-01) present
Piedmont RaleighCharlotte 25 May 1995 (1995-05-25) present [31]
Silver Meteor New YorkMiami 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) 11 June 1972 (1972-06-11) Inherited from the PC/RF&P/SCL Silver Meteor. Renamed Meteor.[32]
10 September 1972 (1972-09-10) present Renamed from the Meteor.[32]
Silver Palm MiamiTampa 21 November 1982 (1982-11-21) 30 April 1985 (1985-04-30) [33][34]
New YorkMiami 10 November 1996 (1996-11-10) 1 May 2002 (2002-05-01) Renamed the Palmetto.
Silver Star New YorkMiami 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) present Inherited from the PC/RF&P/SCL Silver Star.
Vacationer New YorkMiami 15 December 1972 (1972-12-15) 27 April 1974 (1974-04-27) Seasonal operation; replaced the Florida Special. Replaced by the Miamian for the 1974-1975 season.[35]

Northeast–Midwest[edit]

Name Route Dates operated Notes
Blue Ridge Washington, D.C.Martinsburg 7 May 1973 (1973-05-07) 1986 (1986) Renamed from the Potomac Special; transferred to MARC[36][37]
Broadway Limited New YorkChicago 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) 10 September 1995 (1995-09-10) Inherited from the PC Broadway Limited; renamed the Three Rivers[38]
Capitol Limited Washington, D.C.Chicago 1 October 1981 (1981-10-01) present [39]
Cardinal Washington, D.C.Chicago 30 October 1977 (1977-10-30) 25 April 1981 (1981-04-25) Renamed from the James Whitcomb Riley.[40]
New YorkChicago 26 April 1981 (1981-04-26) 30 September 1981 (1981-09-30) [40]
8 January 1982 (1982-01-08) present [41]
Empire State Express New YorkDetroit 31 October 1974 (1974-10-31) 25 April 1976 (1976-04-25) Previously an Empire Corridor service; renamed the Niagara Rainbow.[42]
George Washington Washington, D.C./Newport News-Chicago 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) 19 May 1974 (1974-05-19) Inherited from C&O George Washington; name given to eastbound James Whitcomb Riley.[43]
Hilltopper Washington, D.C.Catlettsburg 31 May 1977 (1977-05-31) 8 January 1978 (1978-01-08) Replaced the Mountaineer.[40]
BostonCatlettsburg 8 January 1978 (1978-01-08) 1 October 1979 (1979-10-01) [40]
James Whitcomb Riley Washington, D.C./Newport NewsChicago 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) 30 October 1977 (1977-10-30) Inherited from the PC James Whitcomb Riley; renamed the Cardinal.[44]
Lake Shore New YorkChicago 10 May 1971 (1971-05-10) 6 January 1972 (1972-01-06) Unnamed until November 14, 1971.[45]
Lake Shore Limited New York/BostonChicago 31 October 1975 (1975-10-31) present [46]
Mountaineer NorfolkChicago 25 March 1975 (1975-03-25) 31 May 1977 (1977-05-31) Replaced by the Hilltopper.[47]
National Limited New York/Washington, D.C.Kansas City 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) 1 October 1979 (1979-10-01) Inherited from the PC/MP Spirit of St. Louis.[48]
Niagara Rainbow New YorkDetroit 25 April 1976 (1976-04-25) 30 January 1979 (1979-01-30) Renamed from the Empire State Express; Empire Corridor train post-1979.[49]
Potomac Special WashingtonParkersburg 14 May 1972 (1972-05-14) 6 May 1973 (1973-05-06) Renamed from the Potomac Turbo; renamed the Blue Ridge.[50]
Potomac Turbo WashingtonParkersburg 7 February 1972 (1972-02-07) 14 May 1972 (1972-05-14) Renamed from the West Virginian; renamed the Potomac Special.[51]
Shenandoah Washington, D.C.Cincinnati 31 October 1976 (1976-10-31) 30 September 1981 (1981-09-30) [52]
