Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia

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Northeast No.2 Boundary Marker, along D.C./Maryland line, at 6980 Maple Street NW, Washington, D.C., with fence erected by the DAR

The Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia are the 40 milestones that mark the four lines forming the boundaries between the states of Maryland and Virginia and the square of 100 square miles (259 km²) of federal territory that became the District of Columbia in 1801. A survey team led by Major Andrew Ellicott placed these markers in 1791 and 1792; among Ellicott's assistants was astronomer and surveyor Benjamin Banneker. Today, 36 of the original marker stones survive as the oldest federally placed monuments in the United States. Due to the return of the portion of the District south and west of the Potomac River to Virginia in 1846, some of these markers are now within Virginia.

Geography[edit]

The District of Columbia was originally specified to be a square 100 square miles (260 km2) in area, with the axes between the corners of the square running north-south and east-west, and having its southern corner at the southern tip of Jones Point in Alexandria, Virginia, at the confluence of the Potomac River and Hunting Creek (later the site of the Jones Point Lighthouse).[1] The sides of the square are each 10 miles (16 km) long. The specified orientation results in a diamond shape for the District's original boundaries on most maps.

The north-south axis of the District's current boundaries extends between present 17th and 18th Streets, N.W., continuing south across the National Mall to the far shore of the Potomac River; the east-west axis is between present Constitution Avenue and C Street, N.E. and N.W.[2] Note that these axes are not the lines used to define the four geographical quadrants of the District (N.E., N.W., S.E., and S.W.), commonly appended to Washington street addresses, which are delimited generally by North Capitol Street, East Capitol Street, South Capitol Street, and the National Mall. The center of the square is west of the Ellipse and north of the Mall, within the grounds of the headquarters of the Organization of American States.[3]

In 2011, the District of Columbia geographic information system (GIS) program completed a project to map the District’s boundary using Global Positioning System (GPS) and contemporary survey technology at an accuracy of +/- 5 centimetres (1.97 in) horizontally and +/- 9 centimetres (3.54 in) vertically. The GIS program's survey found that (listed in the order in which Andrew Ellicott's team performed the initial boundary survey):

  • Along the northwest boundary, the stones are outside the existing boundary ranging from 4.43 feet (1.35 m) to 9.6 feet (2.93 m)
  • Along the northeast boundary, the stones are inside the existing boundary ranging from 6.6 feet (2.01 m) to 8.4 feet (2.56 m)
  • Along the southeast boundary, the stones are outside the existing boundary ranging from 12.75 feet (3.89 m) to 18.48 feet (5.63 m)

The overall accuracy of the historic survey and the survey using 2011 technology produced remarkably similar results. For example, the distance between Southeast stones numbers 6 and 7 is 5,280.824 feet (1,609.5952 m), almost exactly one mile (5,280 feet (1,609.3440 m)).[4]

Placement of boundary stones[edit]

South Cornerstone, now in seawall of Jones Point Lighthouse, Alexandria, Virginia

The survey team began at the square's south corner on the shoreline of Jones Point in Alexandria, Virginia, in 1791.[1][5][6] The team then cleared a corridor along the boundary route to facilitate surveying, starting at the south corner and continuing clockwise, placing sandstone boundary markers at the four corners and at intervals of approximately one mile.[1][5] These markers were quarried near Aquia Creek in Virginia.[1] Most weighed about a half-ton at their emplacement; the four cornestones were slightly larger. The Virginia stones were set in 1791, and the Maryland ones in 1792.[1] The location of the four cornerstones and the other markers is identified on the map in "Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia".[7]

The side of a boundary marker that faced the federal territory was inscribed "Jurisdiction of the United States". The opposite side was marked with the name of the border state: Virginia or Maryland. The remaining sides were marked with the year that the team placed the stones and with the marker's compass reading.[7]

Protection and historical designations[edit]

Fencing by the DAR[edit]

In 1915, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) placed fences around the markers.[7]

Historical designations[edit]

One Virginia boundary marker was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976, and another in 1980. In 1991 (for Virginia markers) and 1996 (for markers on the D.C./Maryland boundary), most of the markers not previously so designated were entered on this Register as parts of Multiple Property Submissions (or MPS) for Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia[8]

Virginia[edit]

Southwest 9.[9] This boundary marker in Virginia was added to the National Register of Historic Places, and further was named a U.S. National Historic Landmark, in 1976 at the instigation of the Afro-American Bicentennial Corporation, which gave the stone its name: Benjamin Banneker: SW-9 Intermediate Boundary Stone.[10] It was the first of the boundary markers to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

