List of Category 4 Pacific hurricanes

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Hurricane Juliette near its peak intensity. Juliette had the lowest atmospheric pressure of a Category 4 hurricane in the Pacific basins, 923 mbar (hPa; 27.26 inHg), tying with Hurricane Olivia in 1994.
Hurricane Juliette near its peak intensity. Juliette had the lowest atmospheric pressure of a Category 4 hurricane in the Pacific basins, 923 mbar (hPa; 27.26 inHg), tying with Hurricane Olivia in 1994.

Category 4, the second-highest classification on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale,[nb 1] is used for tropical cyclones that have winds of 130–156 mph (209–251 km/h; 113–136 kn). The division of the eastern and central Pacific basins occurs at 140° W; the eastern Pacific covers area east of 140° W, while the central Pacific extends between 140° W to 180° W. Both basins' division points are at 66° N as a northern point and the equator as the southern point. As of 2014, 96 hurricanes have attained Category 4 status in the northeastern Pacific basins. This list does not include storms that attained Category 5 status on the scale.

Numerous climatological factors influence the formation of hurricanes in the Pacific basins. The North Pacific High and Aleutian Low, usually present between January and April, cause strong wind shear and unfavorable conditions for the development of hurricanes. During its presence, El Niño results in increased numbers of powerful hurricanes through weaker wind shear, while La Niña reduces the number of such hurricanes through the opposite. Global warming may also influence the formation of tropical cyclones in the Pacific basin. During a thirty-year period with two sub-periods, the first between 1975 and 1989 and the second between 1990 and 2004, an increase of thirteen Category 4 or 5 storms was observed from the first sub-period.

Statistics and background[edit]

Tracks of all known Category 4 Pacific hurricanes since 1900 in the central and eastern Pacific basins.
Tracks of all known Category 4 Pacific hurricanes since 1900 in the central and eastern Pacific basins
Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale
TD TS C1 C2 C3 C4 C5

On the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, "Category 4" is the second-most powerful classification, with winds ranging between 130–156 mph (209–251 km/h; 113–136 kn). When these hurricanes make landfall, impacts are usually severe but are not as destructive as Category 5 hurricanes that come ashore.[1] The term "maximum sustained wind" refers to the average wind speed measured during the period of one minute at the height of 10 feet (3.0 m) above the ground. The windspeed is measured at that height to prevent disruption from obstructions. Wind gusts in tropical cyclones are usually approximately 30% stronger than the one-minute maximum sustained winds.[2]

The northeastern Pacific hurricane basins are divided into two parts – eastern and central. The eastern Pacific basin extends from all areas of the Pacific north of the equator east of 140° W, while the central Pacific basin includes areas north of the equator between 140° W and 180° W.[3] Both basins extend to the Arctic Circle at 66° N.[4] When tropical cyclones cross from the Atlantic into the Pacific, the name of the previous storm is retained if the system continues to exhibit tropical characteristics; however, when hurricanes degenerate into a remnant low-pressure area, the system is designated with the next name on the rotating eastern Pacific hurricane naming list.[5]

Since 1900, ninety-five Category 4 hurricanes have been recorded in the eastern and central Pacific basins. Of these, thirteen have attained Category 4 status on more than one occasion, by weakening to a status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale lower than Category 4 and later restrengthening into a Category 4. Such storms are demarcated by the dates they first attained and the final time they lost the intensity. Only two storms, Hurricane Fico in 1978 and Hurricane Norbert in 1984, reached Category 4 status three times or more.[6]

Between 1970 and 1975, advisories for systems in the eastern Pacific basins were initiated by the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center (EPHC) as part of the National Weather Service (NWS) office in San Francisco, California. At that time, the advisories released were written in cooperation with the United States Navy Fleet Weather Center in Alameda and the Air Force Hurricane Liaison Officer at the McClellan Air Force Base. Following the move of the hurricane center to Redwood City in 1976, track files were created and altered by Arthur Pike and were later re-modified following the release of a study in 1980. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) extended its authority to the EPHC in 1988, and subsequently began maintaining the tracks.[7]

Climatology[edit]

The track of Hurricane Kenneth in 2011, the latest Category 4 hurricane recorded in the northeastern Pacific basins
The track of Hurricane Kenneth in 2011, the latest Category 4 hurricane recorded in the northeastern Pacific basins.

