List of Anseriformes by population

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This is a list of Anseriformes species by global population. While numbers are estimates, they have been made by the experts in their fields.

Anseriformes (Anser being Latin for "goose") is the taxonomic order to which the ducks, geese, swans, and screamers belong. BirdLife International has assessed 166 species; 89 (54% of total species) have had their population estimated. A variety of methods are used for counting waterfowl. For example in North America, national and sub-national agencies use planes and helicopters to make aerial transects of breeding populations, and extrapolate these counts over the species' known ranges. Methodologies are continuously being refined; thus estimates can be expected to become more accurate over time. Forecasts can be made by studying habitat condition trends and by interviewing local experts.[1] For more information on how these estimates were ascertained, see Wikipedia's articles on population biology and population ecology.

The first bird in this list, the crested shelduck, retains a status of Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List but may in fact be extinct. The last confirmed reporting was in 1964 near Vladivostok. North Korea claimed a sighting in March 1971, but this record is highly suspect. Unconfirmed reports do, however, periodically roll in from Northeast China, giving scientists hope that the last individual has not yet died.[2] To be assessed as Critically Endangered a species must have experienced a decline of at least 80% in the past ten years or three generations, or be projected to decline that much in the future ten years or three generations.[3] As some species below are rapidly approaching their minimum viable population (MVP), the future may see their removal from the list and addition to the preceding paragraph.

Extinct species:


Species by global population[edit]

Common name Binomial name Population Status Trend Notes Image
Crested shelduck Tadorna cristata 50[2] CR[2] Unknown[2] Estimate is a likely maximum.[2] Shiryou k.jpg
Madagascar pochard Aythya innotata 50[13] CR[13] Steady[13] Maximum estimate; recently rediscovered.[13] Madagascar Pochard, Captive Breeding Program, Madagascar 4.jpg
Brazilian merganser Mergus octosetaceus 50 – 249[14] CR[14] Decrease[14] Estimate is for mature individuals only; numbers may be higher.[14] Mergus octosetaceus 2.png
Campbell teal Anas nesiotis 150 – 300[15] EN[15] Increase[15] Campbell Island Teal.JPG
Baer's pochard Aythya baeri 250 – 999[16] CR[16] Decrease[16] Baer's Pochard RWD4.jpg
White-winged duck Cairina scutulata 350 – 1500[17] EN[17] Decrease[17] White-winged Duck RWD3.jpg
Laysan duck Anas laysanensis 521[18] CR[18] Increase[18] Laysan teal male.jpg
Auckland teal Anas aucklandica 600 – 2000[19] VU[19] Steady[19] Estimate is for mature individuals only.[19] Anas aucklandica.jpg
Bernier's teal Anas bernieri 1500 – 2500[20] EN[20] Decrease[20] Bernier's Teal RWD.jpg
Blue duck Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos 1800[21] EN[21] Decrease[21] Whio (Blue Duck) at Staglands, Akatarawa, New Zealand.jpg
Brown teal Anas chlorotis 1900[22] EN[22] Increase[22] Brown Teal Male.JPG
Meller's duck Anas melleri 2000 – 5000[23] EN[23] Decrease[23] Anas.melleri.3.jpg
Hawaiian duck Anas wyvilliana 2200[24] EN[24] Decrease[24] Hawaiian Duck RWD3.jpg
Nene Branta sandvicensis 2500[25] VU[25] Increase[25] Nene RWD4d.jpg
Bronze-winged duck Speculanas specularis 2500 – 9999[26] NT[26] Steady[26] Bronze-winged Duck pair RWD.jpg
Northern screamer Chauna chavaria 2500 – 9999[27] NT[27] Decrease[27] Chauna chavaria-8.jpg
Salvadori's teal Salvadorina waigiuensis 2500 – 20 000[28] VU[28] Decrease[28] Salvadorina waigiuensis 1895.jpg
Scaly-sided merganser Mergus squamatus 3600 – 6800[29] EN[29] Decrease[29] Estimate is rough; further research needed.[29] 253 Schuppensäger 2009123ß.JPG
New Zealand scaup Aythya novaeseelandiae 5000 – 10 000[30] LC[30] Increase[30] NZ Scaup 01.jpg
Philippine duck Anas luzonica 5000 – 10 000[31] VU[31] Decrease[31] Philippine duck.jpg
