"The Vitruvian Man" by Leonardo da Vinci
Many Catholics, both clerics and laypersons alike, have made significant contributions to the development of science and mathematics from the Middle Ages to today. These scientists include
Galileo Galilei, [1 ] René Descartes, [2 ] Nicolas Copernicus, Louis Pasteur, [3 ] Blaise Pascal, André-Marie Ampère, Gregor Mendel, Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, Pierre de Fermat, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Marin Mersenne, Alessandro Volta, [4 ] Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Pierre Duhem, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Roger Boscovich, [5 ] Pierre Gassendi, and Georgius Agricola.
Catholic scientists [ edit ]
Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718–1799) – Mathematician who wrote on differential and integral calculus
Georgius Agricola (1494–1555) – Father of mineralogy [6 ]
Albertus Magnus (c.1206–1280) – Patron saint of natural sciences
Mariano Artigas (1938–2006) – Spanish physicist, philosopher and writer who received the Templeton Foundation Prize in 1995
André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) – One of the main discoverers of electromagnetism
Francisco J. Ayala (1934–present) – Spanish- American biologist and philosopher at the University of California, Irvine, [7 ] [8 ]
Amedeo Avogadro (1776–1856) – Noted for contributions to molecular theory and Avogadro's Law
Roger Bacon (c. 1214–1294) – Franciscan friar and early advocate of the scientific method
Stephen M. Barr (1953–present) – Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Delaware and a member of its Bartol Research Institute
Daniello Bartoli (1608–1685) – Jesuit priest and one of the first to see the equatorial belts of Jupiter
Laura Bassi (1711–1778) – Physicist at the University of Bologna and Chair in experimental physics at the Bologna Institute of Sciences, the first woman to be offered a professorship at a European university
Antoine César Becquerel (1788–1878) – Pioneer in the study of electric and luminescent phenomena
Henri Becquerel (1852–1908) – Awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his co-discovery of radioactivity
John Desmond Bernal (1901–1971) – British pioneer in X-ray crystallography in molecular biology. [9 ] [10 ]
Claude Bernard (1813–1878) - Physiologist who helped to apply scientific methodology to medicine
Jacques Philippe Marie Binet (1786–1856) – Mathematician known for Binet's formula and his contributions to number theory
Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774–1862) – Physicist who established the reality of meteorites and studied polarization of light
Bernard Bolzano (1781–1848) – Priest and mathematician who contributed to differentiation, the concept of infinity, and the binomial theorem
Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608–1679) – Often referred to as the father of modern biomechanics
Roger Joseph Boscovich (1711–1787) – Jesuit priest and polymath known for his atomic theory and many other scientific contributions
Raoul Bott (1923–2005) – Mathematician known for numerous basic contributions to geometry in its broad sense. [11 ] [12 ]
Thomas Bradwardine (c.1290–1349) – Archbishop and one of the discoverers of the mean speed theorem
Louis Braille (1809–1852) – Inventor of the Braille reading and writing system
Martin Stanislaus Brennan (1845–1927) – Priest, astronomer and writer
James Britten (1846–1924) – Botanist, member of the Catholic Truth Society and Knight Commander of the Order of St. Gregory the Great. [13 ]
Jean Buridan (c.1300–after 1358) – French priest who developed the theory of impetus
Alexis Carrel (1873–1944) – Awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for pioneering vascular suturing techniques
John Casey (mathematician) (1820–1891) – Irish geometer known for Casey's theorem
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625–1712) – First to observe four of Saturn's moons and the co-discoverer of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter
Augustin-Louis Cauchy (1789–1857) – Mathematician who was an early pioneer in analysis
Bonaventura Cavalieri (1598–1647) – Mathematician known for his work in optics and motion, calculus, and for introducing logarithms to Italy
Andrea Cesalpino (c.1525–1603) – Botanist who also theorized on the circulation of blood
Jean-François Champollion (1790–1832) – Published the first translation of the Rosetta Stone
Guy de Chauliac (c.1300–1368) – The most eminent surgeon of the Middle Ages
Albert Claude (1899–1983) – Awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his contributions to cytology
Christopher Clavius (1538–1612) – Jesuit who was the main architect of the Gregorian calendar
Mateo Realdo Colombo (1516–1559) – Discovered the pulmonary circuit, which paved the way for Harvey's discovery of circulation [14 ]
Carl Ferdinand Cori (1896–1984) – Shared the 1947 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with his wife for their discovery of the Cori cycle
Gerty Cori (1896–1957) – Biochemist who was the first American woman win a Nobel Prize in science (1947) [15 ]
Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis (1792–1843) – Formulated laws regarding rotating systems, which later became known as the Corialis effect
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1736–1806) – Physicist known for developing Coulomb's law
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) – First person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology
Johann Baptist Cysat (c.1587–1657) – Jesuit priest known for his study of comets
René Descartes (1596–1650) – Father of modern philosophy and analytic geometry
Pierre Duhem (1861–1916) – Historian of science who made important contributions to hydrodynamics, elasticity, and thermodynamics
Jean-Baptiste Dumas (1800–1884) – Chemist who established new values for the atomic mass of thirty elements
John Eccles (1903–1997) – Awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work on the synapse [16 ]
