List of Ancient Greek temples

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The Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens, (174 BC-132 AD), with the Parthenon (447-432 BC) in the background

This list of Ancient Greek temples covers temples built by the Hellenic people from the 6th century BC until the 2nd century AD on mainland Greece and in Hellenic towns in the Aegean Islands, Asia Minor, Sicily and Italy, wherever there were Greek colonies, and the establishment of Greek culture. Ancient Greek architecture was of very regular form, the construction being "post and lintel". There are three clearly defined styles: the Doric Order, found throughout Greece, Sicily and Italy; the Ionic Order, from Asia Minor, with examples in Greece; and the more ornate Corinthian Order, used initially only for interiors, becoming more widely used during the Hellenistic period from the 1st century BC onwards and used extensively by Roman architects.

Each Ancient Greek temple was dedicated to a specific god within the pantheon and was used in part as a storehouse for votive offerings. Unlike a church, the interior space was not used as a meeting place, but held trophies and a large cult statue of the deity.

Terminology[edit]

Plans of Ancient Greek Temples
Top: 1. distyle in antis, 2. amphidistyle in antis, 3. tholos, 4. prostyle tetrastyle, 5. amphiprostyle tetrastyle,
Bottom: 6. dipteral octastyle, 7. peripteral hexastyle, 8. pseudoperipteral hexastyle, 9. pseudodipteral octastyle

Most Ancient Greek temples were rectangular, and were approximately twice as long as they were wide, with some notable exceptions such as the enormous Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens with a length of nearly 2 1/2 times its width. A number of surviving temple-like structures are circular, and are referred to as tholos.[1]

The smallest temples are less than 25 metres (approx. 75 feet) in length, or in the case of the circular tholos, in diameter. The great majority of temples are between 30–60 metres (approx. 100–200 feet) in length. A small group of Doric temples, including the Parthenon, are between 60–80 metres (approx. 200–260 feet) in length. The largest temples, mainly Ionic and Corinthian, but including the Doric Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Agrigento, were between 90–120 metres (approx. 300–390 feet) in length.

The temple rises from a stepped base or "stylobate", which elevates the structure above the ground on which it stands. Early examples, such as the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, have two steps, but the majority, like the Parthenon, have three, with the exceptional example of the Temple of Apollo, Didyma, having six.[2] The core of the building is a masonry-built "naos" within which is a cella, a windowless room originally housing the statue of the god. The cella generally has a porch or "pronaos" before it, and perhaps a second chamber or "antenaos" serving as a treasury or repository for trophies and gifts. The chambers were lit by a single large doorway, fitted with a wrought iron grill. Some rooms appear to have been illuminated by skylights.[2]

On the stylobate, often completely surrounding the naos, stand rows of columns. Each temple is defined as being of a particular type, with two terms: one describing the number of columns across the entrance front, and the other defining their distribution.[2]

Examples:

  • Distyle in antis describes a small temple with two columns at the front, which are set between the projecting walls of the pronaos or porch, like the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnus. (see left, figure 1.) [2]
  • Amphiprostyle tetrastyle describes a small temple that has columns at both ends which stand clear of the naos. Tetrastyle indicates that the columns are four in number, like those of the Temple on the Ilissus in Athens. (figure 4.) [2]
  • Peripteral hexastyle describes a temple with a single row of peripheral columns around the naos, with six columns across the front, like the Theseion in Athens. (figure 7.) [2]
  • Peripteral octastyle describes a temple with a single row of columns around the naos, (figure 7.) with eight columns across the front, like the Parthenon, Athens. (figs. 6 and 9.) [2]
  • Dipteral decastyle describes the huge temple of Apollo at Didyma, with the naos surrounded by a double row of columns, (figure 6.) with ten columns across the entrance front.[2]
  • The Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Agrigento, is termed Pseudo-periteral heptastyle, because its encircling colonnade has pseudo columns that are attached to the walls of the naos. (figure 8.) Heptastyle means that it has seven columns across the entrance front.[2]

Note:

Precise measurements are not available for all buildings. Some have foundations that are intact and have been well surveyed so that the dimensions can be stated with accuracy. For others the size can only be estimated from scant remains. In these cases, in converting, measurements are stated to the nearest whole number. Some measurements may have been made originally in feet, converted to metres for publication, and converted back to feet for this article, with slight differences from some older publication.


