Chairman of the National Assembly of Vietnam

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Chairman of the
National Assembly
Chủ tịch Quốc hội
Coat of arms of Vietnam.svg
a smiling nearly bald man, wearing glasses, a suit and a red tie while holding up a piece of paper
Incumbent
Nguyễn Sinh Hùng

since 23 July 2011
Appointer Deputies of the National Assembly
Term length Five years
renewable
Inaugural holder Nguyễn Văn Tố
Formation 2 March 1946
Coat of arms of Vietnam.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Vietnam

The Chairman of the National Assembly of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch Quốc hội Việt Nam), formerly the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly of Vietnam (Chủ tịch Ủy ban Thường vụ Quốc hội Việt Nam) from 1946 to 1981, is the legislative speaker of the Vietnamese parliament, the National Assembly. It is, in the words of the constitution, "the highest representative organ of the people; the highest organ of state power ... , the sole organ that has constitutional and legislative rights".[1]

The chairman is elected by the deputies (members) of the National Assembly in the first season of the assembly's tenure. The Standing Committee, which the chairman is a member of, is a permanent body which controls the activities of the National Assembly when it is not in session. The chairman, and the other members of the Standing Committee, have to resign from their post when the National Assembly dissolves itself, which it normally does every fifth year.[2] The chairman presides over the sessions of the National Assembly and authenticates laws and resolutions passed by the National Assembly by signing them. The chairman leads the activities of the Standing Committee and organises its external relations with other state bodies and is responsible for maintaining cordial relations between the members of the Standing Committee.[3] The deputies of the National Assembly have the right to question the chairman.[4]

The powers and prestige of the office of chairman has varied throughout the years. For instance, the two first officeholders Nguyễn Văn Tố and Bùi Bằng Đoàn were not even members of the Communist Party, while Trường Chinh, the fourth chairman, was ranked second in the Politburo hierarchy. Still, of the ten people who have chaired the National Assembly, only five of them have been members of the Politburo. The current chairman is Nguyễn Sinh Hùng, and he is ranked fourth in the Politburo hierarchy.[5][note 1]

History[edit]

The first chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly was the scholar Nguyễn Văn Tố; he was not a member of the Communist Party. On 3 March 1946, under the chairmanship of Nguyễn Văn Tố, the National Assembly formed the first government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.[6] Nguyễn Văn Tố was succeeded in office on 9 November 1946 by Bùi Bằng Đoàn, a poet and another non-Communist Party member. While he was never a member of the Communist Party, he was a committed revolutionary.[7] Tôn Đức Thắng succeeded Bùi Bằng Đoàn as chairman in 1955, and was the first chairman to be a member of the Communist Party.[8] Trường Chinh became the fourth and longest-serving chairman of the National Assembly in Vietnamese history, holding the post from 1960 to 1981, when he became chairman of the State Council, a newly established post.[9] Nguyễn Hữu Thọ, a Southerner, succeeded Trường in 1981, as chairman, but he was not a member of the Politburo. Nguyễn Hữu Thọ stepped down as chairman in 1987, and was succeeded by Lê Quang Đạo, another non-Politburo member. As with Nguyễn Hữu Thọ, Lê Quang Đạo's tenure lasted only one term.[10] Nông Đức Mạnh was elected chairman in 1992, and held office until 2001 Nông was the first chairman who came from a minority background, the Tày, and was the first chairman since Trường who was a Politburo member.[11] Nông stepped down in 2001, and was succeeded by Nguyễn Văn An, who served as chairman from 2001 until 2006.[12] On 26 June 2006 Nguyễn Phú Trọng was elected chairman with a majority of 84.58% of the National Assembly deputies in favour.[13] Nguyễn Phú Trọng stepped down in 2011 because of his election to the post of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam,[14] and was succeeded by Nguyễn Sinh Hùng, the current chairman.

