List of rulers of Austria

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Austria coat of arms official.svg

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Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg from 1282 to 1918.

Margraves of Austria[edit]

The March of Austria, also known as Marcha Orientalis, was first formed in 976 out of the lands that had once been the March of Pannonia in Carolingian times. The oldest attestation dates back to 996, where the written name "ostarrichi" occurs in a document transferring land in present-day Austria to a Bavarian monastery.

House of Babenberg[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Leopold I the Illustrious
(Luitpold der Erlauchte)
976–994
Herzog Leopold I. Babenberg.jpg c. 940 Richardis of Sualafeldgau
nine children
10 July 994
Würzburg
aged about 54
Henry I the Strong
(Heinrich der Starke)
994–1018
Herzog Heinrich I. Babenberg.jpg late 10th century
son of Leopold I and Richardis of Sualafeldgau
never married 23 June 1018
Adalbert the Victorious
(Adalbert der Siegreiche)
1018–1055
Adalbert der Siegreiche.jpg c. 985
son of Leopold I and Richardis of Sualafeldgau
(1) Glismod of West-Saxony
two children
(2) Frozza Orseolo
no issue
26 May 1055
Melk
aged about 70
Ernest the Brave
(Ernst der Tapfere)
1055–1075
Ernst II. der Tapfere.jpg c. 1027
son of Adalbert and Glismod of West-Saxony
(1) Adelaide of Eilenburg
1060
three children
(2) Swanhilde von der Ungarnmark
1072
no issue
10 June 1075
aged about 48
Leopold II the Fair
(Luitpold der Schöne)
1075–1095
Herzog Leopold II. Babenberg.jpg c. 1050
son of Ernest and Adelaide of Eilenburg
Ida of Cham
1065
eight children
12 October 1095
aged about 45
Leopold III the Good
(Luitpold der Heilige)
1095–1136
Herzog Leopold III. Babenberg.jpg c. 1073
Melk
son of Leopold II and Ida of Cham
(1) Maria of Perg
one son
(2) Agnes of Germany
1106
eighteen children
15 November 1136
Vienna
aged about 63
Leopold IV the Generous
(Luitpold der Freigiebige)
1137–1141
Markgraf Leopold IV. Babenberg.jpg c. 1108
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany
Maria of Bohemia
28 September 1138
no issue
18 October 1141
Niederalteich
aged about 33
Henry II Jasomirgott
(Heinrich Jasomirgott)
1141–1156
Herzog Heinrich II. Babenberg.jpg c. 1107
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany
(1) Gertrude of Süpplingenburg
1 May 1142
one daughter
(2) Theodora Komnene
1148
three children
13 January 1177
aged about 70

Dukes of Austria[edit]

In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated the march to a duchy, independent of the Duchy of Bavaria.

House of Babenberg[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry II Jasomirgott
(Heinrich Jasomirgott)
1156–1177
Herzog Heinrich II. Babenberg.jpg c. 1107
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany
(1) Gertrude of Süpplingenburg
1 May 1142
one daughter
(2) Theodora Komnene
1148
three children
13 January 1177
aged about 70
Leopold V the Virtuous
(Luitpold der Tugendhafte)
1177–1194
Herzog Leopold V. Babenberg.jpg c. 1157
son of Henry II and Theodora Komnene
Helena of Hungary
1174
four children
31 December 1194
Graz
aged about 37
Frederick I the Catholic
(Friedrich der Katholische)
1195–1198
Herzog Friedrich I. der Christliche.jpg c. 1175
son of Leopold V and Helena of Hungary
never married 16 April 1198
The Holy Land
aged about 23
Leopold VI the Glorious
(Luitpold der Glorreiche)
1198–1230
Herzog Leopold VI. Babenberg.jpg c. 1176
son of Leopold V and Helena of Hungary
Theodora Angelina
1203
seven children
28 July 1230
San Germano
aged about 54
Frederick II the Quarrelsome
(Friedrich der Streitbare)
1230–1246
Herzog Friedrich II. Babenberg.jpg 25 April 1211
Wiener Neustadt
son of Leopold VI and Theodora Angelina
(1) Sophia Laskarina
no issue
(2) Agnes of Merania
1229
no issue
15 June 1246
Leitha
aged 35