Greece, Asia Minor, Sicily and Italy[edit]

Image Name Location Date Dimensions Notes
(sort by Classical Order)
Full Medusa pediment at the Archaelogical museum of Corfu.jpg Temple of Artemis Greece:
Corfu

37°38′20″N 21°37′47″E / 37.63877°N 21.62969°E / 37.63877; 21.62969
c. 580 BC 23.46 m × 49.00 m
(76.97 ft × 160.76 ft)[3]
Doric peripteral pseudodipteral temple,[3] which may be the earliest known to incorporate all the major elements of the Doric order.[4] It is the earliest known Doric temple to have been built entirely in stone.[3]
20090725 olympia15.jpg Temple of Hera Greece:
Olympia

37°38′20″N 21°37′47″E / 37.63877°N 21.62969°E / 37.63877; 21.62969
c. 590 BC[5] 18.75 m × 50.01 m
(61.5 ft × 164.1 ft)[6]
Doric peripteral hexastyle building with 16 columns at each side, being long for its breadth in the Archaic style of this date.[6] The building was originally of wood and clay brick construction on a stone base, with the wooden external columns and internal hypostyle columns being replaced with stone piecemeal, so columns are greatly varied.[5]
20100409 korinthos33.JPG The Temple of Apollo Greece:
Corinth

37°54′22″N 22°52′45″E / 37.90604°N 22.87916°E / 37.90604; 22.87916
c. 540 BC[5] 21.36 m × 53.30 m
(70.1 ft × 174.9 ft)[7]
Doric peripteral hexastyle temple with 15 columns at each side with two inner chambers on a crepidoma of 3 steps. It was like the Temple of Hera at Olympia, but built entirely of stone.[7] The columns were monolithic with seven of the original 38 surviving. The broad capitals were carved as separate pieces and coated with marble stucco.[8]
A Delphi detail.JPG The Temple of Apollo Greece:
Delphi

38°28′57″N 22°30′05″E / 38.48241°N 22.50145°E / 38.48241; 22.50145
c. 510 BC[5] 23.82 m × 60.32 m
(78.1 ft × 197.9 ft)[9]
Doric temple on the side of Mount Parnassus, had its legendary origins with the mythical hero architects Trophonius and Agamedes. This, the third temple on the site (330 BC), is by Spintharus, Xenodoros and Agathon. with sculpture by Praias and Androsthenes, retained a hexastyle form with 15 columns at the sides from an earlier building, and was constructed of porous limestone. Little of the temple remains beyond its foundations.[10]
Aegina, The Temple of Aphaia.jpg The Temple of Aphaia Greece:
Aegina

37°45′16″N 23°31′59″E / 37.75448°N 23.53306°E / 37.75448; 23.53306
c. 490 BC[5] 15.5 m × 30.5 m
(51 ft × 100 ft)[11]
Doric temple which commands a high point on the east side of the island of Aegina, 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Athens. It has a peripteral hexastyle plan with 12 columns along each side, showing the development towards temples that were shorter for their width. The interior has a hypostyle in two stages.[12] The Doric Order demonstrates great refinement throughout.[13] Ceramic roof ornaments and pedimental sculpture showing the battle before Troy have survived.[14] No metopes have been found, and it is thought that they were of wood.[15]
Tempio di Zeus Olimpia April 2006.jpg The Temple of Zeus Greece:
Olympia

37°38′16″N 21°37′48″E / 37.63786°N 21.63010°E / 37.63786; 21.63010
c. 460 BC[5] 27.43 m × 64 m
(90.0 ft × 210.0 ft)[16]
Doric, architect: Libon of Elis.[17] A refined peripteral hexastyle temple with 13 columns along each side, in the Classical manner. It had pedimental sculpture of "outstanding magnificence".[16] The local limestone was covered with stucco, while the sculpture, tiles and gutters were marble[18] with bronze acroteria. From 448 BC it housed a colossal chryselephantine statue of Zeus 12 metres (40 feet) high by Pheidias.[17]
Ilissos leftovers.JPG The Temple on the Ilissus
(No photo of the remains of the temple available)
Greece:
Athens

37°58′06″N 23°43′59″E / 37.96835°N 23.73305°E / 37.96835; 23.73305
449 BC[19] approx. 6 m × 12.8 m
(20 ft × 42 ft)[20]
A small Ionic temple, architect: Callicrates, beside the Ilissus River which ran through Athens. It was amphi-prostyle tetrastyle. It differed from the small temples and treasuries by builders from Asia Minor in having a frieze around the entablature.[20]
Temple of Hephaestos The Temple of Hephaestos Greece:
Athens