Chubut steamer duck Tachyeres leucocephalus 5300 – 5600[32] VU[32] Decrease[32] White-headed Flightless Steamer Duck (Tachyeres leucocephalus).PNG
White-headed duck Oxyura leucocephala 7 900 – 13 100[33] EN[33] Decrease[33] White-headed Duck.jpg
Maccoa duck Oxyura maccoa 9 000 – 11 750[34] NT[34] Decrease[34] Maccoa Duck SMTC.jpg
Andean teal Anas andium 10 000 – 19 999[35] LC[35] Decrease[35] AnasAndiumSmit.jpg
Blue-winged goose Cyanochen cyanoptera 10 000 – 25 000[36] VU[36] Decrease[36] Blue-winged Goose RWD2.jpg
Coscoroba swan Coscoroba coscoroba 10 000 – 25 000[37] LC[37] Steady[37] Coscoroba coscoroba1.jpg
Orinoco goose Neochen jubata 10 000 – 25 000[38] NT[38] Decrease[38] Estimate is for mature individuals only.[29] Orinoco Goose.jpg
Spotted whistling duck Dendrocygna guttata 10 000 – 25 000[39] LC[39] Steady[39] Spotted Whistling Duck RWD3.jpg
Flying steamer duck Tachyeres patachonicus 11 000 – 26 000[40] LC[40] Decrease[40] Flying Steamer Duck (Tachyeres patachonicus) (5).jpg
Freckled duck Stictonetta naevosa 11 000 – 26 000[41] LC[41] Steady[41] Freckled-Duck-male.jpg
White-backed duck Thalassornis leuconotus 12 000 – 28 000[42] LC[42] Decrease[42] White-backed Duck RWD2.jpg
Cape Barren goose Cereopsis novaehollandiae 16 000 – 18 000[43] LC[43] Steady[43] Cereopsis novaehollandiae 2.jpg
Blue-billed duck Oxyura australis 18 000[44] NT[44] Steady[44] Blue-billed-duck.jpg
Hartlaub's duck Pteronetta hartlaubii 26 000 – 110 000[45] LC[45] Decrease[45] Hartlaub's Duck RWD.jpg
Lesser white-fronted goose Anser erythropus 28 000 – 33 000[46] VU[46] Decrease[46] Zwerggans (Anser erythropus) - Weltvogelpark Walsrode 2011.jpg
Eaton's pintail Anas eatoni 31 200 – 41 400 [47] VU[47] Decrease[47] Has not been estimated since the 1980s; numbers have probably declined.[47] Anas eatoni.jpg
Red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis 37 000[48] EN[48] Decrease[48] Minimum estimate.[48] Red-breasted goose arp.jpg
Ruddy-headed goose Chloephaga rubidiceps 43 000 – 82 000[49] LC[49] Decrease[49] Chloephaga rubidiceps1.jpg
Marbled duck Marmaronetta angustirostris 50 000 – 55 000[50] VU[50] Decrease[50] Marbled Teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) RWD2.jpg
Masked duck Nomonyx dominicus 50 000 – 499 999[51] LC[51] Decrease[51] Oxyura dominica.jpg
Muscovy duck Cairina moschata 50 000 – 499 000[52] LC[52] Decrease[52] Muscovy Duck SMTC.jpg
Swan goose Anser cygnoides 60 000 – 90 000[53] VU[53] Decrease[53] Anser cygnoides-Beijing.jpg
Mandarin duck Aix galericulata 65 000 – 66 000[54] LC[54] Decrease[54] Aix galericulata - Zürich - Hafen Riesbach 2011-01-14 15-58-32.JPG
Emperor goose Chen canagica 85 000[55] NT[55] Decrease[55] Minimum estimate.[55] Emperor Goose on nest (orange head).jpg
Falcated duck Anas falcata 89 000[56] NT[56] Decrease[56] Minimum estimate.[56] Falcated.duck.arp.750pix.jpg
Black swan Cygnus atratus 100 000 – 1 000 000[57] LC[57] Steady[57] Black swan jan09.jpg
Smew Mergellus albellus 130 000[58] LC[58] Decrease[58] Minimum estimate.[58] Smew RWD1.jpg
Cotton pygmy goose Nettapus coromandelianus 130 000 – 1 100 000[59] LC[59] Steady[59] Nettapus coromandelianus male - Bueng Boraphet.jpg
Ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea 170 000 – 220 000[60] LC[60] Unknown[60] Ruddy shelduck arp.jpg
Whooper swan Cygnus cygnus 180 000[61] LC[61] Unknown[61] Minimum estimate.[61] Singschwan.jpg
Pacific black duck Anas superciliosa 180 000 – 1 200 000 [62] LC[62] Unknown[62] Pacific Black Duck jun08.jpg
Harlequin duck Histrionicus histrionicus 190 000 – 380 000[63] LC[63] Increase[63] Histrionicus histrionicus drake Barnegat.jpg
Lesser whistling duck Dendrocygna javanica 200 000 – 2 000 000[64] LC[64] Steady[64] Dendrocygna javanica (Lesser Whistling Duck - Zwergpfeifgans) Weltvogelpark Walsrode 2012-009.jpg
Surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata 250 000 – 1 300 000[65] LC[65] Decrease[65] Melanitta perspicillata.jpg
Tundra swan Cygnus columbianus 300 000[66] LC[66] Unknown[66] Minimum estimate.[66] Cygnus bewickii 01.jpg
