List of Armenian ethnic enclaves

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This is a list of Armenian ethnic enclaves, containing cities, districts, and neighborhoods with predominantly Armenian population, or are associated with Armenian culture, either currently or historically.[a]

Extant enclaves[edit]

San Lazzaro degli Armeni, located in the Venetian Lagoon, is home to an Armenian Catholic monastery.
Note: Most numbers are estimates by Armenian (and non-Armenian) organizations and media, because many countries simply do not collect data on ethnicity.

Europe[edit]

Name Type Location Total Armenians % Ref
Alfortville[3] commune France Paris, France 36,000 6,000 17% [4]
Issy-les-Moulineaux[5] commune France Paris, France 63,000 5,000 8% [6]
San Lazzaro degli Armeni[7] island Italy Venice, Italy 35 ~100% [8]

Middle East[edit]

Name Type Location Total Armenians  % Ref
Anjar[9] town Lebanon Zahlé, Lebanon 2,400–4,000 ~100% [10][11]
Armenian Quarter quarter Israel Old City, Jerusalem, Israel[b] 2,424 500–1,000 21–41% [12][13][14]
Bourj Hammoud[15] city Lebanon Beirut, Lebanon 150,000 110,000 73% [16][17]
Kessab[c] village/town Syria Latakia, Syria 2,000–2,200 ~100% [19][20]
Midan (Nor Kyough)[21][22] neighborhood Syria Aleppo, Syria N/A N/A N/A
New Julfa[23] quarter Iran Isfahan, Iran 10,000–12,000 N/A [24]
Vakıflı village Turkey Hatay, Turkey 135 ~100% [25]

Post-Soviet states[edit]

 Abkhazia (de facto)[d]

As of 2004, there were "around 50-60 Armenian villages" in Abkhazia.[26] According to the 2011 Abkhazian census, Armenians formed the majority of the population of the Sukhumi District (6,467 Armenians, 56.1% of the total 11,531), and plurality in Gulripshi district (8,430 Armenians or 46.8% of 18,032) and Gagra District (15,422 Armenians or 38.3% of 40,217).[27]

 Georgia
Name Type Location Armenians  % Total Ref
Avlabari (Havlabar)[28][29] neighborhood Georgia (country) Tbilisi, Georgia

 Russia[edit]

Name Type Location Total Armenians  % Ref
Adlersky City District raion Sochi, Krasnodar Krai 138,572 44,000–80,000 32%–58% [30][31][32]
Aykavan[33] village Crimea[e] 160 ~100% [34]
Edissiya[35] village Stavropol Krai 5,657 5,377 92.7% [36]
Gaikodzor village Anapsky District, Krasnodar Krai
Karabagly village Dagestan 723 ~400 56% [37][38]
Myasnikovsky District raion Rostov Oblast 39,631 22,108 56% [39]
Tuapsinsky District raion Krasnodar Krai 62,400 13,700 22% [40]

 United States[edit]

Name Type Location Total Armenians  % Ref
Glendale[41] city California Los Angeles, California 190,000 54,000–100,000 28%–53% [42]
Little Armenia[43] neighborhood California Los Angeles, California 21,600 N/A [44]
Watertown[45][46] city Massachusetts Boston, Massachusetts 33,000 2,700–8,000 8%–25% [47][48]

Extinct enclaves[edit]

Name (current & former) Type Current location Period  % Armenian (date) Ref
Armanitola neighborhood Bangladesh Dhaka, Bangladesh 18th century [49]
Armenikend quarter Azerbaijan Nasimi raion, Baku, Azerbaijan 19th-20th centuries N/A
Gherla (Armenopolis) city Romania Cluj County, Romania 17th century [50]
Kumkapı[51][52] quarter Turkey Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey N/A
Feodosia (Kaffa) city Russia Crimea (de facto) 15th century +65% [53]
Nakhichevan-on-Don neighborhood Russia Rostov-on-Don, Russia 1778–1928 30% (1897) [54]
Old Armenian Town neighborhood United States Fresno, California, United States

