List of Canadian Victoria Cross recipients

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A black-and-white photograph of a man with a beard and short hair looking at the viewer and wearing a button-up jacket displaying four medals
Canadian William Hall was the first black recipient of the Victoria Cross.

The Victoria Cross (post-nominal letters "VC") is the highest military honour of the British Empire and the Commonwealth of Nations, being awarded only for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing a hostile force. It is the highest honour in the Canadian honour system, placed before all other orders, decorations and medals, including the Order of Canada, in the Order of Precedence.[1] It was historically awarded to members of the Canadian Forces of any rank in any service, and to allies serving under or with Canadian military command;

Since 1993, Canadians have no longer been eligible for the Victoria Cross: that medal has been superseded by the Canadian Victoria Cross – of equal honour, but yet to be awarded.[1] The Canadian medal differs only in that the inscription is in Latin rather than English; by using a language that is an ancestor of both English and French, the medal avoids linguistic discrimination between Canada's two official languages.[2]

The Victoria Cross has been presented to 96 Canadians, or people closely associated with Canada, between its creation soon after the Crimean War and 1993 when the Canadian Victoria Cross was instituted. However, no Canadian has received either honour since 1945.[3] The first Canadian to be awarded the Victoria Cross was Alexander Roberts Dunn for his actions at the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War in 1854. Thomas Ricketts, a private in the Royal Newfoundland Regiment during the First World War, received the Victoria Cross and is sometimes erroneously considered a Canadian soldier, but Newfoundland was a self-governing dominion at the time and did not become a province of Canada until 1949.[4] Seventy-one Victoria Crosses were awarded to Canadians for their actions in the First World War and sixteen medals were awarded during the Second World War. The remaining recipients were for actions in the Battle of Balaclava, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and the Second Boer War. William Hall, a Nova Scotian, was the first black recipient of the Victoria Cross.[5] The last living Canadian recipient of the British Victoria Cross, "Smokey" Smith, died in August 2005.[6]

Seven Canadians were awarded VCs for their individual deeds on one single day, 2 September 1918: Bellenden Hutcheson, Arthur George Knight, William Henry Metcalf, Claude Nunney, Cyrus Wesley Peck, Walter Leigh Rayfield and John Francis Young.

Recipients[edit]

      This along with the *, indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously

Name Date of action Conflict Unit Place of action Province of origin Notes
Algie, WallaceWallace Algie 1918* First World War 20th Battalion, CEF Cambrai, France Ontario[7]
Barker, WilliamWilliam Barker 1918 First World War No. 201 Squadron RAF Forêt de Mormal, France Manitoba[8]
Barron, ColinColin Barron 1917 First World War 3rd Battalion, CEF Passchendaele, Belgium Ontario[9]
Bazalgette, IanIan Bazalgette 1944* Second World War No. 115 Squadron RAF Trossy St. Maximin, France Alberta[10]
Bellew, EdwardEdward Bellew 1915 First World War 7th Battalion, CEF Kerselaere, Belgium British Columbia[11]
Bent, PhilipPhilip Bent 1917* First World War The Leicestershire Regiment Polygon Wood, Belgium Nova Scotia[12]
Bishop, WilliamWilliam Bishop 1917 First World War No. 60 Squadron RAF Cambrai, France Ontario[13]
Bourke, RowlandRowland Bourke 1918 First World War Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Ostend, Belgium British Columbia[14]
Brereton, AlexanderAlexander Brereton 1918 First World War 8th Battalion, CEF Amiens, France Manitoba[15]
Brillant, JeanJean Brillant 1918* First World War 22nd Battalion, CEF Meharicourt, France Quebec[16]
Brown, HarryHarry Brown 1917* First World War 10th Battalion, CEF Loos, France Ontario[17]
Cairns, HughHugh Cairns 1918* First World War 46th Battalion, CEF Valenciennes, France Saskatchewan[18]
Campbell, FrederickFrederick Campbell 1915* First World War 1st Battalion, CEF Givenchy, France Ontario[19]
Clarke, LeoLeo Clarke 1916* First World War 2nd Battalion Pozières, France Manitoba[20]
Clark-Kennedy, WilliamWilliam Clark-Kennedy 1918 First World War 24th Battalion, CEF Fresnes, France Quebec[21]
Cockburn, HampdenHampden Cockburn 1900 Second Boer War Royal Canadian Dragoons Komati River, South Africa Ontario[22]
Combe, RobertRobert Combe 1917* First World War 27th Battalion, CEF Acheville, France Saskatchewan[23]
Coppins, FrederickFrederick Coppins 1918 First World War 8th Battalion, CEF Hackett Woods, France Manitoba[24]
Cosens, AubreyAubrey Cosens 1945* Second World War The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada Mooshof, Germany Ontario[25]
Croak, JohnJohn Croak 1918* First World War 13th Battalion, CEF Amiens, France Nova Scotia[26]
Cruickshank, RobertRobert Cruickshank 1918 First World War London Regiment Jordan, Palestine Manitoba[27] [note 1]
Currie, DavidDavid Currie 1944 Second World War 29th Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment (The South Alberta Regiment) Battle of Falaise, France Saskatchewan[28]
De Wind, EdmundEdmund De Wind 1918* First World War Royal Irish Rifles Groagie, France Alberta[29] [note 2]
Dinesen, ThomasThomas Dinesen 1918 First World War 42nd Battalion, CEF Parvillers, France n/a[30] [note 3]
Douglas, CampbellCampbell Douglas 1867 Bravery at Sea 24th Regiment of Foot Little Andaman, India Ontario[31]
Dunn, AlexanderAlexander Dunn 1854 Battle of Balaclava 33rd Regiment of Foot Balaclava, Crimea Ontario[32]
Fisher, FrederickFrederick Fisher 1915* First World War 13th Battalion, CEF St. Julien, Belgium Ontario[33]
Flowerdew, GordonGordon Flowerdew 1918* First World War Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Bois de Moreuil, France British Columbia[34]
Foote, JohnJohn Foote 1942 Second World War Royal Hamilton Light Infantry Dieppe, France Ontario[35]
Good, HermanHerman Good 1918 First World War 13th Battalion, CEF Hangard Wood, France New Brunswick[36]
Gray, RobertRobert Gray 1945* Second World War Fleet Air Arm Honshū, Japan British Columbia[37]
Gregg, MiltonMilton Gregg 1918 First World War Royal Canadian Regiment Cambrai, France New Brunswick[38]
Hall, FrederickFrederick Hall 1915* First World War 8th Battalion, CEF Ypres, Belgium Manitoba[39]
Hall, WilliamWilliam Hall 1857 Indian rebellion of 1857 HMS Shannon Lucknow, India Nova Scotia[40]
Hanna, RobertRobert Hanna 1917 First World War 29th Battalion, CEF Lens, France British Columbia[41]
Harvey, FrederickFrederick Harvey 1917 First World War Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Guyencourt, France Alberta[42]
Hobson, FrederickFrederick Hobson 1917* First World War 20th Battalion Lens, France Ontario[43]
Hoey, CharlesCharles Hoey 1944 Second World War Royal Lincolnshire Regiment Ngakyedauk Pass, Burma (now Myanmar) British Columbia[44]
Holland, EdwardEdward Holland 1900 Second Boer War Royal Canadian Dragoons Komati River, South Africa Ontario[45]
Holmes, ThomasThomas Holmes 1917 First World War 4th Battalion, Canadian Mounted Rifles Passchendaele, Belgium Ontario[46]
Honey, SamuelSamuel Honey 1918* First World War 78th Battalion, CEF Bourlon Wood, France Ontario[47]
Hornell, DavidDavid Hornell 1944 Second World War No. 162 Squadron RCAF Faroes, Atlantic Ontario[48]
Hutcheson, BellendenBellenden Hutcheson 1918 First World War 75th Battalion, CEF Arras, France Ontario[49] [note 4]
Kaeble, JosephJoseph Kaeble 1918* First World War 22nd Battalion, CEF Neuville-Vitasse, France Quebec[50]
Kerr, GeorgeGeorge Kerr 1918 First World War 3rd Battalion, CEF Bourlon Wood, France Ontario[51]
Kerr, JohnJohn Kerr 1916 First World War 49th Battalion, CEF Courcelette, France Nova Scotia[52]
Kinross, CecilCecil Kinross 1917 First World War 49th Battalion, CEF Passchendaele, Belgium Alberta[53]
Knight, ArthurArthur Knight 1918* First World War 10th Battalion, CEF Villers-les-Cagnicourt, France Saskatchewan[54]
Konowal, FilipFilip Konowal 1917 First World War 47th Battalion, CEF Lens, France n/a [note 5]
Learmonth, OkillOkill Learmonth 1917* First World War 2nd Battalion, CEF Loos, France Quebec[54]
Lyall, GrahamGraham Lyall 1918 First World War 102nd Battalion, CEF Cambrai, France Ontario[55]
MacDowell, ThainThain MacDowell 1917 First World War 38th Battalion, CEF Vimy Ridge, France Ontario[56]