Skyline Connection PhiladelphiaChicago Never implemented but was listed in the Spring 2000 national timetable.[53]
Three Rivers New YorkPittsburgh 11 September 1995 (1995-09-11) 9 November 1996 (1996-11-09) Renamed from the Broadway Limited.[54]
New York-Chicago 10 November 1996 (1996-11-10) 7 March 2005 (2005-03-07) [55]
West Virginian Washington, D.C.Parkersburg 8 September 1971 (1971-09-08) 7 February 1972 (1972-02-07) Renamed the Potomac Turbo.[56]

Midwest[edit]

Name Route Dates operated Notes
Abraham Lincoln ChicagoSt. Louis 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) 14 November 1971 (1971-11-14) Inherited from GM&O Abraham Lincoln.[57]
MilwaukeeSt. Louis 14 November 1971 (1971-11-14) 30 September 1973 (1973-09-30) Replaced by Turboliner.[58]
ChicagoSt. Louis 26 October 1975 (1975-10-26) 8 January 1978 (1978-01-08) Replaced by the Ann Rutledge.[58]
Ann Rutledge ChicagoSt. Louis 15 February 1976 (1976-02-15) 30 October 1976 (1976-10-30) Replaced Turboliner.[58]
ChicagoKansas City 8 January 1978 (1978-01-08) 28 January 2009 (2009-01-28) Replaced Abraham Lincoln; renamed the Missouri River Runner.[58][59]
Arrowhead MinneapolisSuperior 16 April 1975 (1975-04-16) 15 February 1977 (1977-02-15) [60]
MinneapolisDuluth 15 February 1977 (1977-02-15) 30 April 1978 (1978-04-30) Replaced by the North Star.15 February 1977 (1977-02-15)
Badger ChicagoMilwaukee 28 October 1984 (1984-10-28) 29 October 1989 (1989-10-29) Renamed Hiawatha Service.[61]
Black Hawk ChicagoDubuque 14 February 1974 (1974-02-14) 30 September 1981 (1981-09-30) [62]
Blue Water ChicagoPort Huron 15 September 1974 (1974-09-15) 26 October 1975 (1975-10-26) Renamed the Blue Water Limited.[63]
25 April 2004 (2004-04-25) present Replaced the International Limited.[64]
Blue Water Limited ChicagoPort Huron 26 October 1975 (1975-10-26) 15 June 1976 (1976-06-15) Replaced the Blue Water; replaced by Turboliner.[65]
31 October 1976 (1976-10-31) 31 October 1982 (1982-10-31) Replaced Turboliner; replaced by the International Limited.[65][63]
Calumet ChicagoValparaiso 29 October 1979 (1979-10-29) 3 May 1991 (1991-05-03) Inherited from Conrail commuter service; unnamed until August 3, 1980.[66]
Campus ChicagoChampaign 14 November 1971 (1971-11-14) 5 March 1972 (1972-03-05) [67]
Carl Sandburg ChicagoQuincy 30 October 2006 (2006-10-30) present [68]
City of New Orleans ChicagoNew Orleans 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) 14 November 1971 (1971-11-14) Inherited from the IC City of New Orleans; replaced by the Panama Limited.[69]
1 February 1981 (1981-02-01) present Renamed from the Panama Limited.[70]
Eagle ChicagoSan Antonio 2 October 1981 (1981-10-02) 14 November 1988 (1988-11-14) Replaced the Inter-American; renamed the Texas Eagle.[71]
ChicagoSt. Louis 15 November 1988 (1988-11-15) 20 January 1990 (1990-01-20) [71]
Encore ChicagoMilwaukee 28 October 1984 (1984-10-28) 28 April 1985 (1985-04-28) [61]
Heartland Flyer Oklahoma CityFort Worth 15 June 1999 (1999-06-15) present [72]
Hiawatha ChicagoMinneapolis 14 November 1971 (1971-11-14) 16 January 1972 (1972-01-16) Renamed the Twin Cities Hiawatha.[73]
29 October 1972 (1972-10-29) 19 May 1974 (1974-05-19) Replaced by the North Coast Hiawatha.[73]
Hiawatha Service ChicagoMilwaukee 1 May 1971 (1971-05-01) 15 June 1976 (1976-06-15) Inherited from MILW Milwaukee Express; unnamed until October 29, 1972. Replaced by Turboliner.[74][61]