A total of 96 Category 4 hurricanes have been recorded in the eastern and central Pacific basins since 1900. Only one Category 4 hurricane has been recorded in May, in addition to nine in June, 18 in July, 23 in August, 31 in September, 16 in October, and a single storm in November.[6] No Category 4 storms have developed during the off-season.[6] It is theorized that global warming was responsible for an increase of 13 Category 4 and 5 storms that developed in the eastern Pacific, from 36 in the period of 1975–1989 to 49 in the period of 1990–2004. It was estimated that if sea-surface temperatures ascended by 2 to 2.5 degrees, the intensity of tropical cyclones would increase by 6–10% internationally. During years with the existence of an El Niño, sea-surface temperatures increase in the eastern Pacific, resulting in an increase in activity as vertical wind shear decreases in the Pacific; the opposite happens in the Atlantic basin during El Niño, when wind shear increases creating an unfavourable environment for tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic.[8] Contrary to El Niño, La Niña increases wind shear over the eastern Pacific and reduces it over the Atlantic.[9]

The presence of a semi-permanent high-pressure area known as the North Pacific High in the eastern Pacific is a dominant factor against formation of tropical cyclones in the winter, as the Pacific High results in wind shear that causes environmental conditions for tropical cyclone formation to be unconducive. Its effects in the central Pacific basin are usually related to keeping cyclones away from the Hawaiian Islands. Due to westward trade winds, hurricanes in the Pacific nearly never head eastward, although several storms have defied the odds and headed eastward. A second factor preventing tropical cyclones from forming during the winter is the occupation of a semi-permanent low-pressure area designated the Aleutian Low between January and April. Its presence over western Canada and the northwestern United States contributes to the area's occurrences of precipitation in that duration. In addition, its effects in the central Pacific near 160° W causes tropical waves that form in the area to drift northward into the Gulf of Alaska and dissipate. Its retreat in late-April allows the warmth of the Pacific High to meander in, bringing its powerful clockwise wind circulation with it. The Intertropical Convergence Zone departs southward in mid-May permitting the formation of the earliest tropical waves,[4] coinciding with the start of the eastern Pacific hurricane season on May 15.[10]

Cooler waters near the Baja California peninsula are thought to prevent storms in the eastern Pacific from transitioning into an extratropical cyclone; only three storms listed in the database are known to have successfully completed an extratropical transition.[7]

Category 4 Pacific hurricanes[edit]

