List of Caribbean membranophones

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"Enko" redirects here. "-enko" is also a common suffix of Ukrainian surnames, meaning "son of".
Conga drums are a common part of Caribbean music across much of the area

This is a list of membranophones used in the Caribbean music area, including the islands of the Caribbean Sea, as well as the musics of Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Belize, Garifuna music, and Bermuda. It only includes membranophones that are indigenous to the local music area or are a vital and long-standing part of local culture. It does not include membranophones that are, for example, a part of Western style orchestras, nor does it include trap sets and other common membranophones used in popular music recordings of many genres across the world. Almost all membranophones are drums and percussion instruments.[1][2]

The Hornbostel-Sachs number is given after each instrument.[3]

Instrument Tradition Complete classification Description
agbe See chekere -
agida[4][5]
Suriname 211.212 Afro-Surinamese bass drum that sets a steady beat for folk music, played with a stick, of the set with apinti and tumao, pitch can be varied based on the location of the head struck, made from hollow logs with heads of skin, used in spiritual ceremonies, where it is associated with snake spirits
akete See kété -
alcagüete See alcahuete -
alcahuete[6][7]
alcagüete
Dominican Republic 211.211.2-7 One of the smaller drums used in the ensembles called palos, of the Afro-Dominican religious ceremonies, played either in pairs or trios, with single skin heads either pegged or tacked
amelé See okónkolo -
apinti[4][5]
Suriname 211.211.2 Principal Afro-Surinamese drum of the set with agida and tumao, tenor drum, decorated with carvings, and used for communication by Surinamese slaves and for religious purposes in connection with sky and ancestor spirits, pitch can be varied based on the location of the head struck, made from hollow logs with heads of skin
arobapá[8][9]
endóga
Cuba 211.21-814 Drum used in Afro-Cuban Abakuá societies, small enkomo drum of the biankomeko ensemble, along with the kuchiyeremá and biapá, and the taller bonkó enchemiyá
assotor[10]
Haiti 211.211.2 5-to-6-foot-tall (1.5 to 1.8 m) cylindrical drum with three windows near the base so the drummer (or pair of drummers) can play it easily, decorated with brightly colored kerchiefs (foulas)
atabales See palos -
baboula[11][12]
Grenada 211.221.1 Open-bottomed, goatskin-headed, made from barrels or tree trunks, smaller partner of the tambou, used in the belair dance
balaban[13][14]
jumbie drum
Montserrat 211.311 Small goatskin frame drum, played with the back of the hand, front of the fingers and the palm, used to attract spirits for the jumbie dance
balsié[15]
Dominican Republic 2 Small double-headed drum, used in merengue only in the south of the country
bamboula[16]
Virgin Islands 211.211.2 Played by two drummers, one using two sticks and the other hands and feet, used in dance genre of the same name (bamboula)
bandu See kbandu -
bari[17][18][19]
Bonaire and Curaçao 211.22 Single-headed, made from a wooden barrel, often from the herring industry, with a skin frame, played two-handed
barrel drum[9]
Cuba 211.222.2-7 Barrel drum variant of a batá drum, often with the system of lacing replaced by nailing the heads to the drum, most common in Matanzas Province
barriles[20]
buleador, primo, repicador, subidor
Puerto Rico 211.221.2 Barrel drums, covered with lightly stretched skins, consists of large buleador drums and smaller subidor drums, used in bomba
bas a dé fas, tambou[21]
Guadeloupe 211.212.2 Bass drum, double-headed, played with sticks, used in Carnival, specifically mizik a mas Byé Fò
bas a yon fas, tambou[21][22]
Guadeloupe 211.221-7 Bass barrel drum, one-headed, laced, and played with sticks, used in Carnival, specifically mizik a mas a Sen Jan
bas, tambou di[22][23][24][25]