Officeholders[edit]

No.
[note 2]
Rank
[note 3]
Name
(birth–death)
Portrait Took office Left office National Assembly
1  — Nguyễn Văn Tố
(1889–1947)
Nguyễn Văn Tố.jpg 2 March 1946 8 November 1946 1st convocation
(1946–60)
2  — Bùi Bằng Đoàn
(1889–1955)
Bùi Bằng Đoàn.jpg 9 November 1946 13 April 1955
3  — Tôn Đức Thắng
(1888–1980)
Tôn Đức Thắng.jpg 20 September 1955 15 July 1960
4 4 Trường Chinh
(1907–88)
A bald man, wearing a white T-shirt 15 July 1960 4 July 1981 2nd convocation
(1960–64)
3rd convocation
(1964–71)
4th convocation
(1971–75)
5th convocation
(1975–76)
2 6th convocation
(1976–81)
5  — Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
(1910–96)
Nguyễn Hữu Thọ.jpg 4 July 1981 18 June 1987 7th convocation
(1981–87)
6  — Lê Quang Đạo
(1921–99)
Picture of Le Quang Dao.jpeg 18 June 1987 23 September 1992 8th convocation
(1987–92)
7 10 Nông Đức Mạnh
(1940–present)
a happy-looking man with greying black hair, wearing a suit and tie 23 September 1992 27 June 2001 9th convocation
(1992–97)
4 10th convocation
(1997–2002)
8 12 Nguyễn Văn An
(1937–present)
Nguyễn Văn An 1967.jpg 27 June 2001 26 June 2006 11th convocation
(2002–07)
9 7 Nguyễn Phú Trọng
(1944–present)
a smiling man with greying black hair, wearing a suit and tie 26 June 2006 23 July 2011
6 12th convocation
(2007–11)
10 4 Nguyễn Sinh Hùng
(1946–present)
a smiling nearly bald man, wearing glasses, a suit and a red tie while holding a piece of paper 23 July 2011 Incumbent 13th convocation
(2011–16)

Notes[edit]

1.^ The Politburo of the Central Committee is the highest decision-making body of the CPV and the Central Government. The membership composition, and the order of rank of the individual Politburo members is decided in an election within the newly formed Central Committee in the aftermath of a Party Congress.[15] The Central Committee can overrule the Politburo, but that does not happen often.[16]
2.^ These numbers are not official.
3.^ The Central Committee when it convenes for its first session after being elected by a National Party Congress elects the Politburo.[15] According to David Koh, in interviews with several high-standing Vietnamese officials, the Politburo ranking is based upon the number of approval votes by the Central Committee. Lê Hồng Anh, the Minister of Public Security, was ranked 2nd in the 10th Politburo because he received the second-highest number of approval votes. Another example being Tô Huy Rứa of the 10th Politburo, he was ranked lowest because he received the lowest approval vote of the 10th Central Committee when he standing for election for a seat in the Politburo. This system was implemented at the 1st plenum of the 10th Central Committee.[17] The Politburo ranking functioned as an official order of precedence before the 10th Party Congress, and some believe it still does.[15]

References[edit]

General
The number of chairmen of the National Assembly, their names, and when they took and left office, was taken from this source:

Specific

  1. ^ "Preamble of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 
  2. ^ "Political system". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 
  3. ^ "Article 92 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 
  4. ^ "Article 98 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 
  5. ^ "Party Congress announces CPVCC Politburo members". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  6. ^ Hoang 2008, p. 517.
  7. ^ Staff writer. "Bùi Bằng Đoàn" (in Vietnamese). National Assembly of Vietnam. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  8. ^ Staff writer. "Danh sách Uỷ viên Uỷ ban Thường vụ Quốc hội Khoá" [List of members of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly] (in Vietnamese). National Assembly of Vietnam. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  9. ^ Feldbrugge 1987, p. 20.
  10. ^ Staff writer. "Quốc hội nước ta qua các kỳ bầu cử" [Elections of the National Assembly] (in Vietnamese). tapchicongsan.org.vn. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  11. ^ International Business Publications, USA 2007, p. 78.
  12. ^ Singh & Thambipillai 2012, p. 375.
  13. ^ Staff writer (26 June 2006). "New National Assembly chairman Nguyen Phu Trong inauguration". vietbao.vn. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  14. ^ "Party Congress announces CPVCC Politburo members". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  15. ^ a b c Van & Cooper 1983, p. 69.
  16. ^ Abuza, Zachary (16 November 2001). "The Lessons of Le Kha Phieu: Changing Rules in Vietnamese politics". Vietnamese Professionals of America. The Catholic University of America. p. 12. 
  17. ^ Koh 2008, p. 666.

Bibliography[edit]