37°58′32″N 23°43′17″E / 37.97556°N 23.72145°E / 37.97556; 23.72145
449 BC - 444 BC[5] 13.72 m × 31.77 m
(45.0 ft × 104.2 ft)[21]
Also known as the Theseion, a Doric peripteral hexastyle building with 13 columns at each side.[21] It is well preserved externally, having been modified at the eastern end to serve as an Orthodox church. It has internal friezes over the porches at either end and has retained much of the original marble coffering over the ambulatory, some with original colourful paint.[17]
Bassai Temple Of Apollo Detail straight.JPG The Temple of
Apollo Epicurius
Greece:
Bassae

37°25′47″N 21°54′01″E / 37.42972°N 21.90028°E / 37.42972; 21.90028
c. 450 BC - 425 BC[5] 14.6 m × 38.3 m
(48 ft × 126 ft)[22]
The architect, Ictinus, introduced the use of all three orders within a single building and orientated the building north south instead of east west. While the ends appear a regular hexastyle temple, it is very long for its width, about 2.3:1 The interior had many unusual features including Ionic capitals of unique design, a central Corinthian column and an asymmetrically placed statue of Apollo, lit by a side door facing the morning sun.[22][23]
The Parthenon The Parthenon Greece:
Athens

37°58′17″N 23°43′36″E / 37.97146°N 23.72667°E / 37.97146; 23.72667
447 BC - 432 BC[5] 30.86 m × 69.5 m
(101.2 ft × 228.0 ft)[24]
A temple of the Doric Order commanding the Acropolis of Athens. The most renowned of Greek temples and one of the most influential buildings in the world of architecture. Built for Pericles by Ictinus and Callicrates and ornamented with sculpture under the direction of Pheidias. A peripetral octastyle plan, with a ratio of about 4:9. The hypostyle naos contained a colossal statue of Athena. A second chamber, the parthenon or "virgins' chamber" was supported on four tall Ionic columns. While the High Classical sculpture of the exterior is contained by pediment and metope in the Doric style, a frieze encircles the exterior wall of the naos in the Ionic manner. The temple remained relatively intact until the 18th century, from when it suffered several incidents of serious damage. Much of its sculptured ornament is in the British Museum.[24]
Tempio di Poseidone.jpg The Temple of Poseidon Greece:
Sounion

37°39′01″N 24°01′28″E / 37.65023°N 24.02445°E / 37.65023; 24.02445
444 BC - 440 BC[5] 13.47 m × 31.12 m
(44.2 ft × 102.1 ft)[25]
Doric peripteral hexastyle building, with attenuated columns (6.12m) and the perfected Classical proportion of being just slightly longer than twice its width and representing, with the Parthenon and the Temple of Poseidon at Paestum, the ultimate refinement of the Doric Order. Remnants of its frieze depicting the story of Theseus and the Battle of Lapiths and Centaurs survive.[26]
Ramnous001.JPG The Temple of Nemesis Greece:
Rhamnous

38°13′03″N 24°01′37″E / 38.21760°N 24.02689°E / 38.21760; 24.02689
436 BC - 432 BC[5] 10.05 m × 21.4 m
(33.0 ft × 70.2 ft)
Doric hexastyle temple with 12 columns on the sides, with the columns left unfluted and the stylobate unfinished.
Temple of athena nike 2010.jpg The Temple of
Athena Nike
Greece:
Athens

37°58′17″N 23°43′31″E / 37.97152°N 23.72514°E / 37.97152; 23.72514
427 BC[19] approx. 5.5 m × 8 m
(18 ft × 26 ft)[27]
Ionic temple[19] also called "Nike Apteros" (Victory without wings), architect: Callicrates. A small amphi-prostyle tetrastyle temple, which was built close to the Propylaea on the Acropolis. The temple was demolished in 1687 and the stone reused for Turkish fortifications, but were recovered and the temple reassembled in 1836.[19][27]
Erechtheum- Acropolis of Athens.jpg The Erechtheion Greece:
Athens