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This article only lists ethnic enclaves in the Armenian diaspora. Many sources describe Nagorno-Karabakh as an Armenian ethnic enclave,[1][2] which it was during most of its existence as the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (1923–91), when it did not border Soviet Armenia. Since the end of the 1988–94 war, the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR) has been largely integrated with the Republic of Armenia and the two today de facto function as a single entity. However, the NKR remains internationally unrecognized and is regarded by all UN members as de jure part of Azerbaijan.
  2. ^ The status of Jerusalem is disputed between Israel and the State of Palestine, but the Old City is de facto administered by Israel.
  3. ^ The Armenian population of Kessab was forced out in March 2014, during the Syrian Civil War.[18]
  4. ^ Abkhazia is de jure recognized as part of Georgia by most countries, however, it is de facto independent.
  5. ^ The Crimean Peninsula is disputed between Russia and Ukraine and is de facto part of Russia, but remains (for the most part) internationally recognized as de jure part of Ukraine. For more, see Political status of Crimea.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Noel, Sid, ed. (2005). From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies. Montréal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 279. ISBN 9780773529489. "...an Armenian ethnic enclave (Nagorno-Karabakh)..." 
  2. ^ Barry, Ellen (24 June 2011). "Azerbaijan and Armenia Fail to End Enclave Dispute". New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "...Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian enclave..." 
  3. ^ This New York Times article calls Alfortville "an Armenian neighborhood": "15 are hurt in Paris by 3 explosions in an Armenian neighborhood". New York Times. 4 May 1984. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  4. ^ "The Armenians of France". Armenian General Benevolent Union. 1 March 1995. Archived from the original on 15 April 2014. "One-sixth of Alfortville’s 36,000 population is Armenian..." 
  5. ^ Dubouis, Kevin (18 April 2013). "Dubouis: Revoking Denial of Pride". The Armenian Weekly. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "...the Armenian district of Issy-les-Moulineaux..." 
  6. ^ Yessayan, Catherine (20 June 2012). "Armenians of Issy-les-Moulineaux". Asbarez. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "Of the City’s 63,000 population, about 5,000 are Armenians." 
  7. ^ Saryan, Levon A. (11 July 2011). "A Visit to San Lazzaro: An Armenian Island in the Heart of Europe". The Armenian Weekly. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  8. ^ Imboden, Durant. "San Lazzaro degli Armeni". Europe for Visitors. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. "Its residents include 10 monks, 10 seminarians, and 15 Armenian students..." 
  9. ^ Kahana, Ephraim; Suwaed, Muhammad (2009). Historical Dictionary of Middle Eastern Intelligence. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 179. ISBN 9780810863026. "...Anjar, an Armenian village in the Bekaa Valley." 
  10. ^ Filian, Levon (Fall 2013). "AMAA News". Paramus, New Jersey: Publication of the Armenian Missionary Association of America. p. 8. ISSN 1097-0924. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "The Armenian population had dwindled to about 4,000." 
  11. ^ "Geography & Demographics of Anjar". Anjar Online. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. "Nowadays, approximately 2400 people, 99.99% of them Armenians, live in Anjar." 
  12. ^ Beltran, Gray (9 May 2011). "Torn between two worlds and an uncertain future". Columbia University. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. "Today, about 500 Armenians live in the Armenian Quarter." 
  13. ^ "The Armenian Quarter". Jewish Virtual Library. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. "Currently, about one thousand Armenians live in the Armenian Quarter." 
  14. ^ "Old City Population Distribution and Density". Jerusalem Old City: Urban Fabric and Geopolitical Implications. Jerusalem: International Peace and Cooperation Center. 2009. p. 22. ISBN 965-7283-16-7. 