boula, tambou dibass, tambou dibas, tambou bas
Martinique and Guadeloupe 211.311 Small frame drum played with both striking and rubbing, used in indoor music, and quadrilles, ladja and gwo ka, and in the Tamil music of Indo-Caribbean Martinique
bas, tambou See foulé, tambou -
bas, tambou See bas, tambou di -
bas, tambou See bas a yon fas, tambou -
base, tambou di See bas, tambou di -
bass drum[26]
Antigua and Barbuda 211.211.2 Bass drum, accompaniment to stilt dancers and Christmas music
bass drum[27]
Barbados 211.212.1 Double-headed drum that keeps the ground rhythm and is slung across the drummers' shoulder, used in tuk bands
bass drum[11]
Grenada 211.212.1 Double-headed bass drum, played with a hard stick in one hand for the lower head, and a soft mallet in the other hand for the upper head, used to accompany quadrilles
bass drum[28][29][30][31][32]
repeater (Maroon only)
Jamaica 211.212.1 Double-headed bass drum, carried with a strap and leader of marching bands, played with a covered stick in Nyabinghi ceremonies, used in marching bands, and Rastafarian and Maroon music
bass tumbadora[33]
true conga
Cuba 211.22.2 Largest barrel-shaped hand drum of the tumbadora family
basse[10]
Haiti 211.311 Goatskin-headed tambourine, used in secular music
batá drums[9][34]
Cuba 211.26-813 Family of three drums: iyá, itótele and okónkolo, used in Lucumi religious rites, all goblet-shaped and with two goatskin heads called tcha-tchás, sometimes with a nut inside (coco-Africano), both for aural and spiritual reasons
batta[35]
Guyana 2 Afro-Guyanese bass drum, used in folk music traditions
baydum [36]
Indo-Trinidadian 211.212.1 Double-headed bass drum, used in Muslim Hosay (Hosein) rituals, now widespread among Afro-Trinidadians and others
bélé[22][23][24][37]
Martinique 211.251.2-91(+22) Single-headed, open-bottomed conical drum with a hole in the barrel and a goatskin head, stretched by a rope hoop, wrapped in more rope, used in all African-derived Martinican dances and as a symbol of Afro-Martinican identity, including tambour bélé, kalenda, and danmyé, also used to synchronize collective labor in northern Martinique, and is a part of most Martinican rural work songs, uses a plucking string in the northern region
bélé, tambou[38]
Dominica 211.221.2-86+22 Single-headed barrel drum, covered at one end by goatskin, stretched with rope and pegs, and played barehanded, accompanies bélé, features a plucked strings across the head
bélé, tambou See ka -
bemba[36]
bembe
Trinidad and Tobago 211.212.2 Cylindrical drums with double skins, smallest of the set with conga and oumalay drums
bembe See bemba -
bench drum See gumbe -
biankomeko[8][9]
Cuba
-
Afro-Cuban Abakuá drum ensemble, consisting of four drums: bonkó enchemiyá and enkomo: biapá, arobapá, and kuchiyeremá
biapá[8][9]
tétendóga
Cuba 211.21-814 Small enkomo drum of the biankomeko ensemble, along with the biapá, arobapá, and kuchiyeremá, and the taller bonkó enchemiyá
Big Drum[39][40]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Carriacou (Grenada) and Saint Kitts and Nevis
-
Music and dance ritual, which includes drums traditionally made of tree trunks, now often of rum kegs
bigi doon See gaan doon -
biola[9]
Cuba 211.321 Unstrung banjo with a drumhead attached
bomba[41]
Puerto Rico 211.221.2 Barrel-shaped bass drum, used in genre of the same name (bomba)
bombos[9]
Cuba 211.212.1 European-style bass drum, used in comparsa, a pre-Easter procession
boncó See bonkó enchemiyá -
bongo[9][33][35][41][42][43]
Cuba 211.211.1 Drums of unequal size played in a pair and held between the knees, originally used in Cuban folk music of various kinds, also used in music of Puerto Rico and across the area, especially Guyana
bonkó enchemiyá[8]
bonko enchemi, bonko, boncó
Cuba 211.21-814 Largest drum of the biankomeko ensemble, along with the enkomo: biapá, arobapá, and kuchiyeremá
bonko See bonkó enchemiyá -
bonko enchemi See bonkó enchemiyá -
boom See kettle -
boom boom See keg -