Category 4 hurricanes

Hurricane Tico at peak intensity on October 18, 1983
Hurricane Tico at peak intensity on October 18, 1983
Hurricane Estelle near peak intensity on July 20, 1986
Hurricane Estelle near peak intensity on July 20, 1986
Hurricane Iniki south of Hawai'i on September 11, 1992
Hurricane Iniki, the most powerful hurricane to strike Hawai'i in recorded history, south of the island chain on September 11, 1992
Hurricane Pauline, the easternmost Category 4 recorded at peak intensity on October 8, 1997
Hurricane Pauline, the easternmost Category 4 recorded at peak intensity on October 8, 1997
Hurricane Adolph, the earliest Category 4 recorded at peak intensity on May 29, 2001
Hurricane Adolph, the earliest Category 4 recorded at peak intensity on May 29, 2001
Hurricane Javier near peak intensityon September 13, 2004
Hurricane Javier near peak intensity on September 13, 2004
Hurricane John weakening on August 31, 2006
Hurricane John weakening on August 31, 2006
Hurricane Norbert as a Category 4 on October 8, 2008
Hurricane Norbert as a Category 4 on October 8, 2008
Hurricane Jimena rapidly intensifying on August 29, 2009
Hurricane Jimena rapidly intensifying on August 29, 2009 while paralleling the Mexican coast
Hurricane Hilary off the coast of Mexico on September 23, 2011
Hurricane Hilary off the coast of Mexico on September 23, 2011
Storm
name
Season Dates as a
Category 4
Time as a
Category 4
Peak one-minute
sustained winds
Pressure Source(s)
Unnamed 1957 October 21–22 12 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) Unknown [6]
Dotdagger 1959 August 2–5 72 hours 150 mph (240 km/h) 7002952000000000000952 hPa (28.1 inHg) [6][11]
Denise 1971 July 9 12 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002951000000000000951 hPa (28.1 inHg) [6]
Celeste 1972 August 14 12 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002940000000000000940 hPa (28 inHg) [6]
Doreen 1973 July 20 6 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002968000000000000968 hPa (28.6 inHg) [6]
Maggie 1974 August 28–29 24 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002934000000000000934 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6]
Denise 1975 July 9 12 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) Unknown [6]
Katrina 1975 September 3 6 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Annette 1976 June 8–11 54 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002925000000000000925 hPa (27.3 inHg) [6]
Iva 1976 August 28 12 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Liza 1976 September 29 – October 1 42 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6]
Madeline 1976 October 7–8 12 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002940000000000000940 hPa (28 inHg) [6]
Carlottadouble-dagger 1978 June 21–22 24 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Ficodouble-dagger 1978 July 11–16 72 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002955000000000000955 hPa (28.2 inHg) [6]
Hector 1978 July 25 18 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) Unknown [6]
Norman 1978 September 2–3 36 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) Unknown [6]
Susandagger 1978 October 21 6 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6][12]
Enrique 1979 August 22 18 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) Unknown [6]
Ignacio 1979 October 27–28 18 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002938000000000000938 hPa (27.7 inHg) [6]
Kay 1980 September 18 18 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) Unknown [6]
Olivia 1982 September 21–22 30 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) Unknown [6]
Barbara 1983 June 13–14 24 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Henriette 1983 July 30–31 18 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Kikodouble-dagger 1983 September 2–4 66 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) Unknown [6]
Raymonddagger double-dagger 1983 October 11–15 42 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) Unknown [6][13]
Tico 1983 October 19 6 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Douglas 1984 June 28–30 48 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) Unknown [6]
Elida 1984 July 1 6 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Iselle 1984 August 8–9 12 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Norbertdouble-dagger 1984 September 21–24 36 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Ignaciodagger 1985 July 23–24 24 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6][14]
Jimena 1985 July 24 12 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Rick** 1985 September 8–10 42 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) Unknown [6]
Estelle* 1986 July 20–21 36 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6][15]
Javierdouble-dagger 1986 August 25 12 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6]
Roslyn 1986 October 18–20 42 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) Unknown [6]
Max 1987 September 12–14 42 hours 155 mph (250 km/h) Unknown [6]
Ramon 1987 October 9–10 36 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) Unknown [6]
Hector 1988 August 2–4 36 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002935000000000000935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][16]
Fabiodagger 1988 August 3 12 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002943000000000000943 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6][17][18]
Octave 1989 September 13 6 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][19]
Raymond 1989 September 30 – October 1 30 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002935000000000000935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][20]
Hernan 1990 July 22–25 60 hours 155 mph (250 km/h) 7002928000000000000928 hPa (27.4 inHg) [6][21]
Mariedagger 1990 September 11 24 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002944000000000000944 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6][22][23]
Odile 1990 September 26–27 36 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002935000000000000935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][24]