South Corner.[11] This boundary marker in Virginia was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, together with Alexandria's Jones Point Lighthouse.[12]

Southwest 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8; West Corner; Northwest 1, 2, and 3. These boundary markers in Virginia were added to the National Register of Historic Places on February 1, 1991.[13]

District of Columbia and Maryland[edit]

Northwest 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9; North Corner; Northeast 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9; East Corner; Southeast 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9. These boundary markers, located along the border between the District of Columbia and Maryland, were added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 1, 1996.[14]

Preservation efforts[edit]

In 1976, the National Capital Planning Commission published a report that described the history and condition of each boundary stone.[1] The report recommended that measures be taken to assure the stones' preservation.[1]

In 1995, the Northern Virginia Boundary Stones Committee, whose establishment the Northern Virginia Regional Commission (NVRC) had requested, issued a list of recommendations intended to document and preserve the 14 boundary stones that were located in Virginia. The Committee included representatives of the State of Maryland and of Arlington and Fairfax counties and the cities of Alexandria and Falls Church in Virginia.[15]

In 2008, the NVRC announced that four Virginia local governments, including Arlington and Fairfax counties and the cities of Alexandria and Falls Church, had agreed to help fund a project to protect and preserve the boundary stones by providing matching funds to a Transportation Enhancement Grant that the District of Columbia Department of Transportation (DDOT) had received from the Federal Highway Administration (FHA). The announcement stated that the NVRC was working on an agreement with the DDOT, the National Park Service and the FHA to administer the project.[16] However, the project had not begun by 2012. It appeared that the DDOT no longer had the funds that had been allocated for the project.[17]

Missing boundary markers[edit]

Four of the forty original boundary markers were not in or near their original locations in 2006. Three of these had been replaced with substitute markers.[7]

Southwest No. 2 Boundary Marker[edit]

Replica of lost Southwest Boundary Marker #2, placed by the DAR in 1920

The original marker disappeared before 1900. A marker stone now within a DAR fence near the street curb at 7 Russell Road north of King Street in Alexandria is a replacement. DAR records show that the replacement marker was placed at that location in 1920. The replacement marker lacks an inscription and does not resemble an original boundary marker.[18]

Northeast No. 1 Boundary Marker[edit]

Plaque showing the location of the original Northeast Boundary Marker #1

A photograph taken in the early 1900s shows a ceremony that members of the DAR conducted when they placed a fence around this marker stone, which was then in a field.[1] The stone was bulldozed and removed in September 1952 during the construction of a storefront at 7847 Eastern Avenue, northwest of the avenue's intersection with Georgia Avenue. A bronze plaque in the sidewalk in front of a shop at the site marks the stone's former location.[19]

Southeast No. 4 Boundary Marker[edit]

This marker was located in 1976 along Southern Avenue a few feet southeast of the avenue's intersection with Naylor Road.[1] The stone subsequently disappeared but was recovered by volunteers from the Maryland Society of Surveyors while working on a resurvey of the D.C. line. David R. Doyle of Silver Spring, Maryland, placed the marker in his garage in 1991.[20]

Southeast No. 8 Boundary Marker[edit]

This marker disappeared during construction in 1958. A replacement marker stone that lacks an inscription is located in the southeast corner of the Blue Plains Impoundment Lot on the Maryland side of the impoundment lot's fence. The replacement stone is nearly eight feet below ground level. A concrete pipe embedded in a mound of gravel marks the replacement stone's site. The top of the replacement stone could be seen through the interior of the pipe in 2006.[21]

List of boundary stones[edit]

The 36 extant and four missing boundary stones are tabulated in sequence below, beginning at the southern corner and proceeding clockwise, in the same order as the stones were placed.[7] The year of designation on the National Register of Historic Places is also included for each stone.

Southern corner[edit]

Name Also known as Address City/County Coordinates Status Designation
District of Columbia South Cornerstone South Cornerstone of the Original District of Columbia Seawall south of lighthouse, Jones Point Park, 1 Jones Point Drive, Alexandria City of Alexandria, Virginia; Prince George's County, Maryland 38°47′25″N 77°02′26″W / 38.7903387°N 77.0405825°W / 38.7903387; -77.0405825 (South Cornerstone of the Original District of Columbia) Extant 1980

Southwestern side[edit]