Gerhard Ertl (1936– ) – German physicist who won the 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces [17 ]
Stephan Endlicher (1804–1849) – Botanist who formulated a major system of plant classification
Bartolomeo Eustachi (c.1500–1574) – One of the founders of human anatomy
Hieronymus Fabricius (1537–1619) – Father of embryology
Gabriele Falloppio (1523–1562) – Pioneering Italian anatomist who studied the human ear and reproductive organs
Mary Celine Fasenmyer (1906–1996) – Roman Catholic sister and mathematician, founder of Sister Celine's polynomials
Hervé Faye (1814-1902) – Astronomer whose discovery of the periodic comet 4P/Faye won him the 1844 Lalande Prize and membership in the French Academy of Sciences
Pierre de Fermat (1601–1665) – Number theorist who contributed to the early development of calculus
Enrico Fermi (1901–1954) – Awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his work in induced radioactivity
Fibonacci (c.1170–c.1250) – Popularized Hindu-Arabic numerals in Europe and discovered the Fibonacci sequence
Hippolyte Fizeau (1819–1896) – The first person to determine experimentally the velocity of light [18 ]
Léon Foucault (1819–1868) – Invented the Foucault pendulum to measure the effect of the earth's rotation
Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787–1826) – Discovered Fraunhofer lines in the sun's spectrum
Augustin-Jean Fresnel (1788–1827) – Made significant contributions to the theory of wave optics
Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) – Father of modern science [19 ]
Luigi Galvani (1737–1798) – Formulated the theory of animal electricity
Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655) – French astronomer and mathematician who studied the transit of Mercury and named the aurora borealis
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–1850) – Chemist known for two laws related to gases
Riccardo Giacconi (1913– ) – Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist who laid the foundations of X-ray astronomy
Camillo Golgi (1843–1926) – Nobel Prize-winning pathologist and physician
Paula González (1932–present) – Roman Catholic sister and professor of biology
Francesco Maria Grimaldi (1618–1663) – Jesuit who discovered the diffraction of light
Robert Grosseteste (c.1175–1253) – Called "the first man to write down a complete set of steps for performing a scientific experiment." [20 ]
Peter Grünberg (1939– ) – German physicist, and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate. [21 ]
Johannes Gutenberg (c.1398–1468) – Inventor of the printing press
Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (1783–1875) – One of the pioneers of modern geology [22 ]
John Harsanyi (1929–2000) – Hungarian- American economist and Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences winner. [23 ]
René Just Haüy (1743–1822) – Priest and father of crystallography
Eduard Heis (1806–1877) – Astronomer who contributed the first true delineation of the Milky Way
Jan Baptist van Helmont (1579–1644) – Founder of pneumatic chemistry
George de Hevesy (1885–1966) – Hungarian radiochemist and Nobel laureate. [24 ]
Charles Hermite (1822–1901) – Mathematician who did research on number theory, quadratic forms, elliptic functions, and algebra
John Philip Holland (1840–1914) – Developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the U.S. Navy
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748–1836) – The first to propose a natural classification of flowering plants
Mary Kenneth Keller (c.1914–1985) – Sister of Charity and first American woman to earn a PhD in computer science, who helped develop BASIC
Athanasius Kircher (c.1601–1680) – Jesuit scholar who has been called "the last Renaissance man"
Brian Kobilka (1955– ) – American Nobel Prize winning professor who teaches at Stanford University School of Medicine. [25 ] [26 ]
Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713–1762) – French astronomer noted for cataloguing stars, nebulous objects, and constellations
René Laennec (1781–1826) – Physician who invented the stethoscope
Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736–1813) – Mathematician and astronomer known for Lagrangian points and Lagrangian mechanics
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) – French naturalist, biologist and academic whose theories on evolution preceded those of Darwin
Karl Landsteiner (1868–1943) – Nobel Prize winner who identified and classified the human blood types
Pierre André Latreille (1762–1833) – Pioneer in entomology
Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794) – Father of modern chemistry [27 ]
Jérôme Lejeune (1926–1994) – Pediatrician and geneticist, best known for his discovery of the link of diseases to chromosome abnormalities
Georges Lemaître (1894–1966) – Father of the Big Bang theory [28 ]
Anthony James Leggett (1938– ) – His pioneering work on superfluidity was recognized by the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics. [29 ]
Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694) – Father of comparative physiology [30 ]
Étienne-Louis Malus (1775–1812) – Discovered the polarization of light
Anna Morandi Manzolini (1714–1774) – Anatomist and anatomical wax artist who lectured at the University of Bologna
Giovanni Manzolini (1700-1755) – Anatomical wax artist and Professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna
Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937) – Father of long-distance radio transmission
Edme Mariotte (c.1620–1684) – Priest who independently discovered Boyle's Law
Pierre Louis Maupertuis (1698–1759) – Known for the Maupertuis principle and for being the first president of the Berlin Academy of Science
Craig Mello (1960– ) – American biologist who was awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize, with Andrew Fire, for the discovery of RNA interference. [31 ]
Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) – Father of genetics
Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) – Father of acoustics and mathematician for whom Mersenne primes are named.