Interregnum[edit]

Ottokar of Bohemia

After Frederick's death, the succession of the Duchy was disputed between various claimants:

House of Habsburg[edit]

Main article: House of Habsburg

In 1278, Rudolf I, King of Germany, defeated Ottokar and took control of Austria. In 1282 he invested his sons with the Duchies of Austria and Styria, thereby securing it for the House of Habsburg.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Rudolf I
1278–1282
Minnigerode-rudolf.JPG 1 May 1218
Breisgau
son of Albert IV, Count of Habsburg and Hedwig of Kyburg
(1) Gertrude of Hohenburg
1245
9 children
(2) Isabella of Burgundy
5 February 1284
no issue
15 July 1291
Speyer
aged 73
Albert I
1282–1308
Albert I of Germany.jpg July 1255
Vienna
eldest son of Rudolf I and Gertrude of Hohenburg
Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
20 December 1274
Vienna
12 children
1 May 1308
Windisch
aged 52
Rudolf II the Debonair
1282–1283
Erb.jpg July 1270
Rheinfelden
third son of Rudolph I and Gertrude of Hohenburg
Agnes of Bohemia
March 1289
Prague
one son
10 May 1290
Prague
aged 20
Rudolf III the Good
1298–1307
Rudolf Stepan.jpg c. 1281
Vienna
eldest son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
(1) Blanche of France
25 May 1300
one daughter
(2) Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
16 October 1306
no issue
3/4 July 1307
Horažďovice
aged 26
Frederick I the Fair
1308–1330
Friedrich der Schöne.jpg c. 1289
Vienna
second son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
Isabella of Aragon
11 May 1315
Ravensburg
three children
13 January 1330
Gutenstein
aged 41
Leopold I the Glorious
1308–1326
Leopold1mini.jpg 4 August 1290
Vienna
third son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
Catherine of Savoy
26 May 1315
Basel
two daughters
28 February 1326
Strassburg
aged 35
Albert II the Wise
1330–1358
Albert II of Habsburg.jpg 12 December 1298
Habsburg Castle
fourth son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
Joanna of Pfirt
15 February 1324
Vienna
six children
16 August 1358
Vienna
aged 59
Otto I the Merry
1330–1339
Otto, Duke of Austria.jpg 23 July 1301
Vienna
seventh son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
(1) Elisabeth of Bavaria
15 May 1325
Straubing
two sons
(2) Anne of Bohemia
16 February 1335
Znaim
no issue
17 February 1339
Neuberg an der Mürz
aged 37
Frederick II
1339–1344
Ota synci2.jpg 10 February 1327
eldest son of Otto I and Elisabeth of Bavaria
never married 11 December 1344
Neuberg an der Mürz
aged 17
Leopold II
1339–1344
c. 1328
second son of Otto I and Elisabeth of Bavaria
never married 10 August 1344
aged 16
Rudolf IV the Founder
1358–1365
Rudolf IV.jpg 1 November 1339
Vienna
eldest son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
Catherine of Bohemia
13 July 1356
Vienna
no issue
27 July 1365
Milan
aged 25

Archdukes of Austria[edit]

House of Habsburg[edit]

The Privilegium Maius, fabricated by Rudolf in 1359, attempted to invest the Dukes of Austria with the special position of an "Archduke". This title was frequently used by Ernest the Iron and other Dukes but not recognized by other princes of the Holy Roman Empire until Frederick V became Emperor and confirmed the Privilegium in 1453.

