List of Australian prisons

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For more details on prisons in other countries, see list of prisons.

The list of Australian prisons is a list of operational and former Australian prisons for adult males and females and juveniles. Prisons listed as "museum" are former prisons that are now open for public inspection and tours.

Throughout the European history of Australia, particularly since its formation as a penal colony, Australia has had many establishments for rehabilitation and incarceration. Altogether, there have been more than 180+ rehabilitation centres, youth correctional centres and prisons in Australia.

Australian Capital Territory[edit]

Belconnen Remand Centre

A new prison was opened in 11 September 2008 at Symonston, called the Alexander Maconochie Centre, named after Alexander Maconochie. The centre is designed as a multi role facility to replace the Belconnen Remand Centre and provide detention facilities so that prisoners who are currently held in New South Wales facilities may be held locally.

Prisons in the Australian Capital Territory
Prison Status Classification Managed Opened Closed Capacity Location
Alexander Maconochie Centre[1] Operational Minimum to maximum ACT Corrective Services 11 September 2008 No 300 Hume
Belconnen Remand Centre Closed Maximum ACT Corrective Services 1986 30 April 2009 ? Belconnen
Bimberi Youth Justice Centre Operational ACT Department of Disability, Housing and Community Services 3 September 2008 No 40 Mitchell
Periodic Detention Centre[2] Operational Minimum ACT Corrective Services 1962 No 49 Symonston
Symonston Temporary Remand Centre Operational ACT Corrective Services  ? Closed ? Symonston
Total capacity 389 (current)

New South Wales[edit]

Main entrance of Goulburn Correctional Centre, with buildings designed by the Colonial Architect, James Barnet in 1884
Riverina Juvenile Justice Centre in Wagga Wagga.

The following list of operational and closed correctional facilities has been sourced from the Corrective Services NSW and from the State Records archives.[3][4]