Charles W. Misner (1932–present) – American cosmologist dedicated to the study of general relativity
Kenneth R. Miller (1948–present) – American cell biologist and molecular biologist who teaches at Brown University. [32 ]
Mario J. Molina (1943–present) - Mexican chemist and one of the precursors to the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole (1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry).
Peter Joseph Moloney (1891-1989) -Canadian immunologist and pioneering vaccine researcher, who worked out the first large-scale purification of insulin in 1922. (International Gairdner Award 1967) [33 ]
Gaspard Monge (1746–1818) – Father of descriptive geometry
Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682–1771) – Father of modern anatomical pathology [34 ]
Johannes Peter Müller (1801–1858) – Founder of modern physiology [35 ]
Joseph Murray (1919–2012) – Nobel Prize in Medicine laureate. [36 ]
John von Neumann (1903–1957) – Hungarian-born American mathematician and polymath who [37 ] converted to Catholicism [38 ]
Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700–1770) – Discovered the phenomenon of osmosis in natural membranes.
William of Ockham (c.1288–c.1348) – Franciscan Friar known for Ockham's Razor
Nicole Oresme (c.1320–1382) – 14th century bishop who theorized the daily rotation of the earth on its axis
Barnaba Oriani (1752–1832) – Known for Oriani's theorem and for his research on Uranus
Abraham Ortelius (1527–1598) – Created the first modern atlas and theorized on continental drift
Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) – French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and philosopher
Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) – Father of bacteriology [3 ] [39 ]
Max Perutz (1914–2002) – Austrian-born British molecular biologist, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry [40 ] [41 ] [42 ]
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580–1637) – Discovered the Orion Nebula
Georg von Peuerbach (1423–1461) – Called the father of mathematical and observational astronomy in the West [43 ]
Giuseppe Piazzi (1746–1826) – Theatine priest who discovered the asteroid Ceres and did important work cataloguing stars
Jean Picard (1620–1682) – French priest and father of modern astronomy in France [44 ]
Vladimir Prelog (1906–1998) – Croatian-Swiss organic chemist, winner of the 1975 Nobel Prize for chemistry.
Jules Henri Poincaré (1854–1912) – French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer and philosopher of science
John Polanyi (1929– ) – Canadian chemist who won the 1986 Nobel Prize for his research in chemical kinetics. [45 ]
Michael Polanyi (1891–1976) – Hungarian polymath who made contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934) – Awarded the Nobel Prize for his contributions to neuroscience
René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (1683–1757) – Scientific polymath known especially for his study of insects
Francesco Redi (1626–1697) – His experiments with maggots were a major step in overturning the idea of spontaneous generation
Henri Victor Regnault (1810–1878) – Chemist with two laws governing the specific heat of gases named after him [46 ]
Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598–1671) – Jesuit priest and the first person to measure the acceleration due to gravity of falling bodies
Wilhelm Roentgen (1845–1923) – Discovered X-rays.