Name Also known as Address City/County Status Designation
Southwest No. 1 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 1220 Wilkes Street City of Alexandria, Virginia Extant 1991
Southwest No. 2 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia East side of Russell Road, north of junction with King Street City of Alexandria, Virginia Missing 1991
Southwest No. 3 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 2952 King Street, in the parking lot of First Baptist Church City of Alexandria, Virginia Extant 1991
Southwest No. 4 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia King Street north of junction with Wakefield Street City of Alexandria and Arlington County, Virginia Extant 1991
Southwest No. 5 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia Northeast of junction of King Street and Walter Reed Drive Arlington County, Virginia Extant 1991
Southwest No. 6 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia South Jefferson Street south of junction with Columbia Pike, in median strip Arlington and Fairfax counties, Virginia Extant 1991
Southwest No. 7 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia Behind 3101 South Manchester Street, in fence southwest of Carlin Springs Elementary School (5995 5th Road South) parking lot Arlington and Fairfax counties, Virginia Extant 1991
Southwest No. 8 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia South of junction of Wilson Boulevard and John Marshall Drive, behind apartment building Arlington County and the City of Falls Church, Virginia Extant 1991
Southwest No. 9 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia Benjamin Banneker: SW-9 Intermediate Boundary Stone West side of Benjamin Banneker Park, 1701 North Van Buren Street, between 18th Street North and Four Mile Run Arlington County and the City of Falls Church, Virginia Extant 1976

Western corner[edit]

Name Also known as Address City/County Coordinates Status Designation
West Cornerstone West Jurisdiction Stone In Andrew Ellicott Park at the West Cornerstone, 2824 N. Arizona St, Arlington, VA[22] Arlington County, City of Falls Church, and Fairfax County, Virginia 38°53′36″N 77°10′20″W / 38.8932193°N 77.1723036°W / 38.8932193; -77.1723036 (West Cornerstone of the Original District of Columbia) Extant 1991

Northwestern side[edit]

Name Also known as Address City/County Status Designation
Northwest No. 1 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 3607 Powhatan Street Arlington and Fairfax counties, Virginia Extant 1991
Northwest No. 2 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 5145 North 38th Street Arlington and Fairfax counties, Virginia Extant 1991
Northwest No. 3 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 4013 North Tazewell Street Arlington and Fairfax counties, Virginia Extant 1991
Northwest No. 4 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 5906 Dalecarlia Place, Northwest Washington, D.C. and Montgomery County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northwest No. 5 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia Dalecarlia Reservoir, 600 feet (180 m) west of Dalecarlia Parkway and 300 feet (91 m) southeast of concrete culvert Washington, D.C., and Montgomery County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northwest No. 6 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 150 feet (46 m) northeast of junction of Park and Western Avenues, Northwest Washington, D.C., and Montgomery County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northwest No. 7 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 5600 Western Avenue Washington, D.C., and Montgomery County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northwest No. 8 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 6422 Western Avenue Washington, D.C., and Montgomery County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northwest No. 9 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia Rock Creek Park, approximately 165 feet (50 m) Northwest of the centerline of Daniel Road and 5 feet (1.5 m) southeast from edge of 2701 Daniel Road Washington, D.C., and Montgomery County, Maryland Extant 1996

Northern corner[edit]

Name Also known as Address City/County Coordinates Status Designation
North Corner Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 1880 block of East-West Highway (south side) Washington, D.C., and Montgomery County, Maryland 38°59′45″N 77°02′27″W / 38.9959461°N 77.040947°W / 38.9959461; -77.040947 (North Corner Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia) Extant 1996

Northeastern side[edit]

Name Also known as Address City/County Status Designation
Northeast No. 1 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia Washington, D.C., and Montgomery County, Maryland Missing
Northeast No. 2 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 6980 Maple Street, Northwest Washington, D.C., and Montgomery County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northeast No. 3 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 144 feet (44 m) northwest of junction of Eastern Avenue and Chillum Road Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northeast No. 4 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 5400 Sargent Road Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northeast No. 5 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 4609 Eastern Avenue Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northeast No. 6 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 3601 Eastern Avenue Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northeast No. 7 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia Fort Lincoln Cemetery Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northeast No. 8 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia Kenilworth Park and Aquatic Gardens, northwest of junction of Eastern and Kenilworth Avenues Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Northeast No. 9 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 919 Eastern Avenue Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996

Eastern corner[edit]

Name Also known as Address City/County Coordinates Status Designation
East Corner Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 100 feet (30 m) east of junction of Eastern and Southern Avenues Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland 38°53′34″N 76°54′33″W / 38.892829°N 76.9092291°W / 38.892829; -76.9092291 (East Corner Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia) Extant 1996

Southeastern side[edit]