Prisons in New South Wales
Prison Status Classification Managed Opened Closed Capacity Location
Acmena Juvenile Justice Centre Operational  ? Juvenile Justice NSW 1998  ?  ? Grafton
Albury Gaol Closed  ? n/a 14 August 1874 4 June 1943  ? Albury
Armidale Gaol Closed  ? n/a 14 August 1874 25 June 1920  ? Armidale
Balranald Gaol Closed  ? n/a 25 August 1887 1 August 1932  ? Balranald
Bathurst Correctional Centre Operational Minimum to maximum Corrective Services NSW 14 August 1874 n/a 222 Bathurst
Bega Gaol Closed  ? n/a 14 August 1874 1 May 1940  ? Bega
Berrima Gaol Closed Minimum to medium n/a 1839 1909  ? Berrima
Berrima Correctional Centre Closed Minimum to medium n/a 1949 1991 75 Berrima
Biloela Gaol Closed  ? n/a circa 1 January 1888 12 September 1909  ? Biloela
Bombala Gaol Closed  ? n/a 26 January 1892 30 November 1939  ? Bombala
Braidwood Gaol Closed  ? n/a 14 August 1874 16 August 1909  ? Braidwood
Brewarrina (Yetta Dhinnakkal) Centre Operational Minimum Corrective Services NSW 2000 n/a 70 Brewarrina
Broken Hill Correctional Centre
(initially as Silverton Gaol)
Operational Medium 12 May 1891 n/a  ? Broken Hill
Broken Hill Juvenile Justice Centre Operational  ? Juvenile Justice NSW  ?  ?  ? Broken Hill
Burrowa Gaol (or maybe Boorowa Gaol) Closed  ? n/a 1 January 1889 5 December 1904  ? Boorowa
Cessnock Correctional Centre[5] Operational Minimum to maximum Correctional Services NSW 1972[6]  ? 750 Cessnock
Cobham Juvenile Justice Centre Operational  ? Juvenile Justice NSW  ?  ?  ? St Marys
Condobolin Gaol Closed  ? n/a 13 January 1902 1 December 1905  ? Condobolin
Cooma Correctional Centre[7] Operational Minimum to medium
(males and females)
Corrective Services NSW 1 November 1873 a n/a a 160 Cooma
Coonabarabran Gaol Closed  ? n/a 2 October 1878 1 January 1903  ? Coonabarabran
Cootamundra Gaol Closed  ? n/a 25 November 1886 31 August 1935  ? Cootamundra
Darlinghurst Gaol Closed  ?  ? 1822 1914  ? Darlinghurst
Defence Force Correctional Establishment Operational  ? Australian Defence Force  ?  ?  ? Holsworthy Barracks
Deniliquin Gaol Closed  ? n/a 14 August 1874 15 November 1935  ? Deniliquin
Dillwynia Women's Correctional Centre[8] Operational Medium Corrective Services NSW 204 n/a 200 Windsor
Dubbo Gaol Museum[9]  ? Commonwealth of Australia 1847 26 August 1966  ? Dubbo
Emu Plains Correctional Centre[6] Operational Minimum Corrective Services NSW December 1914  ?  ? Emu Plains
Fort Denison Museum Maximum National Parks and Wildlife Service 1788  ?  ? Sydney Harbour
Frank Baxter Juvenile Justice Centre Operational  ? Juvenile Justice NSW  ?  ?  ? Kariong
Glen Innes Correctional Centre[6] Operational Minimum Corrective Services NSW 15 August 1928 n/a 95 Glen Innes
Goulburn Correctional Centre Operational Minimum to maximum; supermax 14 August 1874 n/a ? Goulburn
Grafton Correctional Centre[10] Operational Medium 14 August 1974 n/a  ? Grafton
Grenfell Gaol Closed  ? 1 January 1877 1 January 1905  ? Grenfell
Hay Gaol Closed  ? 14 August 1874 31 October 1947  ? Hay
Ivanhoe (Warakirri) Correctional Centre[8] Operational Minimum  ?  ? 55 Ivanhoe
John Morony Correctional Centre Operational Minimum to maximum  ?  ? 200 Windsor
Junee Correctional Centre[8] Operational Medium GEO Group Australia 1994 n/a 790 Junee
Juniperina Juvenile Justice Centre Operational  ? Juvenile Justice NSW  ?  ?  ? Lidcombe
Kariong Youth Correctional Centre Operational  ? Corrective Services NSW  ?  ?  ? Kariong
Keelong Juvenile Justice Centre Closed Minimum Juvenile Justice NSW 1978 2009  ? Unanderra
Kempsey Gaol
(opened as West Kempsey Gaol)
Closed  ? n/a 1 January 1884 31 December 1941 West Kempsey
Kirkconnell Correctional Centre Closed Minimum n/a 28 November 1958 2011 250 Sunny Corner
Leslie Nott Afforestation Camp, Laurel Hill Closed[11] Minimum n/a 18 March 1957 23 June 1995  ? Laurel Hill
Lithgow Correctional Centre Operational Maximum Corrective Services NSW  ?  ? n/a Lithgow
Long Bay Correctional Centre Operational Maximum 1909 n/a 1,100 Sydney
Maitland Gaol b Museum Maximum 1848 28 January 1998 400 Maitland
Mannus Correctional Centre Operational Minimum  ? n/a 164 Tumbarumba
Metropolitan Remand and Reception Centre (MRRC)[8] Operational Maximum 1997 n/a 900 Silverwater
Mid North Coast Correctional Centre[8] Operational Minimum to medium  ?  ? 500 Aldavilla
Mudgee Gaol Closed  ? 14 August 1874 11 August 1909 Mudgee
Narrabri Gaol Closed  ? 14 August 1874 2 November 1982 Narrabri
Oberon Correctional Centre[8] Operational Minimum 1930[12]  ? 100 Oberon
Orana Juvenile Justice Centre Operational  ? Juvenile Justice NSW 2000  ? 45 Dubbo
Parklea Correctional Centre[8] Operational Medium GEO Group Australia 1983 n/a 893 Parklea
Parramatta Correctional Centre Closed Medium  ? 1842 3 September 1997 580 Parramatta
Port Macquarie Gaol Closed  ? n/a circa 1 January 1952 31 October 1978 Port Macquarie
Reiby Juvenile Justice Centre Operational  ? Juvenile Justice NSW  ?  ?  ? Airds
Riverina Juvenile Justice Centre[13][14] Operational  ? 1984  ? 33 Wagga Wagga
Silverwater Correctional Centre Operational Minimum Corrective Services NSW ? n/a  ? Silverwater
Silverwater Women's Correctional Centre Operational Minimum 1970 n/a 200 Silverwater
St Heliers Correctional Centre[8] Operational Minimum  ?  ? 256 Muswellbrook
Tamworth Correctional Centre Operational Medium 14 August 1874 n/a ~100 Tamworth
Taree Gaol Closed  ? 15 December 1884 31 October 1940 Taree
Trial Bay Gaol Museum  ? 1886 1918 Arakoon
Tuncurry Afforestation Camp Closed  ? 26 October 1913 1 April 1938 Tuncurry
Wagga Wagga Gaol Closed  ? 14 August 1874 11 August 1909 Wagga Wagga
Wellington Correctional Centre Operational Maximum Corrective Services NSW 2007 n/a 650 Wellington
Wentworth Gaol Closed  ? n/a 14 August 1874 27 February 1928 Wentworth
Windsor Gaol Closed  ? n/a 14 August 1874 17 January 1899 Windsor
Wollongong Gaol Closed  ? n/a 14 August 1874 31 October 1915 Wollongong
Wyalong Gaol Closed  ? n/a 1 February 1899 16 August 1909 Wyalong
Yarrangobilly Gaol Closed  ? n/a 2 November 1966 21 July 1993 Yarrangobilly
Yass Gaol Closed  ? n/a 1 September 1883 16 August 1909 Yass
Young Gaol Closed  ? n/a 14 August 1874 1 August 1923 Young
Total capacity 4,927 (known)
^a Cooma commenced operations on 1 November 1873 with 31 cells. In 1876 it was reduced to a Police Gaol and then a temporary Lunatic Asylum in 1877. The Centre closed temporarily in the early 1900s. The Gaol reopened on 8 March 1957 and was again closed 10 July 1998. Cooma Correctional Centre reopened for the second time in November 2001.
^b Maitland, now closed, had capacity for 400 inmates at its peak.

