List of Chinese cultural relics forbidden to be exhibited abroad

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The list of Chinese cultural relics forbidden to be exhibited abroad comprises a list of antiquities and archaeological artefacts held by various museums and other institutions in the People's Republic of China, which the Chinese government has officially prohibited, since 2003, from being taken abroad for exhibition.

Many of the relics on the list symbolize the breakthrough of archaeological discoveries that were made in China since the mid-20th century, when archaeology as a modern science began to take a footing in China. These items are among the most important excavated treasures in China, and have a particular historical, cultural or artistic significance. However the list does not include several of the most recognizable forms of Chinese art, such as scroll paintings, calligraphy, porcelain, and any of the vast collection of imperial Chinese art that are housed in several museums in China, such as the Palace Museum in Beijing.

Government regulations prohibiting exhibition abroad[edit]

According to Article 49 of the Regulations for the Implementation of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Protection of Cultural Relics (State Council Decree No.377) promulgated on 18 May 2003:

The only existing or fragile relics among the grade-one relics are prohibited from being taken out of the country for exhibition. The catalogue of cultural relics prohibited from being taken out of the country for exhibition shall be made public on a regular basis by the competent cultural relics administrative department of the State Council.[1][2]

A first list of sixty-four cultural relics that are forbidden to be exhibited abroad was published by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage on 19 January 2002 (a year before the above regulation was enacted).[3] Although a number of significant archaeological discoveries were made after this list was published, it had not been superseded as of July 2012 and remained the only list of cultural relics forbidden to be exhibited abroad to have been published by the Chinese government.

In addition to the list of items explicitly prohibited from being exhibited abroad, cultural relics that fall within one of the following five categories are also prohibited from being exhibited outside of China:[4]

  • ancient human remains
  • the main object of reverence at a place of religious observation
  • first-grade cultural relics that are unique and easily damaged
  • objects listed in the catalogue of cultural relics that are prohibited from being exhibited abroad
  • cultural relics that are not suitable to be exhibited abroad because of their state of preservation

Furthermore, cultural relics may not be sent abroad for exhibition if they have not previously been officially exhibited within China.[1]

List of items prohibited from being exhibited abroad[edit]

The following list of items is based on the official catalogue of cultural relics that are forbidden to be taken out of China for exhibition abroad that was published by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage in 2002.[5][6]