boula[21][22][23][25][37]
Guadeloupe 211.221.2 Single-headed hand drum, similar to tambou bèlè and played transversally and single-handed, produces lower sounds and the basic rhythms of the music, used in gwo ka, Carnival, wrestling matches and wakes
boula[11][12][44]
tambou dibas, bulla, bula
Carriacou 211.221.2 Hand drum, formerly made of barrels, now more often rum casks; narrower and lower-tuned cousin of the kata, used in the Big Drum tradition, barrel contains a hole on the side, skin is stretched by a hoop wrapped in cloth
boula[10][45]
bula
Haiti 211.221.2-7 Cowskin hand drum, with the head pegged in place around a decorative collar, used in rada along with segon and manman drums
boula[36]
Trinidad and Tobago 211.222-92 Double-headed barrel drum, played open handed, drum heads attached with hoops, accompanies kalenda stick fighting
bula See boula (Carriacou, Haiti) -
bulla See boula (Carriacou) -
buleador[20]
primo, repicador, burlador
Puerto Rico 211.221.2 Larger, barrel-shaped hand drums, covered with tight animal skin stretched using pegs, used in bomba
burlador See buleador -
cachimbo[44][46]
Cuba 211.211.2 Smallest yuka tubular drum, along with caja and mula
caja[44][46]
Cuba 211.211.2 Largest yuka tubular drum, along with cachimbo and mula, played by two people, one striking the bass and the other hitting the body with a pair of sticks
cast See playing cast -
chan, tambou[22]
Guadeloupe 2 Small and high pitched drums, played with sticks, used in Carnival, specifically mizik a mas a Sen Jan
circular See snare drum (Jamaica) -
conga[9][37][42][42][43][47]
tumbadora, tumba, requinto, quinto, ricardo, niño, supertumba, super quinto, tres golpes, salidor, true conga
Originally Cuban, now found throughout the Caribbean, especially Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and Haiti 211.221.1-7 Tall, narrow and single-headed barrel drum, open at the bottom, played by congueros, traditionally wood, now often fiberglass, animal-skin heads can be tuned; also used in popular genres from salsa to ripsaw
conga See petwo -
conga[35][36]
Trinidad and Tobago 211.212.2 Cylindrical drums with double skins, middle-sized drum of the set with bembe and oumalay drums; since introduced to Guyana
conga[15]
Dominican Republic 211.212.2 Cylindrical folk drums
conguito[15]
Dominican Republic 211.212.2 Cylindrical folk drums with a low bass tone, smaller version of the conga
cot See kata -
cotchíerima See kuchiyeremá -
cut drum See kata -
cutter[36]
Trinidad and Tobago 211.221-92 Single-headed barrel drum, played open handed, drum heads attached with hoops, accompanies kalenda stick fighting
cutter See kata -
débonda, tambou[22][24]
doumbedoum
Guadeloupe and Martinique 211.222.1 Double-headed barrel drum, used in chouval bwa and Carnival music
dholak[36][48]
Indo-Caribbean 211.212.1 Double-headed drum, used in chutney
dibas, tambou See bas, tambou di -
dibass, tambou See bas, tambou di -
djembe[37]
Guadeloupe 211.261.2 Skin-covered hand drum, goblet-shaped and played bare-handed, used in gwo ka moderne
doumbedoum See dèbonda, tambou -
dup[11]
Grenada 211.221.2 Bass drum made from a cardboard barrel, used in parang
ekué[49][50]
ecue
Cuba 231.13-814 Single-headed three-legged friction drum used in Abakuá ceremonies, played by rubbing a stick over the membrane, which is attached using wedges whose tightness can be modified
enómo See enkomo -
endóga See arobapá -
enko See enkomo -
enkomo[8][9]
enko, enómo
Cuba 211.21-814 Small cylindrical, or slightly tapered, goatskin-headed drums of the biankomeko ensemble, consisting of three types: biapá, arobapá, and kuchiyeremá
foulé, tambou[22]
French Guiana 211.221.2-92 Large barrel drum, used in Creole instrumental ensembles and kaseko, plays a basic rhythm accompanied by the tambou koupé, head typically made of goatskin, attached with a vine or iron hoop
French drum See hun -
French reel[13][14]
jumbie drum, woowoo
