List of Central American monkey species

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Geoffroy's Spider Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) is found in all seven Central American countries.

At least seven monkey species are native to Central America. An eighth species, the Coiba Island howler (Alouatta coibensis) is often recognized, but some authoritiess treat it as a subspecies of the mantled howler, (A. palliata).[1] A ninth species, the black-headed spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps)is also often recognized, but some authorities regard it as a subspecies of Geoffroy's spider monkey (A. geoffroyi).[2] Taxonomically, all Central American monkey species are classified as New World monkeys, and they belong to four families. Five species belong to the family Atelidae, which includes the howler monkeys, spider monkeys, woolly monkeys and muriquis. Two species belong to the family Cebidae, the family that includes the capuchin monkeys and squirrel monkeys. One species each belongs to the night monkey family, Aotidae, and the tamarin and marmoset family, Callitrichidae.

Geoffroy's spider monkey is the only monkey found in all seven Central American countries, and it is also found in Colombia, Ecuador and Mexico.[1][3] Other species that have a widespread distribution throughout Central America are the mantled howler, which is found in five Central American countries, and the white-headed capuchin (Cebus capucinus), which is found in four Central American countries.[4][5] The Coiba Island howler, the black-headed spider monkey, the Panamanian night monkey (Aotus zonalis) and Geoffroy's tamarin (Saguinus geoffroyi) are each found in only one Central American country, Panama.[6][7][8][9] The Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) also has a restricted distribution, living only on part of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and a small portion of Panama.[10] El Salvador is the Central American country with the fewest monkey species, as only Geoffroy's spider monkey lives there. Panama has the most species, eight, as the only Central American monkey species that does not include Panama within its range is the Guatemalan black howler (Alouatta pigra).

The Mantled Howler (Alouatta palliata) has widespread distribution within Central America.

Geoffroy's tamarin is the smallest Central American monkey, with an average size of about 0.5 kilograms (1.1 lb).[11] The Central American squirrel monkey and Panamanian night monkey are almost as small, with average sizes of less than 1.0 kilogram (2.2 lb).[12][13] The Guatemalan black howler has the largest males, which average over 11 kilograms (24 lb).[14] The spider monkey species have the next largest males, which average over 8 kilograms (18 lb).[14][15]

One Central American monkey, the black-headed spider monkey, is considered to be Critically Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).[7] Geoffroy's spider monkey and the Guatemalan black howler are both considered to be Endangered.[3][16] The Central American squirrel monkey had been considered endangered, but its conservation status was upgraded to Vulnerable in 2008.[10] The Coiba Island howler is also considered to be vulnerable.[6] The white-headed capuchin, the mantled howler and Geoffroy's tamarin are all considered to be of Least Concern from a conservation standpoint.[4][5][9]

Monkey watching is a popular tourist activity in parts of Central America.[17][18] In Costa Rica, popular areas to view monkeys include Corcovado National Park, Manuel Antonio National Park, Santa Rosa National Park Guanacaste National Park and Lomas de Barbudal Biological Reserve.[18] Corcovado National Park is the only park in Costa Rica in which all the country's four monkey species can be seen.[19] The more accessible Manuel Antonio National Park is the only other park in Costa Rica in which the Central American squirrel monkey is found, and the white-headed capuchin and mantled howler are also commonly seen there.[18][20][21] Within Panama, areas to view monkeys include Darién National Park, Soberanía National Park and a number of islands on Gatun Lake including Barro Colorado Island.[18][22][23] In addition, Geoffroy's tamarin can be seen in Metropolitan Natural Park within Panama City.[18][24] In Belize, the easily explored Community Baboon Sanctuary was established specifically for the preservation of the Guatemalan black howler and now contains more than 1000 monkeys.[25][26]

Key[edit]

The White-headed Capuchin is found in four Central American countries.
Latin Name Latin binomial name, or scientific name, of the species
Common Name Common name of the species, per Wilson, et al. Mammal Species of the World (2005)
Family Family within New World monkeys to which the species belongs
Average Size - Male Average size of adult male members of the species, in kilograms and pounds
Average Size - Female Average size of adult female members of the species, in kilograms and pounds
Conservation Status Conservation status of the species, per IUCN as of 2010
Range Countries in which the species occurs; countries outside Central America shown in italics

Central American monkey species[edit]

The Central American squirrel monkey is restricted to a limited range within Costa Rica and Panama.
Geoffroy's tamarin (Saguinus geoffroyi) is the smallest Central American monkey.
Latin Name Common Name Family Average Size - Male Average Size - Female Conservation Status Range References
Alouatta coibensis[a] Coiba Island howler Atelidae 7.150 kg (15.76 lb) 5.350 kg (11.79 lb) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

Panama [6][14]
Alouatta palliata Mantled howler Atelidae 7.150 kg (15.76 lb) 5.350 kg (11.79 lb) Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least Concern

Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico [4][14]
Alouatta pigra Guatemalan black howler Atelidae 11.352 kg (25.03 lb) 6.434 kg (14.18 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

Belize, Guatemala, Mexico [14][16]
Aotus zonalis[b] Panamanian night monkey Aotidae 0.889 kg (1.96 lb) 0.916 kg (2.02 lb) Status none DD.svg