Trudydouble-dagger 1990 October 19–27 78 hours 155 mph (250 km/h) 7002924000000000000924 hPa (27.3 inHg) [6][25]
Jimenadouble-dagger 1991 September 23–26 48 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002945000000000000945 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6][26]
Kevin 1991 September 29 – October 2 72 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002935000000000000935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][27]
Celia 1992 June 27–28 42 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002935000000000000935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][28]
Estelledouble-dagger 1992 July 12–14 30 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002943000000000000943 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6][29]
Frank 1992 July 17–19 36 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002935000000000000935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][30]
Orlene 1992 September 5–7 60 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002934000000000000934 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][31]
Inikidagger 1992 September 11–12 24 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002938000000000000938 hPa (27.7 inHg) [6][32]
Tina 1992 September 29 – October 2 66 hours 150 mph (240 km/h) 7002932000000000000932 hPa (27.5 inHg) [6][33]
Virgil 1992 October 3 6 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][34]
Dora 1993 July 16–17 24 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002945000000000000945 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6][35]
Fernanda 1993 August 11–13 42 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002934000000000000934 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][36]
Keonidagger 1993 August 16–17 24 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) Unknown [6][37]
Greg 1993 August 19–20 30 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][38]
Jova 1993 September 1 12 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][39]
Kenneth 1993 September 10–12 36 hours 150 mph (240 km/h) 7002932000000000000932 hPa (27.5 inHg) [6][40]
Lidia 1993 September 11 24 hours 150 mph (240 km/h) 7002930000000000000930 hPa (27 inHg) [6][41]
Lane 1994 September 6–7 18 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][42]
Olivia 1994 September 25–26 24 hours 150 mph (240 km/h) 7002923000000000000923 hPa (27.3 inHg) [6][43]
Adolph 1995 June 18 6 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][44]
Barbaradouble-dagger 1995 July 10–14 60 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002940000000000000940 hPa (28 inHg) [6][45]
Juliette 1995 September 20–21 24 hours 150 mph (240 km/h) 7002930000000000000930 hPa (27 inHg) [6][46]
Douglas** 1996 August 1–2 36 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002946000000000000946 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6][47]
Felicia 1997 July 19 18 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][48]
Jimena 1997 August 27–28 36 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][49]
Nora 1997 September 21 6 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002950000000000000950 hPa (28 inHg) [6][50]
Paulinedouble-dagger 1997 October 7–8 12 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][51]
Blas 1998 June 25 24 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002943000000000000943 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6][52]
Estelle 1998 August 2 6 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][53]
Howarddouble-dagger 1998 August 23–26 60 hours 150 mph (240 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][54]
Dora 1999 August 10–13 72 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002943000000000000943 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6][55]
Carlotta 2000 June 21–22 24 hours 155 mph (250 km/h) 7002932000000000000932 hPa (27.5 inHg) [6][56]
Adolph 2001 May 28–29 30 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002940000000000000940 hPa (28 inHg) [6][57]
Juliettedouble-dagger 2001 September 24–26 42 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002923000000000000923 hPa (27.3 inHg) [6][58]
Fausto 2002 August 24–25 24 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002936000000000000936 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][59]
Howard 2004 September 2–3 18 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002943000000000000943 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6][60]
Javier 2004 September 13–15 54 hours 150 mph (240 km/h) 7002930000000000000930 hPa (27 inHg) [6][61]
Kenneth 2005 September 18–19 18 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002947000000000000947 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][62]
Daniel 2006 July 20–23 72 hours 150 mph (240 km/h) 7002933000000000000933 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][63]
John 2006 August 30 12 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][64]
Flossie 2007 August 11–13 60 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002949000000000000949 hPa (28.0 inHg) [6][65]
Norbert 2008 October 8 6 hours 135 mph (215 km/h) 7002945000000000000945 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6][66]
Felicia 2009 August 5–7 36 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002935000000000000935 hPa (27.6 inHg) [6][67]
Jimena 2009 August 30 – September 1 60 hours 155 mph (250 km/h) 7002931000000000000931 hPa (27.5 inHg) [6][68]
Adrian 2011 June 10 18 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002944000000000000944 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6][69]
Dora 2011 July 21–22 30 hours 155 mph (250 km/h) 7002929000000000000929 hPa (27.4 inHg) [6][70]
Eugene 2011 August 3–4 18 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002942000000000000942 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6][71]
Hilarydouble-dagger 2011 September 23–27 60 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002942000000000000942 hPa (27.8 inHg) [6][72]
Kenneth 2011 November 22–23 18 hours 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002940000000000000940 hPa (28 inHg) [6][73]
Emilia 2012 July 10 6 hours 140 mph (220 km/h) 7002945000000000000945 hPa (27.9 inHg) [6][73]