Frederick Rossini (1899–1990) – Priestley Medal and Laetare Medal winning chemist. [47 ]
Theodor Schwann (1810–1882) – Founder of the theory of the cellular structure of animal organisms
Angelo Secchi (1818–1878) – Jesuit priest who developed the first system of stellar classification
Ignaz Semmelweis (1818–1865) – Early pioneer of antiseptic procedures and the discoverer of the cause of puerperal fever
Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729–1799) – Priest and biologist who laid the groundwork for Pasteur's discoveries
Nicolas Steno (1638–1686) – Bishop, and father of stratigraphy
Francesco Lana de Terzi (1631–1687) – Jesuit priest who has been called the father of aeronautics
Louis Jacques Thénard (1777–1857) – Discovered hydrogen peroxide
Theodoric of Freiberg (c.1250–c.1310) – Gave the first geometrical analysis of the rainbow
Evangelista Torricelli (1608–1647) – Inventor of the barometer
Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli (1397–1482) – Italian mathematician, astronomer and cosmographer
Richard Towneley (1629–1707) – Mathematician and astronomer whose work contributed to the formulation of Boyle's Law
Louis René Tulasne (1815–1885) – Biologist with several genera and species of fungi named after him
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1763–1829) – Discovered the chemical element beryllium
Pierre Vernier (1580–1637) – Mathematician who invented the Vernier scale
Urbain Le Verrier (1811–1877) – Mathematician who predicted the discovery of Neptune
Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) – Father of modern human anatomy
François Viète (1540–1603) – Father of Modern Algebra [48 ]
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) – Renaissance anatomist, scientist, mathematician, and painter
Vincenzo Viviani (1622–1703) – Mathematician known for Viviani's theorem, Viviani's curve and his work in determining the speed of sound
Alessandro Volta (1745–1827) – Physicist known for the invention of the battery [4 ]
Wilhelm Heinrich Waagen (1841–1900) – Geologist and paleontologist
Karl Weierstrass (1815–1897) – Often called the Father of Modern Analysis [49 ]
E. T. Whittaker (1873–1956) – English mathematician who made contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical physics
Eric F. Wieschaus (1947– ) – He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717–1768) – One of the founders of scientific archaeology
Antonino Zichichi (1929– ) – Italian nuclear physicist, former President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare [50 ]
See also [ edit ]
External links [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Stephen Hawking; A Brief History of Time, 1996; p. 194-195
^ "René Descartes". Newadvent.org . Retrieved 30 May 2012. "...preferred to avoid all collision with ecclesiastical authority."
^ a b Vallery-Radot, Maurice (1994). Pasteur. Paris: Perrin. pp. 377–407.
^ a b "Gli scienziati cattolici che hanno fatto lItalia". Zenit.
^ Pavle Knezović - Ruđer Bošković's songs on Virgin Mary, Obnovljeni život, Vol.50 No.5 Rujan 1995. http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/3574
^ George Agricola
^ "Evolution: Religion: Science and Faith". Pbs.org . Retrieved July 26, 2010.
^ Dreifus, Claudia (April 27, 1999). "A CONVERSATION WITH: FRANCISCO J. AYALA; Ex-Priest Takes the Blasphemy Out of Evolution". New York Times . Retrieved April 24, 2009.
^ Brown, Andrew (2005). J. D. Bernal: the sage of science. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-851544-8.
^ Brown 2005, pp. 1–3
^ Obituary: James Britten.
^ Mateo Realdo Colombo
^ http://www.adherents.com/people/pe/John_Eccles.html John Eccles
^ Till Weishaupt (December 2007). "Glauben Sie an Gott?". Cicero . Retrieved 2008-06-05. "Translated from German: Oh, yes, I believe in God. (...) I am a Christian and I try to live as a Christian (...) I read the Bible very often and I try to understand it."
^ Armand-Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau
^ Sharratt (1994, pp. 17, 213)
^ Woods, Thomas E. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Washington, DC: Regnery Pub., 2005. (p. 95–96)
^ "Peter Grünberg – Autobiography".
^ Jean-Baptiste-Julien D'Omalius Halloy
^ Levi, Hilde (1985), George de Hevesy : life and work : a biography, Bristol: A. Hilger, p. 14, ISBN 9780852745557
^ Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier
^ A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: Big bang theory is introduced
^ "Anthony J. Leggett – Autobiography".
^ Marcello Malpighi
^ "Autobiography of Craig Mello". The Nobel Foundation . Retrieved 2007-12-31.
^ Giovanni Battista Morgagni
^ Johann Müller
^ Ed Regis (1992-11-08). "Johnny Jiggles the Planet". The New York Times . Retrieved 2008-02-04.
^ Halmos, P.R. "The Legend of von Neumann". The American Mathematical Monthly-volume= 80 (4-year= 1973): 382–394. doi: 10.2307/2319080. JSTOR 2319080.
^ Louis Pasteur
^ "Max Perutz OM". The Daily Telegraph (London). February 7, 2002.
^ George von Peuerbach
^ Jean Picard
^ Knepper, P. (2005). "Michael Polanyi and Jewish Identity". Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (3): 263–293. doi: 10.1177/0048393105277986.
^ Henri Victor Regnault
^ Eliel, Ernest L., Frederick Dominic Rossini, Biographical Memoirs, National Academy of Sciences.
^ François Vieta, Seigneur de La Bigottière
^ The Princeton Companion to Mathematics. Ed. Timothy Gowers. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008. (p.770).
^ Official Biography of Zichichi at the Ettore Majorana Foundation International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies: 25th session ... by Antonino Zichichi, Richard C. Ragaini, Ettore M, pg 4