Northern Territory[edit]

Prisons in the Northern Territory
Prison Status Classification Managed Opened Closed Capacity Location
Alice Springs Correctional Centre Operational Maximum Northern Territory Correctional Services 1996 470 Alice Springs
Alice Springs Juvenile Holding Centre Operational Maximum September 1998 10 Alice Springs
Berrimah Prison Operational Maximum 1 September 1979 750 Darwin
Don Dale Juvenile Detention Centre Operational Maximum 1989 38 Berrimah
Doug Owston Correctional Centre Under construction Minimum to maximum under construction estimate 2014 800 Holtze
Fannie Bay Gaol Closed Maximum Department of Community Development, Sport & Cultural Affairs 20 September 1883 1 September 1979  ? Darwin
Wildman River Wilderness Work Camp Operational Minimum Northern Territory Correctional Services 1980s 20 Wildman River
Total capacity 845 (current)

Queensland[edit]

An aerial view of Boggo Road Gaol, Brisbane, circa 1954.
Prisons in Queensland
Prison Status Classification Managed Opened Closed Capacity Location
Arthur Gorrie Correctional Centre Operational Maximum GEO Group Australia 1992 890 Wacol
Boggo Road Gaol Closed Maximum Now operating as a museum July 1883 15 June 1992  ? Brisbane
Borallon Correctional Centre Closed Maximum Serco 17 November 1989 25 January 2012 494 Borallon
Brisbane Correctional Centre
(formerly known as Sir David Longland Correctional Centre)
Operational Maximum Queensland Corrective Services 2008  ? 600 Wacol
Brisbane Women's Correctional Centre Operational Maximum Queensland Corrective Services June 1999 270 Wacol
Brisbane Youth Detention Centre Operational Maximum Department of Communities 2001 105 Wacol
Cairns Gaol Closed Demolished Prison Department 8 September 1897 7 April 1926 - Cairns
Capricornia Correctional Centre Operational Medium Queensland Corrective Services 12 September 2001 500 Rockhampton
Cleveland Youth Detention Centre Operational Maximum Department of Communities 1980 30 Townsville
Darling Downs Correctional Centre Operational Low/Open Queensland Corrective Services 10 December 1994 30 September 2012 170 Westbrook
Ingham Gaol Closed Demolished Prisons Department 1885 6 August 1924 - Ingham
John Oxley Youth Detention Centre Closed Maximum Department of Communities 1987 2001 Wacol
Lotus Glen Correctional Centre Operational Maximum Queensland Corrective Services 29 May 1989 500 Mareeba
Maryborough Correctional Centre Operational Maximum Queensland Corrective Services 14 October 2002 500 Maryborough
Numinbah Correctional Centre Operational Low/Open Queensland Corrective Services 28 October 1940 129 Numinbah
Palen Creek Correctional Centre Operational Low/Open/Protection Queensland Corrective Services 6 December 1934 170 Rathdowney
Rockhampton Correctional Centre
(formerly known as Etna Creek Prison)
Closed High Queensland Corrective Services 1969 September 2001 Rockhampton
Roma Gaol Closed Demolished Prison Department 7 December 1872 3 October 1903 - Roma
Sir Leslie Wilson Youth Detention Centre Closed Maximum Department of Communities 1961 2001 Windsor
Southern Queensland Correctional Centre Operational Minimum to maximum Serco 3 March 2012 300 Gatton
St. Helena Penal Establishment Closed Demolished N/A 14 May 1867 December 1932 Brisbane
Stone River Prison Farm Closed Demolished Prison Department December 1945 8 March 1962 - Ingham
Toowoomba Prison Closed Demolished N/A 1864 1900 Toowoomba
Townsville Correctional Centre
(formerly known as H.M.P.E. Stewart's Creek)
Operational Maximum Queensland Corrective Services 6 April 1893 494 Townsville
Whitenbah Prison Farm Closed Demolished Prison Department 21 October 1942 3 May 1949 - Numinbah
Wolston Correctional Centre Operational Maximum Queensland Corrective Services June 1999 600 Wacol
Woodford Correctional Centre Operational Maximum Queensland Corrective Services 28 September 1973 1008 Woodford
Total capacity -