29 October 1989 (1989-10-29) present Renamed from the Badger, LaSalle, Nicollet and Radisson.[61]
Hoosier State ChicagoIndianapolis 1 October 1980 (1980-10-01) 8 September 1995 (1995-09-08) [75][76]
19 July 1998 (1998-07-19) 17 December 1999 (1999-12-17) Replaced by the Kentucky Cardinal.[76]
6 July 2003 (2003-07-06) present Replaced the Kentucky Cardinal.[77]
Illini ChicagoChampaign 14 November 1971 (1971-11-14) 3 March 1972 (1972-03-03) [67]
19 December 1973 (1973-12-19) 11 January 1986 (1986-01-11) [78]
ChicagoCarbondale 12 January 1986 (1986-01-12) present Replaced the Shawnee.[79]
Illinois Zephyr ChicagoQuincy 14 November 1971 (1971-11-14) present [80]
Indiana Connection ChicagoValparaiso 29 October 1979 (1979-10-29) 10 January 1986 (1986-01-10) Inherited from Conrail commuter service; unnamed until August 3, 1980.[66]
Inter-American ChicagoSt. LouisLittle RockDallasSan AntonioLaredo January 28, 1973 October 2, 1981 renamed the Eagle[81][82]
International ChicagoPort HuronToronto June 13, 1983 April 25, 2004 renamed from the International Limited
renamed the Blue Water
International Limited ChicagoPort HuronToronto October 31, 1982 June 13, 1983 renamed from the Blue Water Limited
renamed the International
Kansas City Mule St. LouisKansas City October 26, 1980 April 1, 1995
July 1, 1995 January 27, 2009 Replaced by Missouri River Runner
Kentucky Cardinal ChicagoLouisville 17 December 1999 (1999-12-17) 5 July 2003 (2003-07-05) Replaced Hoosier State; replaced by Hoosier State.[77]
Lake Cities ChicagoDetroitToledo August 3, 1980 April 1, 1995 renamed from St. Clair[83]
ChicagoPontiac April 2, 1995 April 25, 2004 renamed the Wolverine
Lake Country Limited ChicagoJanesville June 15, 2000 September 2001 [84]
LaSalle ChicagoMilwaukee October 26, 1980 October 29, 1989 Replaced Turboliner; replaced by Hiawatha Service
Lincoln Service ChicagoSt. Louis, Missouri October 30, 2006 present renamed from the State House
Lone Star ChicagoKansas CityOklahoma CityDallasHouston May 19, 1974 October 8, 1979 renamed from the Texas Chief[85]
Loop ChicagoSpringfield April 27, 1986 June 30, 1996 [86]
Marquette ChicagoMilwaukee October 26, 1980 October 28, 1984 Replaced Turboliner
Michigan Executive DetroitJackson January 20, 1975
PC commuter service
January 13, 1984 [87]
Missouri River Runner St. LouisKansas City January 28, 2009 present Renamed from the Ann Rutledge, Kansas City Mule and St. Louis Mule
Nicollet ChicagoMilwaukee October 26, 1980 October 29, 1989 Replaced Turboliner; replaced by Hiawatha Service
North Star ChicagoMinneapolisDuluth April 30, 1978 April 7, 1985 renamed from the Arrowhead[88]
Panama Limited ChicagoMemphisNew Orleans May 1, 1971
IC City of New Orleans
February 1, 1981 named the City of New Orleans until November 14, 1971; renamed the City of New Orleans
Pere Marquette ChicagoGrand Rapids August 4, 1984 present
Prairie Marksman ChicagoPeoria August 10, 1980 October 4, 1981 [89][90]
Prairie State MilwaukeeChicagoSpringfield, IllinoisSt. Louis May 1, 1971
GM&O Limited
October 1, 1973 named the Limited until November 14, 1971;[91] replaced by Turboliner
Radisson ChicagoMilwaukee October 26, 1980 October 29, 1989 Replaced Turboliner; replaced by Hiawatha Service
River Cities Kansas CitySt. LouisCarbondaleMemphisNew Orleans April 29, 1984 November 4, 1993 [92]
Saluki ChicagoChampaignCarbondale October 30, 2006 present New train running on same route as Illini train.