Rudolf was succeeded by his brothers that at first ruled jointly:

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Albert III the Pigtail
1365–1379
Albrecht Dritte Habsburg1.jpg 9 September 1349
Vienna
third son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
(1) Elisabeth of Bohemia
after 19 March 1366
Vienna
no issue
(2) Beatrice of Nuremberg
4 March 1375
Vienna
one son
29 August 1395
Laxenburg
aged 45
Leopold III the Just
1365–1379
Innsbruck 1 277.jpg 1 November 1351
Vienna
fourth son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
Viridis Visconti
23 February 1365
Vienna
six children
9 July 1386
Sempach
aged 34

Divided rule[edit]

The territories were divided between the brothers and their descendants in the Treaty of Neuberg in 1379:

The Albertinian Line received the Duchy of Austria, later called Lower Austria (not to be confused with the namesake modern state):

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Albert III the Pigtail
1379–1395
Albrecht Dritte Habsburg1.jpg 9 September 1349
Vienna
third son of Albert the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
(1) Elisabeth of Bohemia
after 19 March 1366
Vienna
no issue
(2) Beatrice of Nuremberg
4 March 1375
Vienna
one son
29 August 1395
Laxenburg
aged 45
Albert IV the Patient
1395–1404
Albrecht Vierte Habsburg.jpg 19 September 1377
Vienna
only son of Albert the Pigtail and Beatrice of Nuremberg
Joanna Sophia of Bavaria
24 April 1390
Vienna
two children
14 September 1404
Klosterneuburg
aged 26
Albert V
1404–1439
under joint guardianship
of Leopold IV and Ernest (1404–1411)
Albrecht II. von Habsburg.jpg 16 August 1397
Vienna
only son of Albert IV and Joanna Sophia of Bavaria
Elizabeth of Luxembourg
26 April 1422
Vienna
three children
27 October 1439
Neszmély
aged 42
Vacant 1439–1440
Ladislaus I the Posthumous
1440–1457
under guardianship
of Frederick V (1440–1452)
Ladislas the Posthumous 001.jpg 22 February 1440
Komarom
only son of Albert V and Elizabeth of Luxembourg
never married 23 November 1457
Prague
aged 17
After Ladislaus' death his territories passed to the Leopoldinian Line:
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Frederick V the Peaceful
1457–1493
Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. 005.jpg 21 September 1415
Innsbruck
first son of Ernest and Cymburgis of Masovia
Eleanor of Portugal
16 March 1452
Rome
five children
19 August 1493
Linz
aged 77
Albert VI the Prodigal
1457–1463
Albrecht VI. (Miniatur in Gebetbuch).jpg 12 September 1418
Vienna
third son of Ernest and Cymburgis of Masovia
Mathilde of the Palatinate
1452
Vienna
no issue
2 December 1463
Vienna
aged 45

The Leopoldinian Line received the Duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, the County of Tyrol and Further Austria:

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Leopold III the Just
1379–1386
Innsbruck 1 277.jpg 1 November 1351
Vienna
fourth son of Albert the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
Viridis Visconti
23 February 1365
Vienna
six children
9 July 1386
Sempach
aged 34
William the Courteous
1386–1406
Wilhelm H.jpg c. 1370
Vienna
eldest son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
Joan II of Naples
13 November 1401
Vienna
no issue
15 July 1406
Vienna
aged 36
Leopold IV the Fat
1386–1411
POlda4.jpg c. 1371
Vienna
second son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
Catherine of Burgundy
15 August 1393
Vienna
no issue
3 June 1411
Vienna
aged 40
Ernest the Iron
1402–1406
Herzog Ernst tomb-slab.jpg c. 1377
Bruck an der Mur
third son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
(1) Margaret of Pomerania
14 January 1392
Bruck an der Mur
no issue
(2) Cymburgis of Masovia
25 January 1412
Kraków
nine children
10 June 1424
Bruck an der Mur
aged 47
Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets[1]
1402–1406
Anonym Herzog Friedrich IV. von Tirol.jpg c. 1382
fourth son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
(1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate
24 December 1407
Innsbruck
one daughter
(2) Anna of Brunswick
11 June 1411
Innsbruck
four children
24 June 1439
Innsbruck
aged 57
In 1406, the Leopoldinian lines split their territories:
The Elder Ernestine line received the Duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, also called Inner Austria:
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Ernest the Iron
1402–1424
Herzog Ernst tomb-slab.jpg c. 1377
Bruck an der Mur
third son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
(1) Margaret of Pomerania
14 January 1392
Bruck an der Mur
no issue
(2) Cymburgis of Masovia
25 January 1412
Kraków
nine children
10 June 1424
Bruck an der Mur
aged 47
Frederick V the Peaceful
1457–1493
Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. 005.jpg 21 September 1415
Innsbruck
first son of Ernest the Iron and Cymburgis of Masovia
Eleanor of Portugal
16 March 1452
Rome
five children
19 August 1493
Linz
aged 77
Albert VI the Prodigal
1457–1463
Albrecht VI. (Miniatur in Gebetbuch).jpg 12 September 1418
Vienna
third son of Ernest the Iron and Cymburgis of Masovia
Mathilde of the Palatinate
1452
Vienna
no issue
2 December 1463
Vienna
aged 45

Both under the guardianship of

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets
1406–1435
Anonym Herzog Friedrich IV. von Tirol.jpg c. 1382
fourth son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
(1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate
24 December 1407
Innsbruck
one daughter
(2) Anna of Brunswick
11 June 1411
Innsbruck
four children
24 June 1439
Innsbruck
aged 57
The Junior Tyrolean Line received Tyrol and soon also Further Austria. These territories were also called Upper Austria (not to be confused with the namesake modern state):
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets
1406–1439
Anonym Herzog Friedrich IV. von Tirol.jpg c. 1382
fourth son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
(1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate
24 December 1407
Innsbruck
one daughter
(2) Anna of Brunswick
11 June 1411
Innsbruck
four children
24 June 1439
Innsbruck
aged 57
Sigismund the Rich
1439–1490
under guardianship
of Frederick V (1439–1446)
Sigismund of Austria.jpg 26 October 1427
Innsbruck
second son of Frederick IV and Anna of Brunswick
(1) Eleanor of Scotland
12 February 1449
Innsbruck
one son
(2) Katharina of Saxony
24 February 1484
Innsbruck
no issue
4 March 1496
Innsbruck
aged 68
In 1490 these territories were handed over to
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Maximilian I the Last Knight
1490–1493
Bernhard Strigel 014.jpg 22 March 1459
Wiener Neustadt
second son of Frederick V and Eleanor of Portugal
(1) Mary of Burgundy
18 August 1477
Ghent
three children
(2) Anne of Brittany
18 December 1490
Rennes
no issue
(3) Bianca Maria Sforza
16 March 1494
Hall in Tirol
no issue
12 January 1519
Wels
aged 59
  • Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, claimed the Austrian territories and occupied Austria proper and Styria. Claiming the title "Duke of Austria", he resided in Vienna from 1485 to his death in 1490.
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Matthias Corvinus
1485–1490
Claimant Duke
Matthias Corvinus.jpg 23 February 1443
Kolozsvár
second son of John Hunyadi and Elizabeth Szilágyi
(1) Elizabeth of Celje
no issue
(2) Catherine of Poděbrady
1 May 1461
Matthias Church, Budapest
no issue
(3) Beatrice of Naples
15 December 1476
Vienna
no issue
6 April 1490
Vienna
aged 47

Reunited rule[edit]