South Australia[edit]

Main Entrance to the former Adelaide Gaol, now a museum.
Rear of Yatala Labour Prison, showing walls and watchtower, in 2008.

Prisons in South Australia are managed by the South Australian, Department for Correctional Services apart from the Mount Gambier Prison which is managed by GSL Group.

Prisons in South Australia
Prison Status Classification Managed Opened Closed Capacity Location
Adelaide Gaol Museum Maximum Department for Correctional Services 1841 1988 [440] Adelaide
Adelaide Pre-Release Centre Operational Minimum Department for Correctional Services  ? - 70 Adelaide
Adelaide Remand Centre Operational Maximum Department for Correctional Services 1986 - 267 Adelaide
Adelaide Women's Prison Operational Minimum to maximum Department for Correctional Services 1969 - 128 Adelaide
Cadell Training Centre Operational Minimum Department for Correctional Services 1960 - 167 Morgan
Mobilong Prison Operational Minimum to medium Department for Correctional Services 1987 - 327 Murray Bridge
Mount Gambier Prison Operational Minimum to maximum G4S 1995 - 139 Mount Gambier
Port Augusta Prison Operational Minimum to maximum Department for Correctional Services 1869 - 490 Port Augusta
Port Lincoln Prison Operational Minimum to medium Department for Correctional Services  ? - 90 Port Lincoln
Yatala Labour Prison Operational Minimum to maximum; Supermax Department for Correctional Services 1854 - 468 Adelaide
Total capacity 2,146 (current)

Tasmania[edit]

Construction of expanded facilities at HM Prison Risdon, pictured in 2006
Prisons in Tasmania
Prison Status Classification Managed Opened Closed Capacity Location
Ashley Youth Detention Centre[15] Operational Juvenile males and females Department of Health and Human Services 1922 51 Deloraine
Campbell Street Gaol Closed Museum As a museum by the National Trust of Australia 1821 1963 [150] Hobart
Cascades Female Factory Closed Museum, World Heritage Site Port Arthur Historic Site Management Authority 1828 1856 ? South Hobart
George Town Female Factory Closed  ?  ?  ?  ? ?  ?
HM Hayes Prison Farm[16] Closed Minimum (open farm) Tasmanian Prison Service 1937 70 Hayes
Hobart Town Female Factory Closed  ?  ? 1821 ? Hobart
Hobart Reception Centre[16] Operational Maximum (males and females) Tasmanian Prison Service 1999 50 Hobart
Launceston Female Factory Closed  ?  ?  ?  ? ? Launceston
Launceston Reception Centre[16] Operational Maximum (males and females) Tasmanian Prison Service circa 1839 33 Launceston
Macquarie Harbour Penal Station Closed Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area Parks & Wildlife Service (Tasmania) 1822 1833 ? Sarah Island
Maria Island Closed Penal colony ? Maria Island
Mary Hutchinson Women's Prison[16] Operational Minimum to maximum Tasmanian Prison Service
Department of Health and Human Services (Wilfred Lopes Centre)
1963 45 Risdon Vale
Risdon Prison Complex[16]
(incorporating the Ron Barwick Minimum Security Prison
and the Wilfred Lopes Centre for Forensic Mental Health)
Medium to maximum/Supermax November 1960 and
August 2006
280
Ross Female Factory Closed  ? Parks & Wildlife Service (Tasmania) 1820 1856 ? Ross
Saltwater River Closed Penal colony ? Saltwater River
Total capacity - (current)

Victoria[edit]

HM Prison Dhurringile, a minimum security centre.
The former HM Prison Geelong, closed in 1991.
Façade of the former HM Prison Pentridge, located in Coburg.