  15. ^ Healy, Chris; Muecke, Stephen (2008). Cultural Studies Review. Melbourne University Publishing. p. 102. ISBN 9780522855081. "...in the Armenian neighborhood of Bourj Hammoud..." 
  16. ^ Anthropological Quarterly (Catholic University of America Press). 46-47: 73. 1973. "Of the estimated 180,000 Armenians in Lebanon, 110,000 are concentrated in the Bourj-Hammoud and Dora quarters of Greater Beirut." 
  17. ^ "Local authorities taking account of the major urban risks "From a case study to a global approach" The example of the City of Bourj Hammoud, Lebanon". Retrieved 7 June 2014. "The city ... has a population of almost 150,000 hab." 
  18. ^ Manjikian, Lalai (25 March 2014). "Kessab: Deep Roots Under Attack". The Armenian Weekly. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "The predominantly Armenian enclave of Kessab is now emptied of its Armenian population that has been there for hundreds of years, after rebel forces descended on the region from Turkey." 
  19. ^ Sherlock, Ruth (14 April 2014). "Turkey 'aided Islamist fighters' in attack on Syrian town". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "Almost all of the villages approximately 2,000 inhabitants had fled." 
  20. ^ Gilbert, Ben (7 May 2014). "Taking Refuge: Armenian Family Exiled For Third Time In Century". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "...mostly Armenian Christian village of Kassab (population 2,200)..." 
  21. ^ "Aleppo Under Fire: The Ruins of Armenian Neighborhoods". The Armenian Weekly. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "...the predominantly Armenian neighborhoods of Nor Kyough (Meedan)..." 
  22. ^ Arnold, David (24 September 2012). "In Battle for Aleppo, Armenians Seek Neutral Ground". Middle East Voices. Voice of America. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "...the Armenian neighborhood of al-Midan..." 
  23. ^ Canby, Sheila R. (2009). Shah ʻAbbas: the remaking of Iran. London: British Museum Press. p. 64. ISBN 9780714124520. "Called New Julfa, this area remains the Armenian quarter of Isfahan to this day." 
  24. ^ Petrosyan, David (1998). "Армянская община в Иране" (in Russian). Institute for Central Asian and Caucasian Studies. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "...еще 10-12 тысяч - в Исфагане (армяне называют его Новой Джугой)..." 
  25. ^ Kanbolat, Hasan (2 October 2012). "Syrian Conflict Taking Toll on Turkey’s Last Armenian Village". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "Vakifli, a village in Hatay province, is Turkey’s sole remaining Armenian village. Home to just 135 people..." 
  26. ^ Tchilingirian, Hratch. "The Armenian community in Abkhazia Today". Armenian Reporter International. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. "There are now around 50-60 Armenian villages in Abkhazia..." 
  27. ^ "Итоги переписи населения Республики Абхазия 2011 года [Results of census of Republic of Abkhazia in 2011]" (in Russian). Sukhumi: Abkhazian Office of State Statistics. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  28. ^ Zenian, David (1 September 1992). "Havlabar: A Little Armenia on the hill". AGBU News Magazine. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  29. ^ Hakobyan, Julia (28 September 2007). "Havlabar: Armenian community in Tbilisi pays the price of urbanization". ArmeniaNow. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  30. ^ Schreck, Carl (5 May 2006). "Sochi's Armenian Diaspora Weeps". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. "...Sochi's Adler district, home to about 80,000 ethnic Armenians..." 
  31. ^ Rakachev, Vadim. "Этнодемографические изменения а Краснодарском Крае, 1989-1999 годы [Ethnodemographic changes in Krasnodar Krai in 1989-1999]" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. "Обращает на себя внимание резкий рост армянского населения в Сочи и, в частности, в Адлерском районе, где оно увеличилось на 17,5% и составило 31,8% к общему количеству жителей района." 
  32. ^ "Оценка численности населения на 1 января 2014 года по муниципальным образованиям Краснодарского края [Estimated population on January 1, 2014 by the municipalities of Krasnodar Region]" (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. 15 April 2014. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. 
