List of Arakanese monarchs

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The following is a list of monarchs of Arakan. The dates before the Mrauk-U period (1429–1785) are unattested.

Mythological[edit]

First Danyawaddy (2666–825 BCE)[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Mara Yu 2666–2604
Mara Zi I 2604–2572 son
Mara Onlin 2572–2519 son
Mara Rwaylin 2519–2471 son
Mara Bin 2471–2416 son
Mara Zi II 2416–2383 son
Mara Kin 2383–2351 son
Nga Sha Po 2351–2330 usurper
Dwara Sanda 2330–2290 son of Mara Kin
Thola Sanda 2290–2257 son
Sanda Thuriya Sanda 2257–2220 son
Kala Sanda 2220–2180 son
Ti Sanda 2180–2149 son
Madhutha Sanda 2149–2129 son
Zeya Sanda 2129–2089 nephew
Mokkha Sanda 2089–2063 son
Gunna Sanda 2063–2051 son
Three Nobles 2051–2050 usurpers; reigned 7 days, 3 months, and 8 months successively
Kan Raza I 2050–2009 grandson of Gunna Sanda
Kan Raza II 2009–1973 brother
Athurinda Thuriya 1973–1938 uncle
Tharameta 1938–1880 son
Thuriya 1880–1849 son
Min Thi 1849–1827 brother
Min Ba 1827–1805 son
Si Aung 1805–1777 son
Tataingthin 1777–1746 brother
Kyaw-Khaung Win 1746–1715 son
Thuriya Nandameit 1715–1694 son
Athu Yindabaya 1694–1663 son
Letya Sithugyi 1663–1631 son
Thihaka 1631–1588 son
Min Bun Than 1588–1557 son
Thayet Hmwe 1557–1508 son
Zeya Nandathu 1508–1457 son
Tekkathu 1457–1411 son
Lekkhana 1411–1374 son
Gunnarit 1374–1326 son
Thiwarit 1326–1285 son
Min Hla Hmwe 1285–1254 son
Marinda 1254–1192 son
Theiddat Kumara 1192–1170 son
Min Hla I 1170–1123 son
Min Hla II 1123–1099 brother
Nga Sarit 1099–1061 son
Myet-hna Wun 1061–1030 son
Let Thut Kyi 1030–1003 son
Thiri Kamma Thunda 1003–972 brother
Nanda Kotabaya 972–945 son
Min Nan Phyu 945–925 son
Min Manu 925–897 son
Minkhaung 897–878 son
Laukkhaung Raza 878–838 son
Min Nge Pyaw-Hla-Si 838–832 son
Three nobles 832–825 usurpers

Second Danyawaddy (825 BCE–146 CE)[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Kan Raza III 825–788
Thila Raza 788–740 son
Wasa Thura 740–709 son
Nandawi Thura 709–669 son
Puna Thuriya 669–637 son
Thuranda 637–614 son
Sandima 614–577 son
Thiri Sanda 577–537 son
Thiha Ran 537–491 brother
Thiha Nu 491–471 son
Payaka 471–440 son
Nela Gun 440–399 son
Rohaha Gun 399–368 son
Thiri Gun 368–344 son
Thamaza 344–309 nephew
Kummara 309–289 son
Thet Htin Phyu 289–249 son
Tha Bin U 249–207 son
Teza Wun 207–171 brother
Munzayaba 171–137 son
Kummara Withuddi 137–50 uncle
Wathu Mun Dala 50–16 son
Thurinda 16 BCE–15 CE son
Ralamayu 15–37 brother
Nalamayu 37–68 son
Wada Gun 68–90 son
Withu Raza 90–111 son
Thiri Raza 111–146 son

Third Danyawaddy (146–788)[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Sanda Thuriya 146–198
Thuriya Dipati 198–245 son
Thuriya Patipat 245–298 son
Thuriya Rupa 298–313 son
Thuriya Mandala 313–375 son
Thuriya Wunna 375–418 son
Thuriya Natha 418–459 son
Thuriya Wuntha 459–468 son
Thuriya Banda 468–474 son
Thuriya Kalyana 474–492 son
Thuriya Mokkha 492–513 son
Thuriya Teza 513–544 son
Thuriya Ponnya 544–552 son
Thuriya Kala 552–575 son
Thuriya Pabba 575–600 son
Thuriya Sitya 600–618 son
Thuriya Thehta 618–640 son
Thuriya Wimala 640–648 son
Thuriya Renu 648–670 brother
Thuriya Gantha 670–686 son
Thuriya Thagya 686–694 uncle
Thuriya Thiri 694–714 son
Thuriya Kethi 714–723 son
Thuriya Kutta 723–746 son
Thuriya Ketu 746–788 son