Name Also known as Address City/County Status Designation
Southeast No. 1 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 30 feet (9.1 m) south of junction of Southern Avenue and D Street Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Southeast No. 2 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 4245 Southern Avenue Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Southeast No. 3 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 3908 Southern Avenue Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Southeast No. 4 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Missing
Southeast No. 5 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 280 feet (85 m) northeast of junction of Southern Avenue and Valley Terrace Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Southeast No. 6 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 901 Southern Avenue Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Southeast No. 7 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 25 feet (7.6 m) northeast of junction of Southern Avenue and Indian Head Road Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996
Southeast No. 8 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Missing
Southeast No. 9 Boundary Marker of the Original District of Columbia 0.225 miles (0.362 km) southwest of the southern end of Oxon Cove Bridge and about 120 feet (37 m) east of the Potomac River, at the base of a hill[23] Washington, D.C., and Prince George's County, Maryland Extant 1996

District of Columbia entrance markers[edit]

Entrance marker in Silver Spring traffic circle
One of the Garden Club of America Entrance Markers in Friendship Heights

A group of entrance markers, erected later along major roads that travel into the District of Columbia, are located on or near the boundary of D.C. and Maryland.

An entrance marker stands in a traffic circle near Silver Spring at the junction of Eastern Avenue NW, 16th Street NW, N. Portal Road NW and Colesville Road.[24] This marker is between the North Corner boundary marker and the former site of the Northeast No. 1 boundary marker of the original District of Columbia.