Spectacled eider Somateria fischeri 330 000 – 390 000[67] LC[67] Decrease[67] Spectacled Eider pair.jpg
Velvet scoter Melanitta fusca 380 000[68] EN[68] Decrease[68] Melanitta fusca.jpg
Red-breasted merganser Mergus serrator 510 000 – 610 000[69] LC[69] Steady[69] Mergus serrator -New Jersey -USA -winter-8.jpg
Black scoter Melanitta americana 530 000 – 830 000[70] NT[70] Decrease[70] BlackScoter23.jpg
Brant goose Branta bernicla 560 000[71] LC[71] Unknown[71] Minimum estimate.[71] Brent Goose - defensive position.jpg
Common shelduck Tadorna tadorna 580 000 – 710 000[72] LC[72] Increase[72] Tadorna tadorna (aka).jpg
Mute swan Cygnus olor 600 000 – 610 000[73] LC[73] Increase[73] CygneVaires.jpg
West Indian whistling duck Dendrocygna arborea 600 000 – 610 000[74] VU[74] Increase[74] West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arborea) RWD2.jpg
White-winged scoter Melanitta stejnegeri 600 000 – 1 000 000[75] LC[75] Decrease[75] White-winged Scoter.jpg
King eider Somateria spectabilis 790 000 – 930 000[76] LC[76] Decrease[76] Somateria spectabilis -Central Park Zoo, New York, USA -male-8a.jpg
Spot-billed duck Anas zonorhyncha 800 000 – 1 600 000[77] LC[77] Decrease[77] Duck, Spot Billed specifically Eastern Spot Billed RWD.jpg
Cackling goose Branta hutchinsii 920 000 – 1 400 000[78] LC[78] Unknown[78] Small Cackling Goose Brood.jpg
Magpie goose Anseranas semipalmata 1 000 000[79] LC[79] Steady[79] Magpie goose.jpg
Rosy-billed pochard Netta peposaca 1 000 000[80] LC[80] Increase[80] Rosy-billed Pochard (Netta peposaca) RWD.jpg
Grey teal Anas gracilis 1 000 000 – 1 100 000[81] LC[81] Decrease[81] Anas gracilis tas.jpg
Greylag goose Anser anser 1 000 000 – 1 100 000[82] LC[82] Increase[82] Greylag Goose - St James's Park, London - Nov 2006.jpg
Black-bellied whistling duck Dendrocygna autumnalis 1 100 000 – 2 000 000[83] LC[83] Increase[83] Whistling duck flight02 - natures pics-edit1.jpg
Bufflehead Bucephala albeola 1 200 000[84] LC[84] Increase[84] Minimum estimate.[84] Bucephala-albeola-007.jpg
Greater scaup Aythya marila 1 200 000 – 1 400 000[85] LC[85] Decrease[85] Greater-scaup-male2.jpg
Fulvous whistling duck Dendrocygna bicolor 1 300 000 – 1 500 000[86] LC[86] Decrease[86] Dendrocygna bicolor, London Wetland Centre, UK - Diliff.jpg
Common scoter Melanitta nigra 1 600 000[87] LC[87] Unknown[87] Melanitta nigra.jpg
Common merganser Mergus merganser 1 700 000 – 2 400 000[88] LC[88] Increase[88] Mergus merganser -Sandwell -England -male-8.jpg
White-faced whistling duck Dendrocygna viduata 1 700 000 – 2 800 000[89] LC[89] Increase[89] White-faced Whistling Duck with chicks RWD.jpg
Common pochard Aythya ferina 2 200 000 – 2 500 000[90] LC[90] Decrease[90] Aythya ferina Sandwell 2.jpg
Common goldeneye Bucephala clangula 2 500 000 – 4 600 000[91] LC[91] Steady[91] Common Goldeneye.jpg
Garganey Anas querquedula 2 600 000 – 2 800 000[92] LC[92] Decrease[92] Garganey (Anas querquedula) RWD3.jpg
Tufted duck Aythya fuligula 2 600 000 – 2 900 000[93] LC[93] Steady[93] Aythya fuligula1.jpg
Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope 2 800 000 – 3 300 000[94] LC[94] Decrease[94] Anas penelope kuribo cropped.jpg
Common eider Somateria mollissima 3 100 000 – 3 800 000[95] LC[95] Unknown[95] Flickr - Rainbirder - Eider drake (Somateria mollissima) in flight.jpg
Gadwall Anas strepera 3 200 000 – 3 800 000[96] LC[96] Unknown[96] Anas-strepera-001.jpg
Northern pintail Anas acuta 5 300 000 – 5 400 000[97] LC[97] Decrease[97] Northern Pintails (Male & Female) I IMG 0911.jpg
Northern shoveler Anas clypeata 5 500 000 – 6 000 000[98] LC[98] Decrease[98] Northern Shoveler by Dan Pancamo.jpg
Long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis 6 200 000 – 6 800 000[99] VU[99] Decrease[99] Long-tailed-duck.jpg
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 19 000 000[100] LC[100] Decrease[100] Minimum estimate.[100] Mallard in flight.jpg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States Fish and Wildlife Service (20 July 2012). "Waterfowl Population Status, 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-23. 