Adult Prisons and correctional facilities in Victoria are managed by Corrections Victoria. Two prisons are privatised and managed G4S Australia Pty. Limited and GEO Group Australia Pty. Limited. Youth detention centres are managed by Dept of Human Services

Victorian Prisons are mostly located in Regional Victoria. The Prison system is relatively modern with the closure of the last of the "old" gaols in 2005. Bendigo and Won Wron were the last to be closed. Beechworth Prison was closed in 2004 but replaced with Beechworth Correctional Centre in 2005. New prisons are being built or planned at Ararat and Ravenhall. Many prisons have had recent expansions in terms of bed numbers. There are about 5000 adult prisoners in Victoria (2013).

Prisons in Victoria
Prison Status Classification Managed Opened Closed Capacity Location
Acheron Boys Home Operational Minimum (juveniles) Youth Justice Custodial Services circa 1966 10 Buxton
Ashendene Boys Home Closed Juveniles Family Welfare Division of the Social Welfare Department 1966 November 1988 ? Olinda
Ballarat Gaol Closed Maximum (males and females) Corrections Victoria 1862 1965 [74] Ballarat
Beechworth Correctional Centre Operational Minimum Corrections Victoria 2005 120 Beechworth
Beechworth Gaol Closed Medium Corrections Victoria 1864 2004 [132] Beechworth
Castlemaine Gaol Museum Maximum State of Victoria 1857 1990 ? Castlemaine
Dame Phyllis Frost Centre Operational Minimum to maximum (female) Corrections Victoria 15 August 1996 260 Deer Park
Fulham Correctional Centre (including NALU) Operational Minimum to maximum GEO Group Australia 1997 777;
60 (NALU)
Sale
HM Prison Barwon (including Barwon Supermax) Operational Maximum; supermax Corrections Victoria January 1990 425 Lara
HM Prison Bendigo Closed Medium Corrections Victoria 1863 2006 [85] Bendigo
HM Prison Dhurringile Operational Minimum Corrections Victoria 1965 174 Murchison
HM Prison Geelong Museum Maximum Corrections Victoria 1864 1991 ? Geelong
HM Prison Langi Kal Kal Operational Minimum Corrections Victoria  ? 110 Beaufort
HM Prison Loddon Operational Medium Corrections Victoria 1990 399 Castlemaine
HM Prison Morwell River Closed Minimum Corrections Victoria 1964 1997 ? Morwell
HM Prison Pentridge Closed Maximum Housing Estate built on site 1851 1997 ? Coburg
HM Prison Sale Closed Medium Corrections Victoria  ?  ? ? Sale
HM Prison Won Wron Closed Minimum Corrections Victoria 1964 2004 [127] Won Wron
HM Prison Fairlea Closed Maximum  ?  ? 1995 ? Fairfield
HM Prison Tarrengower Operational Minimum (female) Corrections Victoria  ?  ? 54 Maldon
Hopkins Correctional Centre (Ararat) Operational Minimum to medium Corrections Victoria 1967 397 Ararat
J Ward Museum Maximum Corrections Victoria 1859 1991 ? Ararat
Malmsbury Youth Justice Centre Operational Minimum to maximum Department of Human Services 1965 74 Malmsbury
Marngoneet Correctional Centre Operational Medium Corrections Victoria 2006 300 Lara
Old Melbourne Gaol Museum Maximum State of Victoria 1845 1924 ? Melbourne
Melbourne Youth Justice Centre Operational Medium to maximum Department of Human Services 1993 110 Parkville
Metropolitan Remand Centre Operational Maximum remand Corrections Victoria 2006 600 Ravenhall
Parkville Youth Residential Centre Operational Medium to maximum Department of Human Services 1998 30 Parkville
Port Phillip Prison Operational Medium to maximum G4S Australia Pty. Limited 1997 744 Deer Park
Turana Youth Training Centre Closed Medium to maximum Department of Human Services 1950's 2001 [86] Parkville
Total capacity - (current)

Western Australia[edit]

Prisons and correctional facilities in Western Australia are managed by the Department of Corrective Services and private operators.