St. Clair ChicagoDetroit May 1, 1971
PC Twilight Limited/Michigan
May 10, 1975 Replaced by Turboliner
June 15, 1976 August 2, 1980 Renamed the Lake Cities
St. Louis Mule St. LouisKansas City October 26, 1980 April 1, 1995
July 1, 1995 January 27, 2009 Renamed the Missouri River Runner
Shawnee ChicagoCarbondale May 1, 1971
IC Shawnee
January 11, 1986 Replaced by Illini
State House ChicagoSt. Louis October 1, 1973 October 30, 2006 Renamed Lincoln Service
Texas Chief ChicagoKansas CityOklahoma CityDallasHouston May 1, 1971
ATSF Texas Chief
May 18, 1974 renamed the Lone Star[93]
Texas Eagle ChicagoSt. LouisLittle RockDallasSan AntonioLos Angeles November 15, 1988 present renamed from the Eagle
Turboliner ChicagoSt. Louis October 1, 1973 February 15, 1976 Replaced Abraham Lincoln and Prairie State; replaced by Ann Rutledge
ChicagoDetroit May 10, 1975 October 31, 1976 Replaced Wolverine and St. Clair
ChicagoMilwaukee October 26, 1975 October 26, 1980 Replaced Hiawatha Service; replaced by LaSalle, Marquette, Nicollet and Radisson
MilwaukeeChicagoDetroit October 26, 1975 June 15, 1976
ChicagoPort Huron June 15, 1976 October 31, 1976 Replaced and replaced by Blue Water Limited
Twilight Limited ChicagoDetroit October 31, 1976 April 26, 2004 renamed the Wolverine
Twin Cities Hiawatha ChicagoMilwaukeeMinneapolis January 16, 1972 June 12, 1972 Replaced Hiawatha; replaced by North Coast Hiawatha
September 8, 1977 April 30, 1978 Replaced by North Star
Wolverine ChicagoDetroitPontiac May 1, 1971
PC Wolverine
May 10, 1975 unnamed until November 14, 1971; replaced by Turboliner
June 15, 1976 present
Weekender ChicagoSt. Louis October 1, 1973 May 19, 1974 Replaced by Turboliner

Midwest–West[edit]

Name Route Dates operated Notes
California Zephyr ChicagoOmahaDenverSalt Lake CitySacramentoOakland July 16, 1983 present renamed from the San Francisco Zephyr
Chief ChicagoLos Angeles June 11, 1972 September 10, 1972
City of San Francisco ChicagoDenverCheyenneOgdenOakland November 14, 1971 June 10, 1972 renamed from a section of the Denver Zephyr
renamed the San Francisco Zephyr[94]
Denver Zephyr ChicagoDenver May 1, 1971
BN Denver Zephyr
extended to Oakland until November 14, 1971, when that section was renamed the City of San Francisco[95]
Desert Wind Los AngelesLas VegasSalt Lake CityDenverOmahaChicago October 28, 1979 May 10, 1997 [96][97]
Empire Builder ChicagoMinneapolisSpokanePortland/Seattle May 1, 1971
BN Empire Builder
present
National Chief Washington, D.C.PittsburghClevelandChicagoKansas CityAlbuquerqueLos Angeles never implemented; announced in the 1996 timetable as a through train without the need to transfer, combining the Southwest Chief and the Capitol Limited[98]
North Coast Hiawatha ChicagoMinneapolisBismarckButteSpokaneSeattle June 5, 1971
BN North Coast Limited
October 7, 1979 unnamed until November 14, 1971[99]
San Francisco Zephyr ChicagoOmahaDenverCheyenneOgdenSacramentoOakland June 11, 1972 July 15, 1983 renamed from the City of San Francisco
renamed the California Zephyr[100]
Southwest Chief ChicagoKansas CityAlbuquerqueLos Angeles October 28, 1984 present renamed from the Southwest Limited
Southwest Limited ChicagoKansas CityAlbuquerqueLos Angeles May 19, 1974 October 28, 1984 renamed from the Super Chief