The Austrian territories were again reunited in 1493.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Maximilian I
1493–1519
Bernhard Strigel 014.jpg 22 March 1459
Wiener Neustadt
second son of Frederick V and Eleanor of Portugal
(1) Mary of Burgundy
18 August 1477
Ghent
three children
(2) Anne of Brittany
18 December 1490
Rennes
no issue
(3) Bianca Maria Sforza
16 March 1494
Hall in Tirol
no issue
12 January 1519
Wels
aged 59
Charles I
1519–1521
Jakob Seisenegger 001.jpg 24 February 1500
Ghent
eldest son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile
Isabella of Portugal
10 March 1526
Seville
seven children
21 September 1558
Yuste
aged 58
Ferdinand I
1521–1564
Hans Bocksberger der Aeltere 001.jpg 10 March 1503
Alcalá de Henares
second son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile
Anne of Bohemia and Hungary
25 May 1521
Linz
fifteen children
25 July 1564
Vienna
aged 61

Divided again[edit]

In 1564 the Austrian territories were again divided among Emperor Ferdinand's sons:

Lower and Upper Austria (Austria proper) passed to Ferdinand's 1st son Maximilian:

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Maximilian II
1564–1576
Maxim2 zaiz.jpg 31 July 1527
Vienna
eldest son of Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary
Maria of Spain
13 September 1548
Valladolid
sixteen children
12 October 1576
Regensburg
aged 49
Rudolf V
1576–1608
Hans von Aachen 003.jpg 18 July 1552
Vienna
second son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
never married 20 January 1612
Prague
aged 59
Matthias
1608–1619
Lucas van Valckenborch 003.jpg 24 February 1557
Vienna
fourth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
Anna of Tyrol
4 December 1611
Vienna
no issue
20 March 1619
Vienna
aged 62
Albert VII
1619
Rubens - arquiduquealbertoVII01.jpg 13 November 1559
Wiener Neustadt
fifth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain
18 April 1599
Valencia
no issue
13 July 1621
Brussels
aged 61
Rudolf, Matthias and Albert had no issue. The territories therefore passed to the descendants of Emperor Ferdinand's 3rd son Charles after Albert's abdication on 9 October 1619.

Tyrol and Further Austria passed to Emperor Ferdinand's 2nd son Ferdinand:

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Ferdinand II
1564–1595
Francesco Terzio 002.jpg 14 June 1529
Linz
second son of Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary
(1) Philippine Welser
ca. 1576
four children
(2) Anne Juliana Gonzaga
14 May 1582
Innsbruck
three daughters
24 January 1595
Innsbruck
aged 65
Ferdinand died without an agnatic heir and his territories passed to the descendants of his brother Maximilian:
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Matthias
1595–1619
under regency
of Maximilian III
(1612–1618)
Lucas van Valckenborch 003.jpg 24 February 1557
Vienna
fourth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
Anna of Tyrol
4 December 1611
Vienna
no issue
20 March 1619
Vienna
aged 62
Maximilian III
1612–1618
as Governor-Archduke
Justus Sustermans 012.jpg 12 October 1558
Vienna
sixth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
never married 2 November 1618
Vienna
aged 60
Matthias died without issue and the territories passed to the descendants of Emperor Ferdinand's 3rd son Charles.

Inner Austria ("Inner-Österreich")(Styria, Carinthia and Carniola) passed to Emperor Ferdinand's 3rd son Charles:

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II
1564–1590
Anonym Erzherzog Karl II.jpg 3 June 1540
Vienna
fourth son of Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary
Maria Anna of Bavaria
26 August 1571
Vienna
fifteen children
10 July 1590
Graz
aged 50
Ferdinand III
1590/1619–1637
under regency
of Maximilian III
(1593–1595)
Kaiser Ferdinand II. 1614.jpg 9 July 1578
Graz
second son of Charles II and Maria Anna of Bavaria
(1) Maria Anna of Bavaria
23 April 1600
Graz
seven children
(2) Eleonor Gonzaga
2 February 1622
Innsbruck
no issue
15 February 1637
Vienna
aged 58

In German Articles and Books these Archdukes' names and titles are normally completed with the territorial names of their Duchy as: "Charles II of Inner Austria" = "Karl der II. von Inner Österreich"

Reunited and redivided, again[edit]

The Austrian territories were reunited again by inheritance in 1620 under Ferdinand III, Archduke of Inner Austria (see Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor), but in 1623 five years into the Thirty Years' War he had so much to do with, Ferdinand divided them yet again, when he made his younger brother Leopold, who had been governor over Upper Austria, Archduke of those territories.