37°58′19″N 23°43′35″E / 37.97206°N 23.72652°E / 37.97206; 23.72652
421 BC - 405 BC[19] approx. 11.5 m × 22.85 m
(37.7 ft × 75.0 ft)[27]
Ionic temple on the Acropolis of Athens[19] dedicated to Athena Polias, defender of the city; Erechtheus and Poseidon. Architect: Mnesicles.The building is highly irregular, as there are encroaching sacred sites on two sides, and the ground falls away steeply. The main part is an amphi-prostyle hexastyle building with its portico to the east and encircled by a frieze of black limestone previously adorned with marble figures. There are three chambers, the larger dedicated to Athena and accessed by the eastern portico. The north porch is tetrastyle two bays deep and contains a large doorway in a good state of preservation. The southern porch has six caryatids (7 ft 9 ins high) supporting the entablature.[28]
Tholos Athena Pronaia.JPG The Tholos of Athena Greece:
Delphi

38°28′49″N 22°30′29″E / 38.48016°N 22.50803°E / 38.48016; 22.50803
c. 400 BC[19] diameter: 14.76 m (48.4 ft)[11] A circular temple or treasury built by Theodorus of Phocaea which established the pattern of circular temples.[29] An early example of a Doric exterior with a Corinthian interior.[30] The exterior and interior had 20 and 10 columns respectively.[31]
Epidauros Abaton 2008-09-11.jpg The Temple of Asclepius
(foreground)
Greece:
Epidauros

37°35′55″N 23°04′28″E / 37.59850°N 23.07433°E / 37.59850; 23.07433
c. 380 BC[5] approx. 80 m × 43 m
(262 ft × 141 ft)
Doric hexastyle building with 11 columns on the sides,[32] architect: Theodotus. It had pedimental sculpture by Timotheos, including acroteria in the form of small statues.[33] The expense accounts for the construction of this temple have survived.[32]
(Picture: The ruins of the temple's foundations are in the foreground. The columns are part of the Stoa of the Sick and mark an area dedicated to Asclepius.)[34]
20100408 epidaure21.JPG The Tholos of Polycleitus Greece:
Epidauros

37°35′54″N 23°04′26″E / 37.59835°N 23.07398°E / 37.59835; 23.07398
c. 350 BC[5] diameter: 21.95 m (72.0 ft)[35] A circular temple or treasury, surrounded by twenty six columns of the Doric Order and having 14 internal Corinthian columns.[35]
Olympia Philippeion 2010 4.jpg The Philippeion Greece:
Olympia

37°38′19″N 21°37′45″E / 37.63863°N 21.62916°E / 37.63863; 21.62916
339 BC[23] diameter: 16 m (52 ft)[35] Ionic tholos, with 18 external Ionic columns and 9 internal Corinthian columns, architect: Leochares[35] It was built as a memorial to Philip II of Macedon and his family.
Delos 3023.jpg The Delian Temple
of Apollo
Greece
Delos

37°24′02″N 25°16′01″E / 37.40058°N 25.26708°E / 37.40058; 25.26708
470 BC - c. 300 BC[5] approx. 13 m × 30 m
(43 ft × 98 ft)[36]
Doric peripteral hexastyle building with 13 columns on the sides. . With other temple buildings inside the sanctuary at Delos. Its completion was delayed. The whole site is in a ruinous state and little of the temple remains except the outer part of the crepidoma.[36]
0417 - Siracusa - Tempio di Apollo - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto - 21-May-2008.jpg The Temple of Apollo Sicily:
Syracuse

37°03′50″N 15°17′35″E / 37.06394°N 15.29297°E / 37.06394; 15.29297
565 BC[5] 21.57 m × 55.33 m
(70.8 ft × 181.5 ft)[21]
Doric peripteral hexastyle building with 17 columns down each side and an additional row of columns at the eastern end. The columns at the sides are very close together.[21]
Temple Of Olmpian Zeus retouched.jpg The Temple of
the Olympian Zeus
Greece:
Athens

37°58′10″N 23°43′59″E / 37.96934°N 23.73310°E / 37.96934; 23.73310
174 BC - AD 132[23] 44.35 m × 110.5 m
(145.5 ft × 362.5 ft)[37]
A huge Corinthian temple, architect: Cossutius. Built as a gift to Athens by Antiochus Epiphanes and constructed in 3 stages. It was dipteral octastyle and was long for its width in the style off the much earlier Archaic period. It had 20 columns on each side and a triple row at the porticos, 104 columns, (diameter: 1.9 metres diameter, height: 17 metres high)(6 ft 4 ins; 56 ft). Some of the columns were shipped to Rome before the temple was complete and used for the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus where they had a profound affect on Roman architecture. It was completed and dedicated by Hadrian, more than 300 years after it began. Only 15 columns remain.[23][37][38]
Selinunte, View of the Acropolis from the Eastern Temple Group.jpg Selinunte Temple “C” Sicily:
Selinunte