renamed the Southwest Chief[101]
Sunset Limited OrlandoJacksonvilleNew OrleansHoustonSan AntonioLos Angeles May 1, 1971
SP Sunset Limited
present
Super Chief ChicagoKansas CityAlbuquerqueLos Angeles May 1, 1971
ATSF Super Chief/El Capitan
May 19, 1974 Named the Super Chief/El Capitan until May 1973
renamed the Southwest Limited[102][103]

West[edit]

Name Route Dates operated Notes
Amtrak Cascades VancouverSeattlePortlandEugene May 17, 1998 present
Capitol Corridor AuburnSacramentoOaklandSan Jose December 11, 1991 present
Cascadia SeattlePortlandEugene 1995 May 16, 1998 renamed from the Mount Rainier
renamed Amtrak Cascades[104]
Coast Daylight Los AngelesOakland May 1, 1971
SP Coast Daylight
May 19, 1974 unnamed until November 14, 1971
joint operation with the Coast Starlight as Coast Starlight/Daylight[105]
Coast Starlight SeattlePortlandOaklandLos Angeles May 1, 1971
SP/BN Cascade; SP Coast Daylight; ATSF San Diegan
present unnamed until November 14, 1971; terminated at San Diego 1971-1972[106]
Expo '74 SeattleSpokane May 19, 1974 September 14, 1974
Las Vegas Limited Los AngelesLas Vegas May 21, 1976 August 8, 1976
Mount Adams SeattlePortland October 30, 1994 May 16, 1998 replaced the Northwest Talgo; renamed the Amtrak Cascades[107]
Mount Baker International SeattleVancouver May 26, 1995 1998 renamed the Amtrak Cascades[108]
Mount Rainier SeattlePortland May 1, 1971
BN unnamed
1995 unnamed until November 14, 1971
renamed Cascadia[109]
Northwest Talgo SeattlePortland April 1, 1994 October 30, 1994 replaced by the Mount Adams
Orange County Commuter Los AngelesSan Juan Capistrano 1990 1994 replaced by Metrolink Orange County Line[110]
Pacific International SeattleVancouver July 17, 1972[111]
BN International
September 30, 1981[112] [113]
Pacific Surfliner San DiegoLos AngelesSanta BarbaraSan Luis Obispo June 1, 2000 present renamed from the San Diegan
Pioneer DenverCheyenneOgdenBoisePortlandSeattle June 7, 1977 May 10, 1997 [114][115]
Puget Sound SeattlePortland, Oregon May 1, 1971
BN unnamed
June 7, 1977 unnamed until November 14, 1971;[116] replaced by Pioneer
San Diegan Los AngelesSan Diego May 1, 1971
ATSF San Diegan
June 25, 1988 unnamed until November 14, 1971
Los Angeles or Santa BarbaraSan Diego June 26, 1988 April 1996 only one train daily went as far as Santa Barbara, the rest stopped in Los Angeles
Los Angeles or San Louis ObispoSan Diego April 1996 May 31, 2000 only one train daily went as far as San Louis Obispo, the rest stopped in Los Angeles;
renamed the Pacific Surfliner[117]
San Joaquin Oakland/SacramentoBakersfield March 5, 1974 present [118]
Spirit of California Los AngelesSanta BarbaraOaklandSacramento October 25, 1981 September 30, 1983 [119][120]
Willamette Valley PortlandEugene August 3, 1980 December 31, 1981 [121][122]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Amtrak posts second-best ridership in history". Amtrak. October 12, 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  2. ^ "Amtrak Sets Ridership Record And Moves The Nation's Economy Forward - America’s Railroad helps communities grow and prosper" (PDF) (Press release). Amtrak. October 14, 2013. Retrieved 2014-09-03. 