The main cell block of Fremantle Prison.
The gatehouse of Fremantle Prison by moonlight.
A typical cell in Fremantle Prison.
Prisons in Western Australia
Prison Status Classification Managed Opened Closed Capacity Location
Acacia Prison Operational Medium Serco Group May 2001 1,007 Wooroloo
Albany Prison Operational Maximum Department of Corrective Services 16 September 1966 310 Albany
Bandyup Prison Operational Mixed (female) January 1970 259 West Swan
Banksia Hill Juvenile Detention Centre Operational Medium to maximum September 1997 ? Canning Vale
Boronia Pre-release Centre for Women Operational Minimum (female) May 2004 82 Bentley
Broome Regional Prison Operational Minimum to maximum (male/female) February 1945 138 Broome
Bunbury Regional Prison Operational Maximum (remand only); Minimum to medium February 1971 340 Bunbury
Casuarina Prison Operational Minimum to maximum June 1991 680 Casuarina
Eastern Goldfields Prison Operational Minimum to maximum (male/female) December 1980 136 Boulder
Fremantle Prison Closed Museum, World Heritage Site Government of Western Australia 1855 8 November 1991 [800] Fremantle
Greenough Prison Operational Maximum (remand only); Minimum to medium Department of Corrective Services October 1984 323 Geraldton
Hakea Prison Operational Minimum to maximum June 1982 897 Canning Vale
Karnet Prison Farm Operational Minimum March 1963 326 Serpentine
Nyandi Women’s Prison Closed Minimum 1970 2004 Bentley
Pardelup Prison Operational Minimum Department of Corrective Services 1927 96 Mount Barker
Perth Gaol Closed Minimum 1854 1888 Northbridge
Rangeview Juvenile Remand Centre Operational Remand Centre Department of Justice 1994 92 Murdoch
Roebourne Regional Prison Operational Minimum to maximum (male/female) Department of Corrective Services March 1984 161 Roebourne
Round House Closed Museum Fremantle City Council 1830 1886 Fremantle
West Kimberley Regional Prison Operational Minimum to medium Department of Corrective Services 1 November 2012 150 Derby
Wooroloo Prison Farm Operational Minimum Department of Corrective Services 1972 360 Wooroloo
Total capacity ? (current)

Other[edit]

For a list of immigration detention centres of the Australian government, see the list of Australian immigration detention facilities.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Alexander Maconochie Centre". ACT Corrective Services. Australian Capital Territory: Justice and Community Safety Directorate. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  2. ^ Australian Capital Territory correctional facilities. 30 June 2009. Australian Institute of Criminology. Retrieved on 13 December 2011.
  3. ^ "Correctional Centres". Corrective Services NSW. Government of New South Wales. March 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 
  4. ^ "Department of Prisons (1874-1970) Department of Corrective Services (1970-2009) - Subordinate Agencies". State Records NSW. Government of New South Wales. 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "Sex offenders unit at Cessnock gaol". ABC News (Australia). 7 March 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c "Key moments in Penal Culture in NSW 1970 - present". The Australian Prisons Project. The University of New South Wales. 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  7. ^ "Cooma Correctional Centre". Corrective Services NSW. Retrieved 1 May 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h "New South Wales correctional facilities". Australian Government. Australian Institute of Criminology. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  9. ^ Old Dubbo Gaol. Retrieved on 13 December 2011.
  10. ^ "Grafton Gaol". State Records Archives Investigator. Government of New South Wales. 8 May 1992. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  11. ^ Laurel Hill Forest Lodge. Retrieved on 13 December 2011.
  12. ^ Thematic History of Oberon Shire. Philippa Gemmell-Smith. 16 March 2004. Oberon Council.
  13. ^ "Juvenile justice centre overcrowding fears remain". ABC News (Australia). 20 January 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2009. 
  14. ^ "New concept remand centre soon to open". The Daily Advertiser. 12 October 1984. 
  15. ^ "History of Ashley". Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c d e "Key moments in Penal Culture in Tasmania 1970 - present: Prisons". Australian Prisons Project. University of New South Wales. 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2012.