Lower Austria and Inner Austria remained with the elder line (Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor):

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Ferdinand III
1590/1619–1637
Kaiser Ferdinand II. 1614.jpg 9 July 1578
Graz
second son of Charles II and Maria Anna of Bavaria
(1) Maria Anna of Bavaria
23 April 1600
Graz
seven children
(2) Eleonora Gonzaga
2 February 1622
Innsbruck
no issue
15 February 1637
Vienna
aged 58
Ferdinand IV
1637–1657
Frans Luycx 002.jpg 13 July 1608
Graz
third son of Ferdinand III and Maria Anna of Bavaria
(1) Maria Anna of Spain
20 February 1631
Vienna
six children
(2) Maria Leopoldine of Austria
2 July 1648
Linz
one son
(3) Eleonora Gonzaga
30 April 1651
Wiener Neustadt
four children
2 April 1657
Vienna
aged 48

Upper Austria passed to the Younger Tyrolean Line:

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Leopold V
1623–1632
Joseph Heintz d. Ä. 007.jpg 9 October 1586
Graz
fifth son of Charles II and Maria Anna of Bavaria
Claudia de' Medici
19 April 1626
Innsbruck
five children
13 September 1632
Schwaz
aged 45
Ferdinand Charles
1632–1662
Frans Luycx 009.jpg 17 May 1628
Innsbruck
eldest son of Leopold V and Claudia de' Medici
Anna de' Medici
10 June 1646
Innsbruck
two daughters
30 December 1662
Kaltern
aged 34
Sigismund Francis
1662–1665
Giovanni Maria Morandi 002.jpg 27 November 1630
Innsbruck
second son of Leopold V and Claudia de' Medici
Hedwig of the Palatinate-Sulzbach
3 June 1665
Sulzbach
no issue
25 June 1665
Innsbruck
aged 34
After Sigismund Francis died without issue and his territories reverted to the elder line.

The Austrian territories were conclusively reunited in 1665 under:

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Leopold VI
1657/1665–1705
Guido Cagnacci 005.jpg 9 June 1640
Vienna
fourth son of Ferdinand IV and Maria Anna of Spain
(1) Margaret Theresa of Spain
12 December 1666
Vienna
four children
(2) Claudia Felicitas of Austria
15 October 1673
Graz
two daughters
(3) Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
14 December 1676
Passau
eleven children
5 May 1705
Vienna
aged 64
Joseph I
1705–1711
Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor.png 26 July 1678
Vienna
eldest son of Leopold VI and Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick
10 June 1646
Vienna
three children
17 April 1711
Vienna
aged 32
Charles III
1711–1740
KarlVICarrenodeMiranda1673.jpg 1 October 1685
Vienna
second son of Leopold VI and Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1 August 1708
Santa Maria del Mar, Barcelona
five children
20 October 1740
Vienna
aged 55
Maria Theresa
1740–1780
with Francis I Stephen (1740–1765)
Joseph II (1765–1780)
Martin van Meytens 001.jpg 13 May 1717
Hofburg Imperial Palace
eldest daughter of Charles III and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
12 February 1736
Vienna
Sixteen Children
29 November 1780
Hofburg Imperial Palace
aged 63
Francis I Stephen
with Maria Theresa (1740–1765)
Francis I HRE.jpg 8 December 1708
Nancy
fourth son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine and Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans
18 August 1765
Innsbruck
aged 56