Data Deficient

Panama, Colombia [8][13]
Ateles fusciceps[c] Black-headed spider monkey Atelidae 8.890 kg (19.60 lb) 8.800 kg (19.40 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

Panama, Colombia, Ecuador [7][15]
Ateles geoffroyi Geoffroy's spider monkey Atelidae 8.210 kg (18.10 lb) 7.700 kg (16.98 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Mexico [3][14]
Cebus capucinus White-headed capuchin Cebidae 3.668 kg (8.09 lb) 2.666 kg (5.88 lb) Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least Concern

Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador [5][12]
Saguinus geoffroyi Geoffroy's tamarin Callitrichidae 0.486 kg (1.07 lb) 0.507 kg (1.12 lb) Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least Concern

Panama, Colombia [9][11]
Saimiri oerstedii Central American squirrel monkey Cebidae 0.829 kg (1.83 lb) 0.695 kg (1.53 lb) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

Costa Rica, Panama [10][12]

Footnotes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rylands, A., Groves, C., Mittermeier, R., Cortes-Ortiz, L. & Hines, J. (2006). "Taxonomy and Distributions of Mesoamerican Primates". In Estrada, A., Garber, P., Pavelka, M. & Luecke, L. New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates. Springer. pp. 29–80. ISBN 0-387-25854-X. 
  2. ^ a b Collins, A. (2008). "The taxonomic status of spider monkeys in the twenty-first century". In Campbell, C. Spider Monkeys. Cambridge University Press. pp. 50–67. ISBN 978-0-521-86750-4. 
  3. ^ a b c Cuarón, A.D., Morales, A., Shedden, A., Rodriguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). "Ateles geoffroyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c Cuarón, A.D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E., de Grammont, P.C., Link, A., Palacions, E. & Morales, A. (2010). Alouatta palliata. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  5. ^ a b c Causado, J., Cuarón, A.D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). "Cebus capucinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c d Cuarón, A. D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E., de Grammont, P. C. & Link, A. (2008). "Alouatta palliata ssp. coibensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c Cuarón, A.D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E., de Grammont, P.C. & Link, A. (2008). "Ateles fusciceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b Cuarón, A.D., Palacios, E., Morales, A., Shedden, A., Rodriguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). "Aotus zonalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c Marsh, L., Cuarón, A.D. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). "Saguinus geoffroyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  10. ^ a b c Wong, G., Cuarón, A.D., Rodriguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). "Saimiri oerstedii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b Defler, T. (2004). Primates of Colombia. Conservation International. pp. 163–169. ISBN 1-881173-83-6. 
  12. ^ a b c Jack, K. (2007). "The Cebines". In Campbell, C., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K., Panger, M., & Bearder, S. Primates in Perspective. The Oxford University Press. pp. 107–120. ISBN 978-0-19-517133-4. 
  13. ^ a b Fernandez-Duque, E. (2007). "Aotinae". In Campbell, C., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K., Panger, M., & Bearder, S. Primates in Perspective. The Oxford University Press. pp. 139–154. ISBN 978-0-19-517133-4. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f Di Fiore, A. and Campbell, C. (2007). "The Atelines". In Campbell, C., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K., Panger, M., & Bearder, S. Primates in Perspective. The Oxford University Press. pp. 155–177. ISBN 978-0-19-517133-4. 
  15. ^ a b Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Mammals. Pogonias Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-9648825-0-7. 
  16. ^ a b Marsh, L.K., Cuarón, A.D., Cortés-Ortiz, L., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C, (2008). "Alouatta pigra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  17. ^ Reid, R. & Attwooll, j. (2007). Central America on a Shoestring. Lonely Planet. pp. 30, 722. ISBN 978-1-74104-596-3. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Hunter, L. & Andrew, D. (2002). Watching Wildlife in Central America. Lonely Planet Publications. pp. 147–151. ISBN 1-86450-034-4. 
  19. ^ Hunter, L. & Andrew, D. (2002). Watching Wildlife in Central America. Lonely Planet Publications. p. 97. ISBN 1-86450-034-4. 
  20. ^ Greenspan, E. (2006). Frommer's Costa Rica 2007. Wiley Publishing. p. 88. ISBN 0-471-94440-8. 
  21. ^ Hunter, L. & Andrew, D. (2002). Watching Wildlife in Central America. Lonely Planet Publications. p. 100. ISBN 1-86450-034-4. 
  22. ^ Schrek, K. (2007). Frommers Panama. Wiley Publishing. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-0-470-04890-0. 
  23. ^ Friar, W. Moon Handbooks–Panama. Avalon Travel Publishing. pp. 115–117. ISBN 978-1-56691-579-3. 
  24. ^ Schrek, K. (2007). Frommers Panama. Wiley Publishing. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-470-04890-0. 
  25. ^ Hunter, L. & Andrew, D. (2002). Watching Wildlife in Central America. Lonely Planet Publications. pp. 76–78. ISBN 1-86450-034-4. 
  26. ^ Sluder, L. (2009). Fodor's Belize (3rd ed.). Random House, Inc. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-4000-1941-0. 
  27. ^ Groves, C.. Wilson, D.E. & Reeder, D.M., ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4. 

See also[edit]