37°34′59″N 12°49′31″E / 37.58316°N 12.82528°E / 37.58316; 12.82528
c. 550 BC[5] 23.93 m × 63.76 m
(78.5 ft × 209.2 ft)[39]
One of a group of Doric temples on the Acropolis or "western group" at Selinunte.[5] (distant view) It has similarities to the Temple of Apollo at Syracuse. It is a peripteral hexastyle temple with 17 columns at the sides and an additional row of columns at the eastern end. Like other temples at this location it had a second room, only accessible from the naos, which was narrow and had no internal columns. The aisles are correspondingly wider.[39] Metopes from this temple showing Archaic sculpture of the Labours of Hercules are in the National Museum, Palermo.[40]
Temple of Hera (c).jpg The Temple of Hera I Italy:
Paestum

40°25′10″N 15°00′19″E / 40.41932°N 15.00536°E / 40.41932; 15.00536
c. 530 BC[5] 24.26 m × 59.98 m
(79.6 ft × 196.8 ft)[41]
One of the earliest Doric temples to have survived substantially intact.[42] Also known as "the Basilica", it is an unusual building with 9 columns across the front, 18 on each side and a row of columns along the centre of the naos; peripteral enneastyle in plan.[43] Its columns have very marked entasis (cigar-shaped) and flattened bulging capitals[44]
Selinunte - Templi Orientali (Temple E) 18.JPG The Temple of Hera,
(Temple "E")
Sicily:
Selinunte

37°35′12″N 12°50′05″E / 37.58662°N 12.83480°E / 37.58662; 12.83480
5th century BC[39] 25.32 m × 67.74 m
(83.1 ft × 222.2 ft)[39]
The best preserved Doric temple at Selinunte, it is in the eastern group with Temple "F" and Temple "G". It is a peripteral hexastyle temple with 15 columns at each side, wide aisles and a broad flight of steps to the stylobate. . It has a long narrow naos and inner chamber like other temples at Selinunte but has inner porches at both ends in the Greek manner.[39]
Selinunte-Temple F 01.JPG Selinunte Temple "F" Sicily:
Selinunte

37°35′14″N 12°50′06″E / 37.58727°N 12.83492°E / 37.58727; 12.83492
5th century BC 24.23 m × 61.83 m
(79.5 ft × 202.9 ft)[39]
Doric hexastyle temple with 14 columns at each side. The columns appear to have had a low screen wall running between them. In other ways it strongly resembles Selinunte Temple "C", having wide aisles, a deep colonnaded porch and a long narrow naos with a second chamber.[39] It at the eastern temple site at Selinunte, between Temples "E" and "G". It is in a ruined state.
Selinunte AF3.JPG The Great Temple of Apollo, (Temple "G") Sicily:
Selinunte

37°35′17″N 12°50′06″E / 37.58819°N 12.83491°E / 37.58819; 12.83491
c. 520 BC - 450 BC[5] 50.10 m × 110.36 m
(164.4 ft × 362.1 ft)[39]
Doric peripteral octastyle temple with 18 columns at the sides, in the eastern group at Selinunte, with Temples "E" and "F". It is the largest temple at this site and was never completed. It is now in a state of total ruin. An ambitious building of distinctive plan, having a stylobate rising in two levels and aisles of sufficient width to suggest that either a second row of columns was intended, or that the builders of Sicily, unlike their mainland Greek counterparts, used the trussed roof. The colonnaded inner porch has side, as well as front columns, so that the temple might be termed "pseudo-dipteral". There was a double row of columns within the cella, rising in two stages, of very much more delicate proportions than the exterior colonnade.[39]
Paestum BW 2013-05-17 13-58-28.jpg The Temple of Athena Italy:
Paestum

40°25′28″N 15°00′20″E / 40.42451°N 15.00545°E / 40.42451; 15.00545
c. 510 BC[5] 14.54m 32.88m
(47' 8" x 107' 10")[45]
Also called the Temple of Demeter, a Doric peripteral hexastyle building with thirteen columns at the side, having proportions that were to be established as the Doric ideal in such buildings as the Temple of Poseidon at Sunion. The columns have pronounced entasis and the capitals are large and wide.[46] This temple had a number of Ionic features, including the columns of its inner porch and the moulding that ran between the architrave and typically Doric frieze of triglyphs and metopes[47]
Agrigento-Tempio di Zeus Olimpico Atlas01.JPG The Temple of
the Olympian Zeus
Sicily:
Agrigento