Montserrat 211.311 Goatskin frame drum, played with the back of the hand, front of the fingers and the palm, used to attract spirits for the jumbie dance
funde[29][30][31][51]
fundeh
Jamaica 211.211.1 Cylindrical drum, one-headed, held between players' legs and performed by tapping with the hand or fingers, originally used in Burru cult rituals, now also common in Nyabinghi ceremonies
funde[35]
Guyana 211.21 Afro-Guyanese cylindrical drum
fundeh See funde -
gaan doon[22]
French Guiana 2 Large bass drum that leads dances, used by the Alukuó Maroons
ganbo[10]
Haiti 211.211.1 Bamboo stomping tubes, sometimes played in groups
gombay See gumbe -
gombey[52][53]
Bermuda 211.211.2 Afro-Bermudan drum, related to the Bahamian goombay, used in the genre of the same name (gombey)
gonde[45]
Haiti 211.251.2-7 Cowskin hand drum, played with a hand and a bow, in a set with katabo and tambou manman
goombah See gumbe -
goombay[47][54]
Bahamas and Turks and Caicos 211.211.2-7 Goatskin-headed drum traditionally made from improvised materials (especially discarded barrels), goatskin is tuned by heating it with a candle and attached with nails, used in the Bahamian genre of the same name (goombay)
goombay See gumbe -
goombey See gumbe -
gragé, tambou[22]
French Guiana 211.3 Frame drum, used in Creole dance accompaniment for a dance of the same name (gragé)
groska See gwo ka -
gumbay See gumbe -
gumbe[32][55][56]
gumbay, goombeh, goombah, goombay, gombay, bench drum
French Guiana and Jamaica 211.31 Small Maroon-derived goatskin square-framed drum, introduced to Sierra Leone
gumbay See gumbe -
gwo ka[21][23][37]
also used synonymously with ka
Guadeloupe
-
Family of hand drums, used in lewoz and other traditions, as well as zouk
harp[29]
Jamaica
-
Generic term for drums used in ceremonies called grounations; these include the bass drum, funde and kété
hun[9]
French drums
Cuba
-
Family of four drums used in the Haitian-Cuban Arada ceremonies, consisting of hugán, xumpé, hun-hogúlo and huní
hugán[9]
French drum
Cuba 211.22-861 Largest of the four drums used in the Haitian-Cuban Arada ceremonies, along with xumpé, hun-hogúlo and huní
hun-hogúlo[9]
French drum
Cuba 211.22-861 Second-smallest of the four drums used in the Haitian-Cuban Arada ceremonies, along with hugán, xumpé and huní
huní[9]
French drum
Cuba 211.22-861 Smallest of the four drums used in the Haitian-Cuban Arada ceremonies, along with hugán, xumpé and hun-hogúlo
ich, tambou[57]
Saint Lucia 2 Smaller drum used in Kélé rituals, literally child drum
ikónkolo See okónkolo -
itótele[9][34]
Cuba 211.26-813 Intermediate-sized batá goblet-shaped drum, made of wood and covered with skin, along with the iyá and okónkolo; wax-like substance called ida or fardela sometimes used to produce a duller sound
iyá[9][34]
Cuba 211.26-813 Largest batá goblet-shaped drum, made of wood and covered with goatskin, along with the itótele and okónkolo; red wax-like substance called ida or fardela is used to produce a duller sound, wrapped with bells and belts (chaguoro or tchaworo)
juba[10]
martinique
Haiti 211.21-92 Shorter and squatter variety of petwo
jumbie drum See French reel, balaban -
ka[21][23][24][25]
also used synonymously with gwo ka
Guadeloupe and Martinique 211.221 Single-headed drums, used in Carnival, specifically mizik a mas a Kongo, made from a barrel with goatskin heads tighted by cord
ka[57]
Saint Lucia 211.221 Barrel drum with a goatskin head, used in various folk forms, including chanté siay, jwé dansé and jwé gém
ka See tambou -
kanmougé, tambou[22]
French Guiana 211.211.1 Open-bottomed and single-headed drum, played transversally and carved from a single fragment of wood, used in Creole dance accompaniment for kanmougé and mayouri dances, played in pairs with the lead called the "female" type and the support the "male"
kata[11][12][44]
cut drum, cutter, cot
Carriacou 211.211.2 Hand drum, formerly made of barrels, now more often rum casks; wider and higher-tuned cousin of the boula, used in the Big Drum tradition, barrel contains a hole on the side, skin is stretched by a hoop wrapped in cloth