  33. ^ "Маленькая Армения в Крыму". podrobnosti.ua (in Russian). 27 June 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  34. ^ "Трудовской сельский совет" (in Russian). Website of the Simferopol district of the State Administration of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  35. ^ "Армяне Ставропольского края отметили 210-летие села Эдиссия" (in Russian). Caucasian Knot. 2 September 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "...армянского поселения Эдиссия - одного из старейших армянских поселений на Юге России." 
  36. ^ Том 3 книга 1 «Национальный состав и владение языками, гражданство»; таблица 4 «Национальный состав населения Ставропольского края по городским округам, муниципальным районам, городским населенным пунктам, сельским населенным пунктам с численностью населения 3000 человек и более»
  37. ^ Численность населения на 1 января 2014 года по сельским поселениям Республики Дагестан
  38. ^ Данные Всероссийской переписи населения 2002 года: таблица 02c. М.: Федеральная служба государственной статистики, 2004.
  39. ^ "Итоги всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года по Ростовской области: Национальный состав и владение языками, гражданство" (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. pp. 260–1. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  40. ^ http://www.noravank.am/rus/issues/detail.php?ELEMENT_ID=3048#5_b
  41. ^ Bittman, Mark (4 July 2013). "This Armenian Life". New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "Among those cities is Glendale ... a center of the Armenian diaspora and home to one of the world’s largest Armenian populations outside Armenia." 
  42. ^ Casey, Nicholas (25 April 2009). "In Armenian Enclave, Turkish Deal Arouses Suspicion". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "This Los Angeles suburb is home to one of America's most robust Armenian diaspora communities, with 80,000 to 100,000 ethnic Armenians making up about a third of the population." 
  43. ^ "Part of East Hollywood Is Designated 'Little Armenia'". Los Angeles Times. 7 October 2000. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  44. ^ "Little Armenia neighborhood in Los Angeles, California (CA), 90027, 90029 detailed profile". City-Data. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "Population: 21,600" 
  45. ^ Howe, Jeff (20 April 2013). "Captured in Watertown". The New Yorker. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "...Watertown is one of the largest Armenian enclaves in the U.S..." 
  46. ^ Kevonian, Tamar. "Finding the Passion". Asbarez. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "... Boston ... Watertown, the Armenian enclave of the city..." 
  47. ^ Watertown in Armeniapedia.org
  48. ^ Armenians in Watertown, MA in Hayk the Ubiquitous Armenian
  49. ^ Lawson, Alastair (10 January 2003). "The mission of Dhaka's last Armenian". BBC News. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  50. ^ Steve Kokker, Cathryn Kemp (2004). Romania & Moldova. Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet. p. 159. ISBN 9781741041491. "Gherla Once a predominantly Armenian settlement called Armenopolis in the 17th century..." 
  51. ^ Schäfers, Marlene (26 July 2008). "Managing the difficult balance between tourism and authenticity: Kumkapı". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "Kumkapı, since then, has been dominated by Armenians and Greeks. Over the centuries, the quarter's population retained this ethnic-linguistic characteristic – in fact, as late as the 1950s, Kumkapı was still known as an Armenian quarter. Starting in the 1960s, however, Kumkapı's Armenian population began to decrease, with people moving abroad to Europe or America or simply to other quarters of the city, like Samatya, Yeniköy or Bakırköy." 
  52. ^ Nahai, Gina B. (2000). Moonlight on the Avenue of Faith. New York: Washington Square Press. p. 219. ISBN 9780671042837. "Istanbul's Armenian ghetto, the Kumkapi bordered the wholesale fish market and was populated almost entirely by Armenians." 
  53. ^ "Этнография народов Крыма: Армяне" (in Russian). Tavrida National V.I. Vernadsky University. 1999. Retrieved 7 June 2014. "В 30-е гг. XIV в. армянские колонии Крыма пополнились переселенцами из Ак-Сарая (выходцы из г. Ани), в 70-е гг. XV в. из 70- тысячного населения Кафы 2/3, т.е. свыше 46 тыс., составляли армяне." 
  54. ^ (Russian) Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам 50 губерний Европейской России