37°17′27″N 13°35′04″E / 37.29082°N 13.58441°E / 37.29082; 13.58441
c. 510 BC - 409 BC[5] 52.75 m × 110 m
(173.1 ft × 360.9 ft)[43]
Doric pseudoperipteral building with seven attached columns (height: approx. 17 metres)(56 ft) across the front with Atlantes (height: 6 metres)(20 feet) (shown left) between them. The building's coarse exterior stone was coated with marble stucco.[43]
Lateral duomo.jpg The Temple of Athena Sicily:
Syracuse

37°03′35″N 15°17′37″E / 37.05965°N 15.29354°E / 37.05965; 15.29354
480 BC[5] 22 m × 55 m
(72 ft × 180 ft)[39]
Of Doric hexastyle plan with 14 columns at the sides. Part of the structure is incorporated in Syracuse Cathedral.[39]
Agrigento5 (js).jpg The Temple of
Hera Lacinia
Sicily:
Agrigento

37°17′19″N 13°36′00″E / 37.28860°N 13.60013°E / 37.28860; 13.60013
c. 460 BC[5] 16.89 m × 38.13 m
(55.4 ft × 125.1 ft)[39]
Doric temple built south east of the large ancient city of Agrigento, with the Temple of Concord, the Temple of Zeus Olympias and several others, in an area known as the Valle dei Templi[39]
Paestum Poseindontempel2.JPG The Temple of Poseidon Italy:
Paestum

40°25′12″N 15°00′19″E / 40.41997°N 15.00530°E / 40.41997; 15.00530
c. 460 BC[5] 18.25 m × 60.35 m
(59.9 ft × 198.0 ft)[43]
Doric, one of the best preserved temples, showing a consolidation of ideas of design that were developing towards an "ideal type" already prevalent in Greece. It is a hexastyle temple with rather stout columns (8.85 metres high)(29 ft) and a hypostyle naos rising in two stages. (also thought to have been dedicated to Hera)[5][43]
Agrigent BW 2012-10-07 13-09-13.jpg The Temple of Concord Sicily:
Agrigento

37°17′23″N 13°35′31″E / 37.28963°N 13.59202°E / 37.28963; 13.59202
c. 430 BC[5] 16.92 m × 39.42 m
(55.5 ft × 129.3 ft)
Doric temple (Agrigento "F") is a very well preserved peripteral hexastyle building with 13 columns at each side, in the manner of temples in Greece.
Segesta BW 2012-10-10 17-18-06.jpg The Temple at Segesta Sicily:
Segesta

37°56′29″N 12°49′57″E / 37.94147°N 12.83239°E / 37.94147; 12.83239
c. 424 BC[5] 21 m × 56 m
(69 ft × 184 ft)[11]
Doric peripteral hexastyle plan, is unusual in having unfluted columns that stand on square plinths in two stages.[48] It also has no cella walls. These features probably indicate that the building was left incomplete, but it has been suggested that no cella was intended.[39]
Miniaturk 009.jpg The Archaic Temple
of Artemis

(a model of the lost temple)
Turkey:
Ephesus

37°56′59″N 27°21′50″E / 37.94968°N 27.36381°E / 37.94968; 27.36381
c. 560 BC,
lost 356 BC[49]
over 50m x 110m
(appx. 170' x 360')[50]
One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was the fourth temple on the site. It was probably a dipteral octastyle plan, with columns having up to 48 flutes, and a varied design on the Ionic capitals which were each 3 metres wide (10 ft). The lower part of each column had an encircling frieze of figures and stood on a deeply moulded torus and, used here for the first time, a square plinth that was to become an accepted feature of Classical architecture. The temple was burnt out in 356 BC and rebuilt.[50]
Heraion antika fötter, Samos, Grekland.JPG The Temple of Hera Greece:
Samos

37°40′19″N 26°53′08″E / 37.67190°N 26.88556°E / 37.67190; 26.88556
c. 540 BC[49] 52.45 m × 108.6 m
(172.1 ft × 356.3 ft)[51]
Ionic temple, architects: Rhoikos and Theodoros of Samos, of dipteral plan, having two rows of 8 columns at the eastern end and two rows of 9 at the western and 24 columns at each side.. It was built on the site of the earliest very large Ionic temple, destroyed by fire. It was of similar plan, and retained the bases of the earlier temple's columns within its foundations.[51]
Ac artemisephesus.jpg The Temple of Artemis Turkey:
Ephesus