Wethali (788–1018)[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Maha Taing Sanda 788–810
Thuriya Taing Sanda 810–830 son
Mawla Taing Sanda 830–849 son
Pawla Taing Sanda 849–875 son
Kala Taing Sanda 875–884 son
Tula Taing Sanda 884–903 son
Thiri Taing Sanda 903–935 son
Thinkha Taing Sanda 935–951 son
Chula Taing Sanda 951–957 son
Amyahtu 957–964 Chief of Myu people
Pe Phyu 964–994 nephew
Nga Pin Nga Ton 994–1018 son of Chula Taing Sanda

Lemro (1018–1430)[edit]

Pyinsa (1018–1103)[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Khittathin 1018–1028 grandnephew of Chula Taing Sanda
Sandathin 1028–1039 brother
Min Yin Phyu 1039–1049 son
Naga Thuriya 1049–1052 son
Thuriya Raza 1052–1054
Ponnaka 1054–1058
Min Phyugyi 1058–1060
Sithabin 1060–1061 usurper
Min Nangyi 1061–1066 son of Min Phyugyi
Min Lade 1066–1072
Min Kala 1072–1075
Min Bilu 1075–1078
Thinkhaya 1078–1092 usurper
Min Than 1092–1100 son
Min Pati 1100–1103 son

Parin (1103–1167)[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Letya Min Nan 1103–1109 grandson of Min Bilu Pagan nominee; 1118 ascension per Pagan dates
Thihaba 1109–1110 son
Razagyi 1110–1112
Thagiwin I 1112–1115
Thagiwin II 1115–1133
Kawliya 1133–1153
Datharaza 1153–1165
Ananthiri 1165–1167

Khrit (1167–1180)[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Minonsa 1167–1174 brother
Pyinsakawa 1174–1176 son
Keinnayok 1176–1179 son
Salinkabo 1179–1180 usurper

Second Pyinsa (1180–1237)[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Misuthin 1180–1191 son of Pyinsakawa
Ngaranman 1191–1193 son
Ngapogan 1193–1195 son
Ngarakhaing 1195–1198
Ngakyon 1198–1201
Ngasu 1201–1205
Swe Thin 1205–1206
Minkhaung I 1206–1207
Minkhaung II 1207–1208
Kabalaung I 1208–1209
Kabalaung II 1209–1210
Letya I 1210–1218
Letya II 1218–1229
Thanabin 1229–1232
Nganathin 1232–1234
Nganalon 1234–1237

Launggyet (1237–1406)[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Alawmaphyu 1237–1243 son
Razathu I 1243–1246 son
Sawlu 1246–1251 son
Uzana I 1251–1260 son
Saw Mon I 1260–1268 son
Nankyagyi 1268–1272 son
Min Bilu 1272–1276 son
Sithabin I 1276–1279 usurper
Min Hti 1279–1373 son of Min Bilu
Saw Mon II 1373–1380 Ava's nominee
Saw Me 1380–1385 Ava's nominee
Uzana II 1385–1387 of the royal blood
Thiwarit 1387–1390 brother
Thinhse 1390–1394 brother
Razathu II 1394–1395 son
Sithabin II 1395–1397 usurper
Myinhseingyi 1397 usurper
Razathu 1397–1401 restored
Theinkhathu 1401–1404 brother
Saw Mon III 1404–1406 nephew son of Razathu II

Interregnum (1406–1429)[edit]

North Arakan[edit]

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Anawrahta 29 November 1406 c. November 1407 Ava's vassal
Min Khayi c. November 1407 1408 Hanthawaddy's vassal
Myinsaing Myoza 1408 1409 Ava's vassal
Letya late 1409 / early 1410 1412 Governor of North Arakan (Ava's vassal)
Naranu 1412 18 April 1429 Ruler at Launnggyet (Hanthawaddy's vassal to 1421)
Kyaswa 1413 1416 Ruler at Khwethintaung (Ava's vassal)

Sandoway (Thandwe)[edit]

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Sokkate 1410 1411 Governor of Sandoway (Ava's vassal)
Thonywaza 1411? 1436? Hanthawaddy's vassal to 1421
Saw Yin Mi
Saw Yandameit
Baya Minye
1436? 1437 Co-regents

Mrauk-U (1429–1785)[edit]

The reign dates are per the Arakanese chronicle Rakhine Razawin Thit (Sandamala Linkara Vol. 2 1931), converted into Western dates using (Eade 1989). (Some Arakanese chronicles state the foundation of the kingdom a year later, 1430. Moreover, the end of the kingdom is given per Burmese records, 2 January 1785. Arakanese records give a day earlier, 1 January 1785.)