Name Period Where found When found Current location Image
Coloured pottery pot depicting a stork, a fish, and a stone axe
(彩绘鹳鱼石斧图陶缸)[7]
Neolithic Ruzhou, Henan 1978 National Museum of China, Beijing
Pottery ding vessel in the form of an eagle, from the Yangshao culture
(陶鹰鼎)[8]
Neolithic Hua County, Shaanxi 1958 National Museum of China, Beijing Neolithic pottery eagle ding.jpg
Houmuwu ding[9] Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE) Anyang, Henan 1939 National Museum of China, Beijing HouMuWuDingFullView.jpg
Li gui, a bronze wine cup with an inscription commemorating King Wu of Zhou's defeat of the Shang Dynasty
(利簋)[10]
Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE) Lintong, Shaanxi 1976 National Museum of China, Beijing 利簋.jpg
Da Yu ding, a bronze ding cauldron cast by Yu, with an inscription dated the 23rd year of the reign of King Kang of Zhou
(大盂鼎)[11]
Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE) Qishan, Shaanxi 1820–1850 National Museum of China, Beijing
Guoji Zibai pan, a bronze trough with an inscription commemorating the defeat of Xianyun people by Duke Xuan of Guo in the 12th year of the reign of King Xuan of Zhou
(虢季子白盘)[12]
Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE) Baoji, Shaanxi 1820–1850 National Museum of China, Beijing Guojizibai pan 01.jpg
Four phoenix crowns from the tomb of the Wanli Emperor
(凤冠)[13]
Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) Changping District, Beijing 1957 National Museum of China, Beijing PhoenixCrown.jpg
Ivory cup inlaid with turquoise, from the tomb of Fu Hao
(嵌绿松石象牙杯)[14]
Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE) Anyang, Henan 1976 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology
Jin Hou Su zhong, a set of 16 ceremonial bronze bianzhong bells from the tomb of Marquis Xian of Jin
(晋侯苏钟)[15]
Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE) Shanxi Shanghai Museum Jinhousu Bianzhong.JPG
Da Ke ding, a bronze ding cauldron cast by Ke during the reign of King Xiao of Zhou
(大克鼎)[16]
Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE) Fufeng, Shaanxi 1890 Shanghai Museum Dake Ding.jpg
Taibao ding, a bronze ding cauldron cast by the Duke of Shao during the reign of King Cheng of Zhou
(太保鼎)[17]
Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE) Liangshan County, Shandong mid 19th century Tianjin Museum
Red lacquered bowl from the Hemudu culture
(河姆渡出土朱漆碗)[18]
Neolithic Yuyao, Zhejiang 1977 Zhejiang Provincial Museum, Hangzhou Red lacquered bowl from the Hemudu culture(Neolithic) in Zhejiang Museum.JPG
Pottery stove from the Hemudu culture
(河姆渡出土陶灶)[19]
Neolithic Yuyao, Zhejiang 1977 Zhejiang Provincial Museum, Hangzhou Pottery stove from the Hemudu culture(Neolithic) in Zhejiang Museum.JPG
Jade cong from the Liangzhu culture
(良渚出土玉琮王)[20]
Neolithic Yuhang, Zhejiang 1986 Zhejiang Institute of Archaeology Neolithic jade cong.jpg
Crystal cup
(水晶杯)[21]
Warring States period (475–221 BCE) Hangzhou, Zhejiang 1990 Zhejiang Institute of Archaeology Crystal Cup(Warring States Period) in Hangzhou Museum.JPG
Bronze stand for ceremonial vessels from the tomb of the son of King Zhuang of Chu
(淅川出土铜禁)[22]
Spring and Autumn Period (771–403 BCE) Xichuan, Henan 1978 Henan Museum, Zhengzhou Bronze jin from Henan.jpg
Pair of square bronze jars from the tomb of the Duke of Zheng
(新郑出土莲鹤铜方壶)[23]
Spring and Autumn Period (771–403 BCE) Xinzheng, Henan 1923 Palace Museum, Beijing
Henan Museum, Zhengzhou
河南博物院藏莲鹤方壶.jpg
Rectangular bronze mirror from the tomb of the Prince of Qi
(齐王墓青铜方镜)[24]
Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) Zibo, Shandong 1980 Zibo Museum
Bronze ding vessel from the tomb of the King of Chu
(铸客大铜鼎)[25]
Warring States period (475–221 BCE) Shou County, Anhui 1933 Anhui Provincial Museum, Hefei
Lacquered wooden platform shoes from the tomb of Zhu Ran
(朱然墓出土漆木屐)
Three Kingdoms (Eastern Wu) Ma'anshan, Anhui 1984 Ma'anshan Museum Geta Unearthed from the Tomb of Zhu Ran 2012-05.JPG
Lacquered picture plate from the tomb of Zhu Ran
(朱然墓出土贵族生活图漆盘)[26]
Three Kingdoms (Eastern Wu) Ma'anshan, Anhui 1984 Ma'anshan Museum
Painted lacquer wooden screen depicting scenes of filial sons and virtuous women in Chinese history, from the tomb of Sima Jinlong
(司马金龙墓出土漆屏)[27]
Northern Wei (386–534) Datong, Shanxi 1965 Datong Museum Lacquer painting over wood, Northern Wei.jpg
Mural depicting horse riders from the tomb of Lou Rui
(娄睿墓鞍马出行图壁画)[28]
Northern Qi (550–577) Taiyuan, Shanxi 1979 Shanxi Institute of Archaeology Riders on Horseback, Northern Qi Dynasty.jpg
Memorial stone engraved with illustrations of Buddhist Stories
(涅槃变相碑)
Tang Dynasty (618–907) Shanxi Provincial Museum, Taiyuan
Stone sculpture of a Daoist deity
(常阳太尊石像)
Tang Dynasty (618–907) Yuncheng, Shanxi Shanxi Provincial Museum, Taiyuan
Jade ceremonial dagger-axe
(大玉戈)[29]
Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE) Wuhan, Hubei 1974 Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan
Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng[30] Warring States period (475–221 BCE) Sui County, Hubei 1978 Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan Bianzhong.jpg
Carved and lacquered wooden outer coffin from the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng
(曾侯乙墓外棺)[31]
Warring States period (475–221 BCE) Sui County, Hubei 1978 Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan
Pair of intricately decorated bronze food and wine vessels cast using the lost-wax process from the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng
(曾侯乙青铜尊盘)[32]
Warring States period (475–221 BCE) Sui County, Hubei 1978 Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan 青铜尊盘.jpg
Wooden screen with carved images of phoenixes and deer, decorated with polychromatic lacquer
(彩漆木雕小座屏)[33]
Warring States period (475–221 BCE) Jiangling, Hubei 1965 Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan Laquered wooden screen.jpg
Clay sculpture of the head of a goddess, inlaid with jade eyes, from the Hongshan culture temple at Niuheliang
(红山文化女神像)[34]
Neolithic Lingyuan, Liaoning 1983 Liaoning Institute of Archaeology
Duck-shaped glass object
(鸭形玻璃注)[35]
Northern Yan (407–436) Beipiao, Liaoning 1965 Liaoning Province Museum, Shenyang Northern Yan duck-shaped glass.jpg
4 metre tall bronze tree with a dragon curling up the trunk, and leaves, fruit and birds on the branches
(青铜神树)[36]
Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE) Guanghan, Sichuan 1986 Sichuan Institute of Archaeology Bronze Tree from Sanxingdui.jpg
Ceremonial jade object with engraved drawings of stylized human figures
(三星堆出土玉边璋)[37]
Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE) Guanghan, Sichuan 1986 Sichuan Institute of Archaeology
2 metre tall bronze tree with coins on its branches and a phoenix perched at the top
(摇钱树)[38]
Eastern Han (25–220) Mianyang, Sichuan 1990 Mianyang Museum Eastern Han money tree.jpg
Bronze sculpture of a galloping horse
(铜奔马)[39]
Eastern Han (25–220) Wuwei, Gansu 1969 Gansu Provincial Museum, Lanzhou Flying Horse, East Han Dynasty.Bronze. Gansu Provincial Museum.jpg
Two half-scale bronze sculptures of chariots, each pulled by four horses, from the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
(铜车马)[40]
Qin Dynasty (221–206 BCE) Lintong, Shaanxi 1980 Museum of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang, Lintong Qin dynasty bronze chariot and horses.jpg
Shi Qiang pan[41] Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE) Fufeng, Shaanxi 1967 Fufeng Zhouyuan Museum
Large bronze ding vessel with three handles and ox-head decoration
(淳化大鼎)[42]
Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE) Chunhua, Shaanxi 1979 Chunhua Museum
Bronze He zun, with an inscription recording the construction of the capital at Luoyang by King Cheng of Zhou[43] Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE) Baoji, Shaanxi 1963 Baoji Museum
Stone sculptures from the tomb of Huo Qubing at the mausoleum of Emperor Wu of Han at Maoling
(茂陵石雕)[44]
Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) Xianyang, Shaanxi Maoling Museum, Xianyang 茂陵马踏匈奴石雕.JPG
Nestorian Stele — a stele recording the introduction of Christianity into China in 635
(大秦景教流行中国碑)[45]
Tang Dynasty (618–907) Shaanxi 1623 Xi'an Beilin Museum, Xi'an Nestorian stele 1.jpg
Gilt silver jug imitating the shape of a leather water bottle, with a design of prancing horses
(舞马衔杯仿皮囊式银壶)[46]
Tang Dynasty (618–907) Xi'an, Shaanxi 1970 Shaanxi History Museum, Xi'an Gilt silver jar with pattern of dancing horses.jpg
Zoomorphic drinking horn made from agate
(兽首玛瑙杯)[47]
Tang Dynasty (618–907) Xi'an, Shaanxi 1970 Shaanxi History Museum, Xi'an
Bronze bell cast in 711, weighing 6,500 kg, originally from the bell tower at the Tang capital Chang'an
(景云铜钟)[48]
Tang Dynasty (618–907) Xi'an Beilin Museum, Xi'an Jingyun bell.jpg
Gilt and silvered monk's staff donated to Famen Temple by Emperor Yizong of Tang in 873
(银花双轮十二环锡杖)[49]
Tang Dynasty (618–907) Fufeng, Shaanxi 1987 Famen Temple Museum, Fufeng
Set of eight nested relic boxes containing a relic supposed to be a finger bone from Śākyamuni Buddha, from Famen Temple
(八重宝函)[50]
Tang Dynasty (618–907) Fufeng, Shaanxi 1987 Famen Temple Museum, Fufeng
Bronze model pagoda from Famen Temple
(铜浮屠)[51]
Tang Dynasty (618–907) Fufeng, Shaanxi 1987 Famen Temple Museum, Fufeng
Brocade arm protector embroided with the words "Five stars rise in the east, benefitting China"
(“五星出东方”护膊)[52]
Eastern Han (25–220) to Jin (265–420) Minfeng, Xinjiang 1995 Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology
Bronze table frame inlaid with gold and silver, decorated with figures of four dragons and four phoenixes
(铜错金银四龙四凤方案)[53]
Warring States period (475–221 BCE) Pingshan, Hebei 1974 Hebei Institute of Cultural Relics
Bronze ding vessel with iron feet from the tomb of the King of Zhongshan
(中山王铁足铜鼎)[54]
Warring States period (475–221 BCE) Pingshan, Hebei 1977 Hebei Institute of Cultural Relics
Jade burial suit from the tomb of the Prince Jing of Zhongshan
(刘胜金缕玉衣)[55]
Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) Mancheng, Hebei 1968 Hebei Provincial Museum, Shijiazhuang
Gilt bronze lamp in the shape of a serving girl, from the tomb of the wife of Prince Jing of Zhongshan
(长信宫灯)[56]
Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) Mancheng, Hebei 1968 Hebei Provincial Museum, Shijiazhuang ChangXingongdeng.jpg
Five bronze pieces from an otherwise decayed folding screen, from the tomb of the King of Nanyue
(铜屏风构件5件)[57]
Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) Guangzhou, Guangdong 1983 Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue King, Guangzhou Nanyue Folding Screen Ornament 2.JPG
Horn-shaped jade cup from the tomb of the King of Nanyue
(角形玉杯)[58]
Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) Guangzhou, Guangdong 1983 Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue King, Guangzhou Jiaoxing yubei.JPG
Silk painting depicting a man riding a dragon
(人物御龙帛画)[59]
Warring States period (475–221 BCE) Changsha, Hunan 1949 Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha Changshadragon.jpg
Silk painting depicting a man with a dragon and a phoenix
(人物龙凤帛画)[60]
Warring States period (475–221 BCE) Changsha, Hunan 1949 Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha
Plain gauze robe from the tomb of the Marquis of Dai at Mawangdui
(直裾素纱禅衣)[61]
Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) Changsha, Hunan 1972 Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha
Wooden outer coffin from the tomb of the Marquis of Dai at Mawangdui
(马王堆一号墓木棺椁)
Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) Changsha, Hunan 1972 Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha
T-shaped silk funeral banner from the tomb of the Marquis of Dai at Mawangdui
(马王堆一号墓T型帛画)[62]
Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) Changsha, Hunan 1972 Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha Western Han Chinese Silk.JPG
Brocade banner depicting the Sun God and hunting scenes
(红地云珠日天锦)[63]
Northern Dynasties (386–581) Dulan, Qinghai 1983 Qinghai Institute of Archaeology
Nine volumes of Buddhist texts written in the Tangut language that were printed using wooden movable type, from Baisigou Square Pagoda
(西夏文佛经《吉祥遍至口和本续》纸本)[64]
Western Xia (1038–1227) Helan, Ningxia 1991 Ningxia Institute of Archaeology 吉祥遍至口和本续封面.jpg
Red-glazed pottery model of a granary
(青花釉里红瓷仓)[65]
Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) Jingdezhen, Jiangxi 1974 Jiangxi Provincial Museum, Nanchang
Picture of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove composed from more than 300 moulded bricks
(竹林七贤砖印模画)[66]
Southern Dynasties (420–589) Nanjing, Jiangsu 1960 Nanjing Museum Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove.jpg