MacGregor, JohnJohn MacGregor 1918 First World War 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles Cambrai, France British Columbia[57]
Mahony, JohnJohn Mahony 1944 Second World War Westminster Regiment (Motor) River Melfa, Italy British Columbia[58]
McKean, GeorgeGeorge McKean 1918 First World War 14th Battalion, CEF Gavrelle Sector, France Alberta[59]
McKenzie, HughHugh McKenzie 1917* First World War Canadian Machine Gun Corps Meetscheele Spur, Belgium Alberta[60]
McLeod, AlanAlan McLeod 1918* First World War No. 2 Squadron RFC Albert, France Manitoba[61]
Merrifield, WilliamWilliam Merrifield 1918 First World War 4th Battalion, CEF Abancourt, France Ontario[62]
Merritt, CharlesCharles Merritt 1942 Second World War South Saskatchewan Regiment Dieppe, France British Columbia[63]
Metcalf, WilliamWilliam Metcalf 1918 First World War 16th Battalion, CEF Arras, France n/a [note 4]
Milne, WilliamWilliam Milne 1917* First World War 16th Battalion, CEF Thelus, France Saskatchewan[64]
Miner, HarryHarry Miner 1918* First World War 58th Battalion, CEF Demuin, France Ontario[65]
Mitchell, Coulson NormanCoulson Norman Mitchell 1918 First World War 4th Canadian Engineers Canal de L'Escaut, France Manitoba[66]
Mullin, GeorgeGeorge Mullin 1917 First World War Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Passchendaele, Belgium Saskatchewan[67] [note 4]
Mynarski, AndrewAndrew Mynarski 1944* Second World War No. 419 Squadron RCAF Cambrai, France Manitoba[68]
Nickerson, WilliamWilliam Nickerson 1900 Second Boer War Royal Army Medical Corps Wakkerstroom, South Africa New Brunswick[69] [note 1]
Nunney, ClaudeClaude Nunney 1918* First World War 38th Battalion, CEF Drocourt-Queant Line, France Ontario[70]
O'Kelly, ChristopherChristopher O'Kelly 1917 First World War 52nd Battalion, CEF Passchendaele, Belgium Manitoba[71]
O'Leary, MichaelMichael O'Leary 1915 First World War Irish Guards Cuinchy, France Saskatchewan[72] [note 6]
O'Rourke, MichaelMichael O'Rourke 1917 First World War 7th Battalion, CEF Hill 70, France British Columbia[73]
Osborn, JohnJohn Osborn 1941 Second World War Winnipeg Grenadiers Mount Butler, Hong Kong Manitoba[74]
Pattison, JohnJohn Pattison 1917* First World War 50th Battalion, CEF Vimy Ridge, France Alberta[75]
Pearkes, GeorgeGeorge Pearkes 1917 First World War 5th Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles Passchendaele, Belgium Yukon[76]
Peck, CyrusCyrus Peck 1918 First World War 16th Battalion, CEF Cagnicourt, France New Brunswick[77]
Peters, FrederickFrederick Peters 1942 Second World War HMS Walney Oran, Algeria P.E.I[78]
Rayfield, WalterWalter Rayfield 1918 First World War 7th Battalion, CEF Arras, France Ontario[79]
Reade, HerbertHerbert Reade 1857 Indian rebellion of 1857 61st Regiment of Foot Delhi, India Ontario[80]
Richardson, ArthurArthur Richardson 1900 Second Boer War Strathcona's Horse Wolwespruit, South Africa n/a[81]
Richardson, JamesJames Richardson 1916* First World War 16th Battalion, CEF Somme, France British Columbia[82]
Robertson, JamesJames Robertson 1917* First World War 27th Battalion, CEF Passchendaele, Belgium Nova Scotia[83]
Rutherford, CharlesCharles Rutherford 1918 First World War 5th Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles Monchy, France Ontario[84]
Scrimger, FrancisFrancis Scrimger 1915 First World War Canadian Army Medical Corps St. Julien, Belgium Quebec[85]
Shankland, RobertRobert Shankland 1917 First World War 43rd Battalion, CEF Passchendaele, Belgium Manitoba[86]
Sifton, EllisEllis Sifton 1917* First World War 18th Battalion, CEF Neuville-St.-Vaast, France Ontario[87]
Sinton, JohnJohn Sinton 1916 First World War Indian Medical Service Orah Ruins, Mesopotamia British Columbia[88] [note 1]
Smith, ErnestErnest Smith 1944 Second World War Seaforth Highlanders of Canada River Savio, Italy British Columbia[89]
Spall, RobertRobert Spall 1918* First World War Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Parvillers, France Manitoba[90]
Strachan, HarcusHarcus Strachan 1917 First World War Fort Garry Horse Masnières, France Manitoba[91]
Tait, JamesJames Tait 1918* First World War 78th Battalion, CEF Amiens, France N.W.T[92]
Tilston, FrederickFrederick Tilston 1945 Second World War Essex Scottish Regiment Hochwald Forest, Germany Ontario[93]
Topham, FrederickFrederick Topham 1945 Second World War 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion Rhine, Germany Ontario[94]
Triquet, PaulPaul Triquet 1943 Second World War Royal 22e Régiment Casa Berardi, Italy Quebec[95]
Turner, RichardRichard Turner 1900 Second Boer War Royal Canadian Dragoons Komati River, South Africa Quebec[96]
Wilkinson, ThomasThomas Wilkinson 1916* First World War Loyal North Lancashire Regiment La Boiselle, France n/a[97]
Young, JohnJohn Young 1918 First World War 87th Battalion, CEF Dury-Arras Sector, France Quebec[98]
Zengel, RaphaelRaphael Zengel 1918 First World War 5th Battalion, CEF Warvillers, France Saskatchewan[99] [note 4]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Recipients were Canadians, but were serving in Other Army Units at the time of their VC act
  2. ^ Although born in Ireland, was enlisted in the Canadian army and is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal
  3. ^ Although a Danish citizen who enlisted in the Canadian army, he is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal
  4. ^ a b c d Although an American citizen who enlisted in the Canadian army, is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal
  5. ^ Although a Ukrainian citizen who enlisted in the Canadian army, is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal
  6. ^ Considered Irish, but listed here due to residency in Canada