katabo[45]
Haiti 211.251.2-7 Cowskin hand drum, played with two sticks, in a set with gonde and tambou manman
kbandu[51][58][59]
bandu
Jamaica 211.211.1+111.231 Large, low-pitched, plays a 4/4 rhythm, covered with a goat skin, used in Kumina ceremonies, where it plays a steady rhythm, and is often used several at a time, open end sometimes banged with sticks
keg[16]
boom boom
Virgin Islands 211.212.1 Double-headed bass drum, used in masquerades and fife and drum ensembles
kété[28][29][30][31]
akete
Jamaica 211.21 Small skinny cylindrical drum, improvised, used in Nyabinghi celebrations, played with bare hands, also used in dub poetry
kettle[13]
boom
Montserrat 211.221 Goatskin deep-barreled drum, used in Carnival and other celebrations
kettle drum[26]
Antigua and Barbuda 211.11 Kettle drum, accompaniment to stilt dancers and Christmas music
kettle drum[52][53]
Bermuda 211.11 Central use in Bermudan traditions, derived from British kettle drum, especially common in gombey
kettle drum[16]
Virgin Islands 211.11 Snare drum, used in fife and drum ensembles
Kimbisa drum[9]
Cuba 211–864 Tall drum with goatskin head, held in place by cords, wedges and hoops, used in the Kimbisa culture
kinfuiti[43]
Cuba 231.12 Friction drum, single-headed, with a stick inserted and rubbed to produce the sound, used in the Kimbisa tradition
kittle[35]
boom
Guyana 211.11 Kettle drum, used in masquerades
koupé, tambou[22]
French Guiana 211.221.2-92 Small barrel drum, used in Creole instrumental ensembles and kaseko, used to improvise for dancing while the tambou foulé plays a basic rhythm, head typically made of goatskin, attached with a vine or iron hoop
kromanti[30]
Jamaica 211.21 Cylindrical drum, used by the Maroons of Moore Town
kuchiyeremá[8][9]
cotchíerima
Cuba 211.21-814 Small enkomo drum of the biankomeko ensemble, along with the arobapá and biapá, and the taller bonkó enchemiyá
lapo kabwit[38]
Dominica
-
Any kind of Dominican or Grenadan folk drum
lélé, tambou[38]
Dominica 211.211.2 Cylindrical drum, small and wooden with goatskin at one end, strapped across the shoulder and played with two sticks, used in chanté mas
loango[10]
loangue
Haiti 211.21-92 Taller and narrower variety of petwo
loangue See loango -
maké See markeur -
makuta See yuka -
makyé See markeur -
manman, tambou[57]
Saint Lucia 2 Larger drum used in Kélé rituals, literally mother drum
mamnan, tambou[10][45]
Haiti 211.251.2-7 Hand drum with a cowhide head, pegged in place and with a decorated collar, used in many Afro-Haitian musics, used in rada, petwo and other folk traditions
marassas[10]
Haiti 211.212.2 Cylindrical drum that comes in pairs, traditionally made from wood or a two-gallon container with both top and bottom removed and replaced with heads, played with fingers
markeur[21][22][23][25][37]
makyé, marqueur, maké
Guadeloupe 211.221.2 Single-headed hand drum, small, high-pitched, played upright and one-handed, and held between the legs, interacts with dancers by responding to movement and improvises with the boula drum, used in gwo ka, Carnival, wrestling matches and wakes
marqueur See markeur -
martinique See juba -
matrimonial See wacharaca -
mongó[7]
Dominican Republic 211.3 Small rural folk handheld frame drum
moyen See segon -
mula[44][46]
Cuba 211.211.2 Intermediate-sized yuka tubular drum, along with caja and cachimbo
ngoma See yuka -
niño[33]
Cuba 2 Smallest drum of the conga family
Nyabinghi See kété -
okónkolo[9][34]
ikónkolo, amelé
Cuba 211.26-813 Smallest batá goblet-shaped drum, made of wood and covered with skin, along with the itótele and iyá
oumalay[36]
Trinidad and Tobago 211.212.2 Cylindrical drums with double skins, middle-sized drum of the set with bembe and conga drums
omele See oumalay -
pailas[60]
Dominican Republic 211.12 Kettledrum, played in pairs, made from containers used to boil sugarcane juice, with tension lugs to adjust the tightness of the single-head, closed bottom