Notes:

  • dagger The storm noted formed or attained Category 4 status in the central Pacific basin but may have formed in the eastern Pacific basin
  • double-dagger The storm noted attained Category 4 status more than once
  • * The storm noted was both a Category 4 in the eastern and central Pacific basins
  • ** The storm noted originated in the Atlantic basin, but later intensified into a Category 4 hurricane in the eastern Pacific basin
  • Storms that attained Category 4 status at one point but intensified into Category 5 at a later time are not included.
  • As the Pacific hurricane database only goes back to 1949, the 1943 Mazatlán hurricane is not included, although it attained Category 4-equivalent winds at 136 mph (219 km/h). It is unknown if the winds observed were sustained.[6][74]
  • Storms that formed in the eastern or central Pacific but strengthened to reach Category 4 status in the western Pacific basin (west of 180° W) are not included,[75] nor are systems that attained Category 4 status in the Atlantic after crossing from the eastern Pacific, such as the 1949 Texas hurricane.[76]

Landfalls[edit]

Landfalls by month[6]
Month Number of storms
August
1
September[nb 2]
11
October
11

Of the 96 Category 4 hurricanes that have formed in the eastern and central Pacific basins, 22 have made landfall. Of them, four made landfall at Category 4 intensity, three at Category 3, five at Categories 2 and 1, three as tropical storms, and five as tropical depressions. Several of these storms weakened slightly after attaining Category 4 status as they approached land;[6][74] this is usually a result of dry air, shallower water due to shelving, cooler waters, or interaction with land.[77] Only in four years – 1976, 1983, 1992, and 1997 – more than one Category 4 hurricane made landfall, and only during one year – 1992 – did three Category 4 hurricanes made landfall.[6]

Name Year Category 4 Category 3 Category 2 Category 1 Tropical storm Tropical depression Source(s)
Unnamed 1957 Sinaloa state  —  —  —  —  — [6][78]
Dot 1959  —  —  — Kauaʻi  —  — [6]
Liza 1976  — Sonora state  —  —  —  — [6][78]
Madeline 1976 Guerrero state  —  —  —  —  — [6][78]
Ignacio 1979  —  —  —  —  — Michoacán state [6]
Raymond 1983  —  —  —  —  — Maui, Oʻahu, Kauaʻi [6][13]
Tico 1983  — Sinaloa state  —  —  —  — [6][78]
Norbert 1984  —  —  —  — Baja California Sur state  — [6]
Roslyn 1986  —  —  — Sinaloa state  —  — [6][78]
Raymond 1989  —  —  —  — Baja California Sur state
Sonora state
 — [6][79]
Orlene 1992  —  —  —  —  — Big Island [6][31]
Iniki 1992 Kauaʻi  —  —  —  —  — [6][32]
Virgil 1992  —  — Michoacán state  —  —  — [6][34][78]
Lidia 1993  —  — Sinaloa state  —  —  — [6][41][78]
Nora 1997  —  —  — Baja California Sur state
Baja California state
 —  — [6][50]
Pauline 1997  —  — Oaxaca state  —  —  — [6][51][78]
Juliette 2001  —  —  —  — Baja California Sur state Sonora state [6][58]
Javier 2004  —  —  —  —  — Baja California Sur state [6][61]
John 2006  —  — Baja California Sur state  —  —  — [6][64]
Norbert 2008  —  — Baja California Sur state Sonora state  —  — [6][66]
Jimena 2009  —  — Baja California Sur state  —  —  — [6][68]
Note:

If a storm makes landfall in the same Mexican state more than one time, it is only listed for the most intense landfall.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, devised in 1971, is used to categorize the intensity of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.[1]
  2. ^ Though Hurricane Juliette of 2001 made a second landfall in October, it did so after it re-generated. The landfall is included in the "September" total but not the "October" total.
General
Specific
  1. ^ a b Schott, Timothy; Landsea, Christopher W.; Hafele, Gene; Lorens, Jeffrey; Taylor, Arthur; Thurm, Harvey; Ward, Bill; Willis, Mark et al. (2010-08-25). "The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale" (PDF). United States: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  2. ^ Landsea, Christopher W. (2006-04-21). "TCFAQ D4) What does "maximum sustained wind" mean? How does it relate to gusts in tropical cyclones?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. United States: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  3. ^ "View Official Products". United States National Weather Service. United States: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-27. 
  4. ^ a b Longshore 1998, pp. 249–250
  5. ^ Landsea, Christopher W. "TCFAQ B5) What happens to the name of a tropical cyclone if it moves from the Atlantic regions to the Northeast Pacific, or vice versa?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. United States: Hurricane Research Division. Retrieved 2011-11-27. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds "HURDAT tracks for East Pacific 1949–2011". Hurricane Research Division. United States: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-10. 
  7. ^ a b Blake et al. 2009, p. 6
  8. ^ Graham, Steve; Riebeek, Holli (2006-11-01). "Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth: Feature Articles". Earth Observatory. United States: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2011-11-30. 
  9. ^ Longshore 1998, p. 110
  10. ^ Dorst, Neal (2010-01-21). "TCFAQ G1) When is hurricane season?". Hurricane Research Division. United States: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 2011-11-30. 
  11. ^ "The 1959 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". United States: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. 2007-05-04. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  12. ^ "The 1978 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". United States: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. 2007-05-04. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  13. ^ a b "The 1983 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". United States: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. 2007-05-04. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  14. ^ "The 1985 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". United States: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. 2007-05-04. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  15. ^ "The 1986 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". United States: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. 2007-05-04. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
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  17. ^ BMM (1988-10-29) (GIF). Preliminary report, Hurricane Fabio, 28 July – 9 August 1988 (Report). United States: National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1988/fabio/prenhc/prelim03.gif. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
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