References[edit]

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  16. ^ "Jean Brillant". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
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  50. ^ "Joseph Kaeble". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  51. ^ "George Fraser Kerr". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  52. ^ "John Chipman Kerr". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  53. ^ "Cecil John Kinross". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  54. ^ a b "Arthur George Knight". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  55. ^ "Graham Thomson Lyall". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
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  63. ^ "Charles Cecil Ingersoll Merritt". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  64. ^ "William Johnstone Milne". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  65. ^ "Harry Garnet Bedford Miner". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  66. ^ "Coulson Norman Mitchell". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
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  73. ^ "Michael James O'Rourke". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  74. ^ "John Robert Osbron". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  75. ^ "John George Pattison". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  76. ^ "George Randolph Pearkes". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  77. ^ "Cyrus Wesley Peck". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
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  79. ^ "Walter Leigh Rayfield". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
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  81. ^ "Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  82. ^ "James Cleland Richardson". Veteran Affairs Canada. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  83. ^ "James Peter Robertson". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  84. ^ "Charles Smith Rutherford". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  85. ^ "Francis Alexander Caron Scrimger". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  86. ^ "Robert Shankland". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  87. ^ "Ellis Welwood Sifton". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  88. ^ Bob Sinton, Tandragee, Co. Armagh, Northern Ireland. "Sinton Family Trees – Details of Brig. John Alexander Sinton VC, OBE, DL, FRS, MD, DSc, MB, BCh, son of Walter Lyon Sinton and Isabella Mary Pringle, Born 1884, Died 1956". Bob-sinton.com. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  89. ^ "Ernest Alvia Smith". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  90. ^ "Robert Spall". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  91. ^ "Harcus Strachan". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  92. ^ "James Edward Tait". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  93. ^ "Frederick Albert Tilston". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  94. ^ "Frederick George Topham". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  95. ^ "Paul Triquet". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  96. ^ "Richard Ernest William Turner". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  97. ^ "Thomas Orde Lawder Wilkinson". Veteran Affairs Canada. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  98. ^ "John Francis Young". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  99. ^ "Raphael Louis Zengel". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.