palo auxiliar[6][7]
Dominican Republic 211.211.2-7 One of the smaller drums used in the ensembles called palos, of the Afro-Dominican religious ceremonies, played either in pairs or trios, with single skin heads either pegged or tacked
palo major[7][15]
Dominican Republic 211.211.2-7 Larger folk long drum made from a tree trunk, used singly in ensembles called palos, of the Afro-Dominican religious ceremonies, played either in pairs or trios, with single skin heads either pegged or tacked
palo menor[7][15]
Dominican Republic 211.211.2-7 Smaller folk long drum made from a tree trunk, used singly in ensembles called palos, of the Afro-Dominican religious ceremonies, played either in pairs or trios, with single skin heads either pegged or tacked
palos[6][7]
atabale
Dominican Republic 211.211.2-7 Ensembles that include a number of drums, include the types of palo and alcahuete, used in the Afro-Dominican religious ceremonies, played either in pairs or trios, with skin heads either pegged or tacked
pandereta[33]
pandero
Puerto Rico 211.3 Handheld frame drum, used in plena, adapted from European tambourine
pandero See pandereta -
panderos[7][15]
Dominican Republic 211.3 Small rural folk handheld frame drum
Pétro See petwo -
petwo[10][61]
conga, Pétro
Haiti 211.21-92 Cylindrical drum headed with cowskin, attached with cords, comes in two varieties: loango and juba
pikin doon[22]
French Guiana 2 Medium-sized drum that supports dancers, played in pairs, with one played solo, and both played bare-handed, used among the Alukuó Maroons
playing cast[51][58][59]
playin kya, cast
Jamaica 211.211.1+111.231 Small, high-pitched, plays complex, syncopated rhythms, covered with a goat skin, used in Kumina, open end sometimes struck with sticks
playin kya See playing cast -
podya[4]
Suriname 2 Small, skin-covered bass drum, common among the rural Afro-Surinamese
prenting See kromanti -
primo See subidor -
pump[27]
Barbados 2 Long drum, made from a hollow tree trunk with goat or sheep skin on either end
pump[18]
St Maarten 211.31 Goatskin frame drum, sometimes played in pairs or larger groups, usually using both hands
quinto[9][33]
Cuba 211.221 Smallest barrel-shaped hand drum, made out of a box with two sloping sides, of the tumbadora family, plays the most intricate rhythms of the group, not always characterized as a tumbadora or conga drum
rada[61]
Haiti 2 Drum headed with cowskin, attached with wooden pegs
ralé[45]
Haiti 2 Goatskin drum, used alongside tambou manman, used in petwo and YaYa TiKongo rhythms
rattle See snare drum (Jamaica) -
repeater See bass drum (Jamaica), snare drum (Jamaica) -
repeater See kété -
repeater[51]
Jamaica 2 Used in the Burru rituals, now imported to Rastafarian music
repicador See subidor -
requinto drum[62]
Puerto Rico 211.25 Small conical hand drum, improvises over the other drum rhythms, used in plena
ricardo See conga -
ripsaw drum[47]
Turks and Caicos and Bahamas (Cat Island only) 2 Goat- or cow-skin drum, heated to produce a pitch
round See snare drum (Jamaica) -
Saba drum[18]
Saba 211.22 Made from kegs or barrels, and attached to a skin frame secured by wood, rope and pegs
salidor See conga -
scratch band barrel drum[16]
Virgin Islands 211.222 Double-headed barrel drum, used in scratch bands
second See segon -
segon[10][45]
Haiti 211-7 Cowskin hand drum with artistic collars, used in rada along with boula and manman drums
segundo See conga -
side drum See snare drum -
skratji[63][64]
Suriname 2 Large Afro-Surinamese bass drum with a cymbal on top, used in kaseko
snare drum[52][53]
Bermuda 211.212.1 Central use in Bermudan traditions, generally played in pairs, used in gombey
snare drum[27]
kettle
Barbados 211.212.1 Doubled headed side snare drum, used in tuk bands
snare drum[9]
Cuba 211.212.1 Snare drum used in comparsa pre-Easter celebrations
snare drum[28][30][32]
side drum, Maroon only: repeater, rattle, round, circular