House of Habsburg-Lorraine[edit]

The Austrian branch technically ended in 1780 with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria and was replaced by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. However, in practice, the new successor house styled itself as Habsburg-Lorraine (Habsburg-Lothringen). All Habsburgs living today are in the agnatic descendants of Maria Theresa and Francis Stephen.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Joseph II
1765–1790
with Maria Theresa (1765–1780)
Anton von Maron 006.png 13 March 1741
Vienna
eldest son of Francis I Stephen and Maria Theresa
(1) Isabella of Parma
6 October 1760
Vienna
two daughters
(2) Maria Josepha of Bavaria
23 January 1765
Schönbrunn
no issue
20 February 1790
Vienna
aged 48
Leopold VII
1790–1792
Johann Daniel Donat, Emperor Leopold II in the Regalia of the Golden Fleece (1806).png 5 May 1747
Vienna
third son of Francis I and Maria Theresa
Maria Luisa of Spain
16 February 1764
Innsbruck
sixteen children
1 March 1792
Vienna
aged 44
Francis II
1792–11 August 1804
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor at age 25, 1792.png 12 February 1768
Florence
eldest son of Leopold VII and Maria Luisa of Spain
(1) Elisabeth of Württemberg
6 January 1788
Vienna
one daughter
(2) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
15 September 1790
Vienna
12 children
(3) Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
6 January 1808
Vienna
no issue
(4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
29 October 1816
Vienna
no issue
2 March 1835
Vienna
aged 67

Emperors of Austria[edit]

In 1804 Francis I adopted the new title Emperor of Austria, but kept the title of Archduke of Austria. In 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Francis I
11 August 1804–1835
HGM Kupelwieser Porträt Kaiser Franz I.jpg 12 February 1768
Florence
eldest son of Leopold VII and Maria Luisa of Spain
(1) Elisabeth of Württemberg
6 January 1788
Vienna
one daughter
(2) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
15 September 1790
Vienna
12 children
(3) Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
6 January 1808
Vienna
no issue
(4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
29 October 1816
Vienna
no issue
2 March 1835
Vienna
aged 67
Ferdinand I
1835–1848
Ferdinand I; Keizer van Oostenrijk.jpg 19 April 1793
Vienna
eldest son of Francis II and Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
Maria Anna of Savoy
27 February 1831
Vienna
no issue
29 June 1875
Prague
aged 82
Francis Joseph I
1848–1916
Franz Joseph of Austria 1910 old.jpg 18 August 1830
Schönbrunn Palace
eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and Princess Sophie of Bavaria
Elisabeth of Bavaria
24 April 1854
Augustinerkirche
four children
21 November 1916
Schönbrunn Palace
aged 86
Charles I
1916–12 November 1918
Charles I of Austria.jpg 17 August 1887
Persenbeug-Gottsdorf
eldest son of Archduke Otto Francis of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony
Zita of Bourbon-Parma
21 October 1911
Schwarzau Castle
eight children
1 April 1922
Madeira
aged 34

Republic of Austria[edit]

In 1918, following the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the Republic of Austria was established, but ended with "Anschluß" into the Third Reich from 1938–1945. Following World War II, the current Republic of Austria was established in 1945, even though Austria remained under the control and protection of Allied and Soviet Forces between 1945–1955.

The current head of state is the President of Austria; however, in practice, the Chancellor of Austria is more important. Every law still needs to be signed by the President however.

Otto von Habsburg (1912–2011), son of Charles I, was the head of the Habsburg house from 1922, but never reigned. In 2007 he handed the headship to his oldest son Karl von Habsburg, Prince Imperial of Austria and Prince Royal of Hungary, who was currently first in the line of succession, but without any recognised title. He is the current head of the imperial family.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frederick III, Duke of Austria (1347–1362) never ruled but was counted in the regnal reckoning for Austria.