This is a list of the monarchs of Burma (Myanmar), covering the monarchs of all the major kingdoms that existed in the present day Burma (Myanmar). Although Burmese chronicle tradition maintains that various monarchies of Burma (Mon, Burman, Arakanese), began in the 9th century BCE, historically verified data date back only to 1044 CE at the accession of Anawrahta of Pagan. The farther away the data are from 1044, the less verifiable they are. For example, the founding of the city of Pagan (Bagan) in the 9th century is verifiable–although the accuracy of the actual date, given in the Chronicles as 849, remains in question–but the founding of early Pagan dynasty, given as the 2nd century, is not. For early kingdoms, see List of early and legendary monarchs of Burma.
The names of monarchs and their English spellings generally follow those given by G.E. Harvey and Htin Aung. The reign dates follow the latest available dates as discussed in each section.
Below is a partial list of early Pagan kings as reported by the four major chronicles. Prior to Anawrahta, inscriptional evidence exists thus far only for Nyaung-u Sawrahan and Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu. The list starts from Pyinbya, the fortifier of Pagan (Bagan) according to Hmannan. The Zatadawbon Yazawin is considered the most accurate chronicle for the Pagan period.
The list generally follows the chronicle reported order and reign dates. G.H. Luce does not recognize Naratheinkha, and proposes an interregnum of nine years between 1165 and 1174. But Luce's gap has been rigorously questioned. Moreover, Luce proposes that Naratheinga Uzana was king between 1231 and 1235 but it too is not universally accepted.
According to the chronicles, Yazathingyan died after five years of reign c. 1302/03. But a contemporary commemorative inscription of King Athinhkaya's death states that Yazathingyan was still alive when Athinhkaya died on 13 April 1310, and that the two remaining brothers continued to rule the country. Historian Than Tun believes the Hmannan narratives that Yazathingyan was already dead in 1310, and that Athinhkaya was poisoned by Thihathu are both incorrect. However, no other inscriptional evidence of Yazathingyan's existence beyond 1310 has been discovered. (The chronicles indeed do not mention Yazathingyan beyond 1302/03 since he was already dead according to them.)
Thihathu reigned at Pinle from 13 April 1310 to 11 February 1313 when he moved his capital to Pinya. The dates below are by Than Tun and Gordon Luce who had checked the chronicle reported dates with inscriptions. Myinsaing Sithu does not appear in any of the chronicles.
Most of the dates are by Than Tun and Gordon Luce who had checked the dates provided in the chronicles against the inscriptions. Sawyun's start of reign date and Minbyauk's end of reign date are per Hmannan.
Different Burmese chronicles give similar but not identical dates for the regnal dates of the Ava period. The following table largely follows the dates given in Hmannan Yazawin and the table of regnal dates given in (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 352–355). The regnal dates by G.E. Harvey (Harvey 1925: 366) for the most part are off by a year (a year later) than chronicle and inscriptionally-verified dates.
The reign dates are per the Arakanese chronicleRakhine Razawin Thit (Sandamala Linkara Vol. 2 1931), converted into Western dates using (Eade 1989). The converted dates after 1582 are on the Gregorian calendar. (Some Arakanese chronicles state the foundation of the kingdom a year later, 1430. Moreover, the end of the kingdom is given per Burmese records, 2 January 1785. Arakanese records give a day earlier, 1 January 1785.)
The following are based on the reign dates in the Burmese calendar given in Maha Yazawin and Hmannan Yazawin chronicles. (The converted dates after 1582 are on the Gregorian calendar. Some books, e.g., Than Tun's Royal Orders of Burma (1983–1990), use old-style Julian dates for the entire Toungoo period.)