Jamaica 211.212.1 Snare drum played with wooden sticks, carried with a strap, used in marching bands and Maroon music
snare drum[64]
Suriname 211.212.1 Snare drum, used in kaseko
stave drum[9]
Cuba 211.261.2-813 Drum with straight but sloping sides, closest to being a classic goblet drum, variation on a batá drum
subidor[20][65]
primo, repicador
Puerto Rico 211.22 Smaller, barrel-shaped hand drums, covered with tight animal skin, used in bomba
super quinto See conga -
supertumba See conga -
tambora[6][15][18][66]
Dominican Republic originally, now also common on St Maarten 211.222 Double-headed barrel drum of African origin, played with a stick on one head and a bare hand on the other
tambou[11]
Grenada 211.221.1 Open-bottomed, goatskin-headed, made from barrels or tree trunks, larger partner of the baboula, accompanies the belair dance
tambou[23]
Martinique and Guadeloupe
-
Generic term for drums
tambour[67]
Puerto Rico 211.211.2 Long drum, made from a hollowed-out tree trunk and topped with animal skin
tambourine[10]
Haiti 212.211 Miniature version of the tymbale, beaten with two sticks
tambú[18][68]
tambu
Curaçao 211.211.2 Long drum, made from a hollow log, used in tambú
tanbou See tambou -
tanbou[45]
Haiti Barrel drum made from hardwood and topped with animal skin
tassa[36]
Indo-Trinidadian, now commonplace 211.11 Kettle drum with a goatskin head, used in the Muslim Hosay (Hosein) ritual
tenbal, tambou[57]
Saint Lucia 211.212.1 Snare drum, used in cockfights, séwinal, merry-go-rounds, other celebrations
tenor drum[28]
Jamaica 2 Carried with a strap, used in marching bands
tétendóga See biapá -
timbales[9]
tymbales
Cuba 211.211.1 European-derived open-bottomed twin drum, played using sticks
tom[25]
Guadeloupe 211.212.1 Cylindrical drum like the tom-tom drum, [played with sticks
tombas[25]
Guadeloupe 211.212.1 Bass drum, played with sticks
toombah[26]
tumtum
Antigua and Barbuda 2 Small drum, decorated with shells and tin
tres golpes See conga -
tres por dos[33]
Cuba 211.22 Medium-sized barrel-shaped hand drum of the tumbadora family
true conga See bass tumbadora -
tumba[9][33]
Cuba 211.221-7 Largest variety of the conga family, stave drum with a cowskin head
tumbadora[33]
bass tumbadora, true conga, tres por dos, quinto
Cuba 211.22.2 Cuban conga drum, barrel-shaped hand drum
tumao[4][5]
Suriname 211.211.2 Intermediate drum of the set, with agida and apinti, played with one hand, pitch can be varied based on the location of the head struck, made from hollow logs with heads of skin
tumtum See toombah -
tumtum[27]
Barbados 211.212.1 Hollowed-out tree trunk with skins at either end
tun[22]
French Guiana 2 Small drum, used among the Alukuó Maroons
twavay, tambou[38]
Dominica 22 Small barrel frame drum, headed with goatskin; a cord with an attached bead is placed on the drumskin to add a buzzing quality to the sound, used to accompany work songs
tymbale[10]
Haiti 212.212.1 Large two-headed hooped drum, carried with a strap and sometimes with an attached board called an assot
tymbales See timbales -
uyó[9]
Cuba 23 Abakua friction drum, details of construction are kept secret
woowoo See French reel -
xumpé[9]
French drum
Cuba 211.22-861 Second-largest of the four drums used in the Haitian-Cuban Arada ceremonies, along with hugán, hun-hogúlo and huní
yuka[44][46]
makuta, ngoma, tambor de yuka
Cuba 211.211.2 Class of three folk tubular drums: caja, mula, and cachimbo
zesse[10]
Haiti 22 Cylindrical drum used in the dance of the same name, has a wire stretched across the single goatskin head

References[edit]

  • Manuel, Peter (1988). Popular Musics of the Non-Western World: An Introductory Survey. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506334-1. 
  • Koskoff, Ellen (2001). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 3: The United States and Canada. New York and London: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-6040-7. 

Notes[edit]

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