  3. ^ a b Pollak, Michael (2005-09-25). "Names With a Past". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-06. 
  4. ^ Wade, Betsy (1997-05-11). "Amtrak Gets Late Start On Summer Schedule". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-06. 
  5. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 169
  6. ^ Waltzer, Jim. "Waltz Through Time: An Express Derailed". Atlantic City Weekly. Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  7. ^ Wren, Patricia (July 5, 1986). "TIES RENEWED ON N.Y.-CAPE TRAIN RIDE". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2013-06-28. 
  8. ^ "Amtrak cancels NYC-Cape Cod train". The Standard-Times (New Bedford). Associated Press. May 11, 1997. Retrieved 2012-07-03. 
  9. ^ "Amtrak's Downeaster rolls out". Daily Herald. December 16, 2001. p. 2. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  10. ^ "Downeaster Service to Freeport & Brunswick Begins November 1, 2012" (Press release). NNEPRA. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012. 
  11. ^ "In Amtrak History". Amtrak Ink 18 (11). December 2013. 
  12. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 116
  13. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 168
  14. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 155
  15. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 155
  16. ^ Goldberg 1981, pp. 140-141
  17. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 154
  18. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 94
  19. ^ "Gulf Breeze button". Amtrak.com. November 14, 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  20. ^ "AMTRAK ELIMINATES GULF BREEZE TRAIN SERVICE; REPLACES WITH THRUWAY BUS SERVICE". PR Newswire. 3 Apr 1995. 
  21. ^ Stennis, Todd. "History". Southern High-Speed Rail Commission. Retrieved 2011-12-26. 
  22. ^ Herbert, H. Josef (February 18, 1985). "Amtrak tries to improve service while cutting costs". Santa Cruz Sentinel. p. 36. Retrieved October 5, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  23. ^ Russell, Kelly (October 7, 1996). "Amtrak's Gulf Coast Limited riding on borrowed time". Mississippi Business Journal  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Retrieved 28 October 2012. 
  24. ^ "AMTRAK TO CUT SEATTLE-CHICAGO PIONEER RAIL SERVICE". Seattle Post-Intelligencer  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). March 21, 1997. Retrieved 28 October 2012. 
  25. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 140
  26. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 154
  27. ^ "Southern Amtrak passenger train scheduled". News-Tribune. April 11, 1976. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  28. ^ "Travel Advisory". New York Times. December 18, 1988. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  29. ^ "National Timetable". Amtrak. October 30, 1994. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  30. ^ Weaver, Jay (January 7, 1995). "Amtrak won't cut trips through Ocala". Star-Banner. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  31. ^ McDowell, Edwin (June 7, 1995). "Business Travel; There have been 10 billion passengers since that first commercial flight across Tampa Bay in 1914". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-04. 
  32. ^ a b Goldberg 1981, p. 140
  33. ^ "Pardon me boy - Is that the Silver Palm for Tampa?". Miami News. October 16, 1982. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  34. ^ Marmor, Jon (May 1, 1985). "Silver Palm Comes to End Of the Line". Palm Beach Post. 
  35. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 154
  36. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 134
  37. ^ West Virginia Department of Transportation, State Rail Authority (March 12, 2013). "West Virginia State Rail Plan: Maryland Area Regional Commuter Service". Retrieved October 5, 2014. 