  2. ^ a b c d e BirdLife International (2012). "Tadorna cristata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  3. ^ IUCN (2001). "V. THE CRITERIA FOR CRITICALLY ENDANGERED, ENDANGERED AND VULNERABLE". Retrieved 2012-12-23. 
  4. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Alopochen kervazoi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  5. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Alopochen mauritianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  6. ^ Olson, Storrs L.; Jouventin, Pierre (February 1996). "A new species of small flightless duck from Amsterdam Island, southern Indian Ocean (Anatidae: Anas)" (PDF). The Condor 98 (1): 1–9. doi:10.2307/1369501. Retrieved 2012-12-23. 
  7. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Anas marecula". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  8. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Anas theodori". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-12-23. 
  9. ^ "Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Mariana Mallard and the Guam Broadbill From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife" (PDF). Federal Registry 69 (34): 8116–8119. 23 Feb 2004. Retrieved 2012-12-23.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  10. ^ "New Zealand Ecology: Teal". TerraNature Trust. 2010–2011. Retrieved 2012-12-23. 
  11. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Camptorhynchus labradorius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  12. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Mergus australis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  13. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Aythya innotata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  14. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Mergus octosetaceus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  15. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anas nesiotis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  16. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Aythya baeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  17. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Cairina scutulata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  18. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anas laysanensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  19. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Anas aucklandica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  20. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anas bernieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  21. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  22. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anas chlorotis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  23. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anas melleri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  24. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anas wyvilliana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  25. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Branta sandvicensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  26. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Speculanas specularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  27. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Chauna chavaria". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  28. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Salvadorina waigiuensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  29. ^ a b c d e BirdLife International (2012). "Mergus squamatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  30. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Aythya novaeseelandiae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  31. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anas luzonica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  32. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Tachyeres leucocephalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  33. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Oxyura leucocephala". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  34. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Oxyura maccoa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  35. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anas andium". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  36. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Cyanochen cyanoptera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  37. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Coscoroba coscoroba". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  38. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Neochen jubata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  39. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Dendrocygna guttata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  40. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Tachyeres patachonicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  41. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Stictonetta naevosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  42. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Thalassornis leuconotus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  43. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Cereopsis novaehollandiae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  44. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Oxyura australis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  45. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Pteronetta hartlaubii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  46. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anser erythropus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  47. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Anas eatoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  48. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Branta ruficollis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  49. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Chloephaga rubidiceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  50. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Marmaronetta angustirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  51. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Nomonyx dominicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  52. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Cairina moschata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  53. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anser cygnoides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  54. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Aix galericulata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  55. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Chen canagica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  56. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Anas falcata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  57. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Cygnus atratus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  58. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Mergellus albellus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  59. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Nettapus coromandelianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  60. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Tadorna ferruginea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  61. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Cygnus cygnus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  62. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anas superciliosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  63. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Histrionicus histrionicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  64. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Dendrocygna javanica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  65. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Melanitta perspicillata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  66. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Cygnus columbianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  67. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Somateria fischeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  68. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Melanitta fusca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  69. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Mergus octosetaceus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  70. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Melanitta americana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  71. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Branta bernicla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  72. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Tadorna tadorna". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  73. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Cygnus olor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  74. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Dendrocygna arborea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  75. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Melanitta stejnegeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  76. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Somateria spectabilis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  77. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Anas zonorhyncha". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
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