37°56′59″N 27°21′50″E / 37.94968°N 27.36381°E / 37.94968; 27.36381
c. 356 BC[49] 64.3 m × 119.175 m
(210.96 ft × 390.99 ft)[50]
Ionic temple, architects: Demetrius and Paeonius of Ephesus; sculptor: Scopas. Centre of the Pan-Ionian festival. The 5th temple on the site, it was dipteral octastyle at the front, with the space between the columns increasing towards the central space, where the stone lintel (height: 1.2 metres)(4 ft) spanned over 8.5 metres (28 ft). At the rear, the temple had 9 columns. The temple's stylobate was raised on a high crepidoma (height: 2.75 metres)( 9 ft). The Ionic capitals were much less wide than those of the Archaic temple, and the columns had the regular 24 flutes. A feature which appears to have been introduced at this temple was the cubic pedestal between the column and its square plinth. The entablature, like others of Asia Minor, had no frieze.[50]
Templeofathenaprienemay2007.jpg The Temple of
Athena Polias
Turkey:
Priene

37°39′34″N 27°17′47″E / 37.65932°N 27.29646°E / 37.65932; 27.29646
c. 334 BC[49] 19.5m x 37. 2m
(64' x 122')[20]
Ionic temple, architect: Pythius of Priene, of peripteral hexastyle temple, with ratio approximately 1:2. The columns (height: 11.45)(37 ft 6 ins) rest on plinths. Like many other Ionic temples of Asia Minor, there was no frieze.[20]
Artemistempel Sardes.jpg The Temple of
Artemis – Cybele
Turkey:
Sardis

38°28′45″N 28°01′53″E / 38.47921°N 28.03128°E / 38.47921; 28.03128
c. 325  BC[49] 48.78 m × 91.44 m
(160.0 ft × 300.0 ft)[52]
One of the largest Ionic temples. It was dipteral octastyle, with its entrance to the west. It was left unfinished, with further construction around 275 BC and was completed by the Romans. Little remains standing except the foundations, two intact columns and several stumps.[52]
Milète sanctuaire d'Apollon.jpg The Temple of
Apollo Didymaeus
Turkey:
Miletus

37°23′05″N 27°15′23″E / 37.38486°N 27.25639°E / 37.38486; 27.25639
313 BC – AD 41[49] 45.75 m × 109.45 m
(150.1 ft × 359.1 ft)[20]
Ionic temple with early Corinthian features,[23][49] architects: Paeonius of Ephesus and Daphnis of Miletus. This dipteral decastyle temple with 21 columns on each side, was not much smaller than the enormous Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. It was under construction for about 250 years but was never completed. The naos was never roofed, but remained a sunken courtyard in which there was a shrine that housed the statue of Apollo. The temple had a door flanked by attached columns with early examples of Corinthian capitals.[20][53]
Teos.jpg The Temple of Dionysus Turkey:
Teos