  38. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 27
  39. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 42
  40. ^ a b c d Goldberg 1981, p. 125
  41. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 43
  42. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 65
  43. ^ Goldberg 1981, pp. 123-124
  44. ^ Goldberg 1981, pp. 123-125
  45. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 19
  46. ^ Sanders 2006, pp. 19-21
  47. ^ Goldberg 1981, pp. 124-125
  48. ^ Goldberg 1981, pp. 101-103
  49. ^ Sanders 2006, pp. 65-67
  50. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 134
  51. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 134
  52. ^ Sanders 2006, pp. 68-70
  53. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 77
  54. ^ Sanders 2006, pp. 27-30
  55. ^ "The final Three Rivers service rolls through Ohio, Indiana". Associated Press. 2005. 
  56. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 134
  57. ^ Goldberg 1981, pp. 75-76
  58. ^ a b c d Goldberg 1981, p. 224
  59. ^ "Missouri Amtrak trains get a new name". USA Today. January 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-10. 
  60. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 224
  61. ^ a b c d "Appendix 6-B: Chronology of Amtrak Service in Wisconsin". Wisconsin Rail Plan 2030. 
  62. ^ Sanders 2006, pp. 248-251
  63. ^ a b Sanders 2006, p. 204
  64. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 207
  65. ^ a b Goldberg 1981, p. 225
  66. ^ a b Sanders 2006, pp. 214-217
  67. ^ a b Sanders 2006, p. 100
  68. ^ "Amtrak fact sheet: State Supported sector". NARP. 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2014. 
  69. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 94
  70. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 96
  71. ^ a b Sanders 2006, p. 114
  72. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 118
  73. ^ a b Goldberg 1981, p. 231
  74. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 114
  75. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 212
  76. ^ a b Sanders 2006, p. 220
  77. ^ a b Sanders 2006, p. 221
  78. ^ Sanders 2006, pp. 100-101
  79. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 101
  80. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 243
  81. ^ trainweather.com
  82. ^ everything2.com
  83. ^ Sanders 2006, pp. 197–201
  84. ^ everything2.com
  85. ^ Sanders 2006, pp. 109-113
  86. ^ www.lib.niu.edu
  87. ^ michiganrailroads.com
  88. ^ everything2.com
  89. ^ ChicagoRailfan.com
  90. ^ rrpicturearchives.net
  91. ^ everything2.com
  92. ^ www.everything2.com
  93. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 109
  94. ^ everything2.com
  95. ^ everything2.com
  96. ^ everything2.com
  97. ^ trainweb.com
  98. ^ everything2.com
  99. ^ everything2.com
  100. ^ everything2.com
  101. ^ everything2.com
  102. ^ everything2.com
  103. ^ azrail.org
  104. ^ everything2.com
  105. ^ Goldberg 1981, pp. 16-17
  106. ^ Goldberg 1981, p. 16
  107. ^ everything2.com
  108. ^ everything2.com
  109. ^ everything2.com
  110. ^ everything2.com
  111. ^ Knox, Paul (July 18, 1972). "Seattle-Vancouver train runs again". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 2011-12-16. 
  112. ^ "Some of the changes". Telegraph Herald. October 1, 1981. Retrieved 2011-12-16. 
  113. ^ everything2.com
  114. ^ everything2.com
  115. ^ trainweb.com
  116. ^ everything2.com
  117. ^ everything2.com
  118. ^ Cook, Gale (March 10, 1974). "San Joaquin Valley Amtrak Route Draws Some Tart Comments". Modesto Bee. 
  119. ^ "New Train 'Spirit of California'". Ventura County Advisor. December 24, 1981. Retrieved August 26, 2013. 
  120. ^ "Amtrak on the Property" (May 1986). Passenger Train Journal, p. 27. PTJ Publishing.
  121. ^ "First run for train". The Bulletin. August 4, 1980. 
  122. ^ Wyant, Dan (December 29, 1981). "Slide closes rail line near Oakridge". The Register-Guard. 

References[edit]

Trains prior to Amtrak[edit]