Name Image Reign From Reign Until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Saw Mon 18 April 1429 9 May 1433 Founder
Khayi 9 May 1433 c. January 1459 Brother
Ba Saw Phyu c. January 1459 5 August 1482 Son
Dawlya 5 August 1482 c. February 1492 Son
Ba Saw Nyo c. February 1492 c. January 1494 Uncle, son of Khayi
Ran Aung c. January 1494 c. July 1494 Nephew, son of Dawlya
Salingathu c. July 1494 February 1502 Maternal uncle
Raza February 1502 c. November 1513 Son
Gazapati c. November 1513 January 1515 Son
Saw O January 1515 July 1515 Granduncle; brother of Salingathu
Thazata July 1515 c. April 1521 Son of Dawlya
Minkhaung c. April 1521 27 May 1531 Brother
Min Bin Shitthaung001.jpg 27 May 1531 11 January 1554 Son of Min Raza
Dikkha 11 January 1554 6 March 1556 Son
Saw Hla 6 March 1556 24 July 1564 Son
Sekkya 24 July 1564 7 February 1572 Brother
Hpalaung 7 February 1572 4 July 1593 Son of Min Bin
Razagri 4 July 1593 4 July 1612 Son
Khamaung 4 July 1612 14 May 1622 Son
Thiri Thudhamma 14 May 1622 29 May 1638 Son
Sanay 29 May 1638 17 June 1638 Son
Narapati 17 June 1638 13 December 1645 Great grandson of Min Bin
Thado 13 December 1645 c. May 1652 Son
Sanda Thudhamma c. May 1652 11 June 1674 Son
Thiri Thudhamma 11 June 1674 16 April 1685 Son
Wara Dhamma 16 April 1685 20 June 1692 Brother
Mani Dhamma 20 June 1692 20 December 1694 Elder brother
Sanda Thuriya I 20 December 1694 4 August 1696 Brother
Nawrahta 4 August 1696 18 August 1696 Son
Mayonpiya 18 August 1696 13 May 1697 Usurper
Kalagandat 16 May 1697 5 June 1698 Usurper
Naradipadi I 5 June 1698 17 June 1700 Son of Sanda Thuriya
Sanda Wimala I 18 June 1700 30 March 1707 Grandson of Thado
Sanda Thuriya II 3 April 1707 September 1710 Grandson of Sanda Thudhamma
Interregnum ~2 months
Sanda Wizaya I November 1710 April 1731 Usurper
Sanda Thuriya III April 1731 1734 Son-in-law
Naradipadi II 1734 1735 Son
Narapawara 1735 September 1737 Usurper
Sanda Wizaya II September 1737 25 March 1738 Cousin
Madarit 28 March 1738 6 February 1743 Brother
Nara Apaya 6 February 1743 28 October 1761 Uncle
Thirithu 28 October 1761 3 February 1762 Son
Sanda Parama 3 February 1762 1 May 1764 Brother
Apaya 1 May 1764 17 January 1774 Brother-in-law
Sanda Thumana 17 January 1774 5 May 1777 Brother-in-law
Sanda Wimala II 6 May 1777 5 June 1777 Usurper
Sanda Thaditha 5 June 1777 1 December 1782 Usurper
Maha Thammada 2 December 1782 2 January 1785 Usurper

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  • Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta. 
  • Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese) 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar. 
  • Sandamala Linkara, Ashin (1931). Rakhine Yazawinthit Kyan (in Burmese) 1–2 (1997 ed.). Yangon: Tetlan Sarpay. 

External sources[edit]

  • Charney, Michael W. (1999). 'Where Jambudipa and Islamdom Converged: Religious Change and the Emergence of Buddhist Communalism in Early Modern Arakan, 15th-19th Centuries.' PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan. 
  • Charney, Michael W. (1993). 'Arakan, Min Yazagyi, and the Portuguese: The Relationship Between the Growth of Arakanese Imperial Power and Portuguese Mercenaries on the Fringe of Mainland Southeast Asia 1517-1617.' Masters dissertation, Ohio University. 
  • Leider, Jacques P. (2004). 'Le Royaume d’Arakan, Birmanie. Son histoire politique entre le début du XVe et la fin du XVIIe siècle,' Paris, EFEO.