38°10′38″N 26°47′06″E / 38.17723°N 26.78502°E / 38.17723; 26.78502
193 BC[49] 18.5 m × 35 m
(61 ft × 115 ft)[54]
Ionic temple,[49] architect: Hermogenes of Priene, was peripteral hexastyle with 11 columns at the sides. The columns were set on plinths and there was a frieze of Dyonisiac scenes.[55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Banister Fletcher pp. 107-109
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Banister Fletcher
  3. ^ a b c Darling, Janina K. (2004). Architecture of Greece. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32152-3. 
  4. ^ Cruickshank, Dan (2000). Architecture: 150 Masterpieces of Western Architecture. New York, New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-0289-6. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Banister Fletcher, p. 112, List of Doric temples, with dates
  6. ^ a b Boardman, The Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece, p.33.
  7. ^ a b Boardman, Art and Architecture...., pp. 31-32.
  8. ^ Copplestone, p.45
  9. ^ Perseus Digital Library, Temple of Apollo, (accessed: 30-06-2011)
  10. ^ Ancient Greece. org, Temple of Apollo at Delphi, accessed; 27-06-2011
  11. ^ a b c Transferred from Wikipedia article page, unreferenced
  12. ^ Banister Fletcher, pp. 115-119
  13. ^ Copplestone, p. 48
  14. ^ Strong, p. 59
  15. ^ Copplestone, P. 44
  16. ^ a b Strong, p. 61
  17. ^ a b c Banister Fletcher, p.119
  18. ^ Boardman, Art and Architecture... p. 34.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Banister Fletcher, p. 129, List of Ionic temples with dates
  20. ^ a b c d e f Banister Fletcher, p. 131
  21. ^ a b c d Boardman, Art and Architecture..., p. 38
  22. ^ a b Banister Fletcher. pp. 123 - 125
  23. ^ a b c d e Banister Fletcher, p. 139, List of Corinthian temples, with dates
  24. ^ a b Banister Fletcher, pp. 119-123
  25. ^ Perseus Digital Library, Sounion, Temple of Poseidon, (accessed: 30-06-2011)
  26. ^ Copplestone, p. 47 - 48
  27. ^ a b c Banister Fletcher, p. 133
  28. ^ Banister Fletcher, p. 133 - 137
  29. ^ Copplestone, p. 46
  30. ^ Boardman, Greek Art, pp. 138 - 139
  31. ^ Ancient Greece.org, Delphi Tholos plan accessed 27-06-2011
  32. ^ a b Dinsmoor, p. 218
  33. ^ Jose Dorig in Boardman, Art and Architecture.... p. 435
  34. ^ Banister Fletcher, p.106
  35. ^ a b c d Banister Fletcher, p. 109
  36. ^ a b Perseus Digital Library, The Delian Temple of Apollo, accessed 2011-07-27
  37. ^ a b Boardman, Art and Architecture..., p. 48
  38. ^ Banister Fletcher, pp. 109, 140
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Boardman, Art and Architecture... p. 39 - 41
  40. ^ Strong, p. 159 -160
  41. ^ Perseus Project, Rebuilding the Temple of Hera, (accessed: 30-06-2011)
  42. ^ Moffett, Fazio, Wodehouse, p.48
  43. ^ a b c d e Banister Fletcher, p. 114-115
  44. ^ Boardman, Greek Art, p. 61
  45. ^ Perseus Digital Library, Temple of Athena, (accessed: 30-06-2011)
  46. ^ Copplestone, p. 49
  47. ^ Boardman, Art and Architecture.... p. 40
  48. ^ Copplestone, p.49
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i Banister Fletcher, p. 128, List of Ionic temples, with dates
  50. ^ a b c d Banister Fletcher, pp. 129 - 131
  51. ^ a b Boardman, Art and Architecture...., p. 42
  52. ^ a b Sacred destinations, Temple of Artems, Sardis, accessed: 2011-07-27
  53. ^ Boardman, Art and Architecture...., pp. 46 - 47.
  54. ^ Transferred from Wikipedia article, Hermogenes of Priene, unreferenced
  55. ^ Dinsmoor, p. 274

Bibliography[edit]

Major source for this list: Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method, Seventeenth edition, revised by R.A. Cordingley, Athlone Press, (1963) Chapter III, Greek Architecture, pp. 89 – 165

Additional references[edit]

  • John Boardman, Greek Art, Thames and Hudson, (1964), ISBN 0-500-18036-9
  • John Boardman, Jose Dorig, Werner Fuchs and Max Hirmer, ‘’The Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece’’, Thames and Hudson, London, (1967)
  • Trewin Copplestone (editor), Lloyd, Rice, Lynton, Boyd, Carden, Rawson, Jacobus, World Architecture: an Illustrated History, Paul Hamlyn, (1968); Seton Lloyd, Chapter 1: Ancient & Classical Architecture
  • William Bell Dinsmoor, William James Anderson, The Architecture of Ancient Greece: an account of its historic development, Biblo and Tannen, (1973) ISBN 0-8196-0283-3
  • Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method (2001). Elsevier Science & Technology. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9.
  • Helen Gardner; Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art through the Ages. Thomson Wadsworth, (2004) ISBN 0-15-505090-7.
  • Marian Moffett, Michael Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse, ‘’A World History of Architecture’’, Lawrence King Publishing, (2003), ISBN 1-85669-353-8.
  • Donald E. Strong, ‘’The Classical World’’, Paul Hamlyn, London (1965) ISBN 978-0-600-02302-9
  • Henri Stierlin, Greece: From Mycenae to the Parthenon, Taschen, (2004), ISBN 978-3-8228-1226-6