Three pairs of marker stones and another single stone are known collectively as the Garden Club of America Entrance Markers.[25] They are all listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  • One pair of markers is located within Westmoreland Circle at the junction of Western Avenue NW and Massachusetts Avenue NW.[26] These markers are between the Northwest No. 5 and Northwest No. 6 boundary markers of the original District of Columbia.
  • Another set of markers is located in Chevy Chase Circle. The primary intersection is Western Avenue and Connecticut Avenues, NW.[28] These markers are between the Northwest No. 7 and Northwest No. 8 boundary markers of the original District of Columbia.
  • An unpaired marker is located within a traffic island at the intersection of Georgia Avenue NW, Alaska Avenue NW and Kalmia Road NW.[29] This marker is between the former site of the Northeast No. 1 and Northeast No. 2 boundary markers of the original District of Columbia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i National Capital Planning Commission. Boundary markers of the Nation's Capital : a proposal for their preservation & protection: a National Capital Planning Commission Bicentennial report. Washington, DC, 1976: U.S. Government Printing Office.  at Google Books
  2. ^ The north-south axis is a straight line connecting the north and south cornerstones of the original District of Columbia. The east-west axis is a straight line connecting the east and west cornerstones of the original District of Columbia.
  3. ^ Coordinates of the center of the square of the original District of Columbia: 38°53′35″N 77°02′27″W / 38.89303°N 77.0407632°W / 38.89303; -77.0407632 (Center of the square of the original District of Columbia). The center of the square of the original District of Columbia is the crossing of the north-south axis line and the east-west axis line.
  4. ^ Office of the Chief Technology Officer (December 1, 2011). "Historic Survey of the District's Boundary Stones using Modern Technology". Government of the District of Columbia. Retrieved January 6, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Bedini, Silvio A. (1970). "Benjamin Banneker and the Survey of the District of Columbia, 1791" (pdf). Records of the Columbia Historical Society 47: 7–30. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2013-01-13.  at boundarystones.org
  6. ^ "The 1790s: Place in Time". Discovering the Decades: Alexandria Archaeology Looks Back at 250 Years of Alexandria History. Alexandria Archeology Museum. Government of the City of Alexandria, Virginia. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia". boundarystones.org. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  8. ^ Boundary Markers of the original District of Columbia MPS
  9. ^ "SW9". Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia. boundary stones.org. Retrieved 2013-01-04. 
  10. ^ (1) "Benjamin Banneker: SW 9 Intermediate Boundary Stone". VIRGINIA - Arlington County. National Register of Historic Places.com. p. 1. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
    (2) "Banneker (Benjamin) SW-9 Intermediate Boundary Stone". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
    (3) Graves, Lynne Gomez (Historical Projects Director, Afro-American Bicentennial Corporation) (February 3, 1976). "Benjamin Banneker: SW-9 Intermediate Boundary Stone (milestone) of the District of Columbia". United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service: National Register of Historic Places Inventory — Nomination Form. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  11. ^ "SOUTH". Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia. boundary stones.org. Retrieved 2013-01-04. 
  12. ^ (1) "Jones Point Lighthouse and District of Columbia South Cornerstone". VIRGINIA - Alexandria County. National Register of Historic Places.com. Archived from the original on July 2, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
    (2) Mackintosh, Barry (Regional Historian, National Capital Region, National Park Service) (January 24, 1980). "Jones Point Lighthouse and District of Columbia South Cornerstone". United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service: National Register of Historic Places Inventory — Nomination Form for Federal Properties. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  13. ^ (1) "Southwest No. 1, Southwest No. 2, Southwest No. 3, Southwest No. 4 and Southwest No. 5 Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia". VIRGINIA - Alexandria County. National Register of Historic Places.com. Archived from the original on July 2, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
    (2) "Southwest No. 5, Southwest No. 6 and Southwest No. 7 Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia and West Cornerstone". VIRGINIA - Arlington County. National Register of Historic Places.com. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
    (3) Hynak, Barbara A. (Chairman, District V Boundary Markers Committee, Virginia Daughters of the American Revolution) (July 9, 1990). "Boundary Markers of the original District of Columbia". United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service: National Register of Historic Places — Multiple Property Documentation Form and National Register of Historic Places — Registration Forms for Southwest #1,Southwest #2, Southwest #3,Southwest #4, Southwest #5,Southwest #6, Southwest #7,Southwest #8, West Cornerstone, Northwest #1, Northwest #2 and Northwest #3 Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia. Arlington County, Virginia: Arlington County, Virginia, Department of Community Planning, Housing and Development. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
    (4) ": West Cornerstone". VIRGINIA - Falls Church County. National Register of Historic Places.com. Archived from the original on December 18, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  14. ^ "East Corner, North Corner, Northeast No. 2, Northeast No. 3, Northeast No. 4, Northeast No. 5, Northeast No. 6, Northeast No. 7, Northeast No. 8, Northeast No. 9, Northwest No. 4, Northwest No. 5, Northwest No. 6, Northwest No. 7, Northwest No. 8, Northwest No. 9, Southeast No. 1, Southeast No. 2, Southeast No. 3, Southeast No. 5, Southeast No. 6, Southeast No. 7, and Southeast No. 9 Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia". DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. National Register of Historic Places.com. p. 6. Archived from the original on July 2, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  15. ^ (1) Northern Virginia Boundary Stones Committee (September 1995). "1994-1995 Findings and Recommendations of the Northern Virginia Boundary Stones Committee". boundarystones.org. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2013. 
    (2) "1994-1995 Findings and Recommendations of the Northern Virginia Boundary Stones Committee" (pdf). boundarystones.org. September 1995. Retrieved January 7, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Northern Virginia Regional Commission Leads Project to Preserve DC Boundary Markers". Press Release. Northern Virginia Regional Commission. August 14, 2008. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  17. ^ Muller, John (May 23, 2012). "Without preservation, DC's boundary stones are in danger". Greater Greater Washington. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013. 
  18. ^ "SW2". Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia. boundary stones.org. Retrieved 2013-01-04. 
  19. ^ "NE1". Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia. boundary stones.org. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  20. ^ "SE4". Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia. boundary stones.org. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  21. ^ "SE8". Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia. boundary stones.org. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Andrew Ellicott Park at the West Cornerstone". Arlington County, Virginia, Department of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on 2013-10-08. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  23. ^ "SE9". Boundary Stones of the District of Columbia. boundary stones.org. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  24. ^ Coordinates of entrance marker near Silver Spring: 38°59′32″N 77°02′11″W / 38.992346°N 77.0363206°W / 38.992346; -77.0363206 (Entrance marker near Silver Spring)
  25. ^ "District of Columbia Inventory of Historic Sites". DC Preservation. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  26. ^ Coordinates of entrance marker in Westmoreland Circle: 38°56′57″N 77°06′03″W / 38.949213°N 77.10084°W / 38.949213; -77.10084 (Entrance marker in Westmoreland Circle)
  27. ^ Coordinates of entrance marker in Friendship Heights: 38°57′40″N 77°05′09″W / 38.9610041°N 77.08571°W / 38.9610041; -77.08571 (Entrance marker in Friendship Heights)
  28. ^ Coordinates of entrance marker in Chevy Chase Circle: 38°58′03″N 77°04′37″W / 38.9675°N 77.076944°W / 38.9675; -77.076944 (Boundary marker in Chevy Chase Circle)
  29. ^ Coordinates of entrance marker along Georgia Ave. NW: 38°59′02″N 77°01′36″W / 38.9839102°N 77.0267349°W / 38.9839102; -77.0267349 (Garden Club of America Entrance Marker at Georgia Avenue)

External links[edit]