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Regulations for the Implementation of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Protection of Cultural Relics, State Administration of Cultural Heritage, 29 October 2007 
  2. ^ 中华人民共和国文物保护法实施条例, The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, 23 May 2005 
  3. ^ 中国文物事业改革开放30年, State Administration of Cultural Heritage, 29 December 2008 
  4. ^ 文物出境展览管理规定, State Administration of Cultural Heritage, 28 October 2007 
  5. ^ 国家文物局发出通知 首批一级文物禁止出国(境)展览, The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site 
  6. ^ 国家文物局发出通知 首批一级文物禁止出国(境)展览, Beijing Global Culture Information Technology 
  7. ^ "彩绘鹳鱼石斧图陶缸". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  8. ^ "陶鹰鼎". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  9. ^ "司母戊铜鼎". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  10. ^ "利簋". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  11. ^ "大盂鼎". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  12. ^ "虢季子白盘". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  13. ^ "凤冠". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  14. ^ "嵌绿松石象牙杯". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  15. ^ "晋侯苏钟". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  16. ^ "大克鼎". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  17. ^ "太保鼎". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  18. ^ "河姆渡出土朱漆碗". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  19. ^ "河姆渡土"陶灶"". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  20. ^ "良渚出土玉琮王". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  21. ^ "水晶杯". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  22. ^ "淅川出土铜禁". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  23. ^ "新郑出土莲鹤铜方壶". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  24. ^ "齐王墓青铜方镜". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  25. ^ "铸客大铜鼎". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  26. ^ "朱然墓出土贵族生活图漆盘". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  27. ^ "司马金龙墓出土漆屏". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  28. ^ "娄睿墓鞍马出行图壁画". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  29. ^ "大玉戈". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  30. ^ "曾侯乙编钟". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  31. ^ "曾侯乙墓外棺". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  32. ^ "曾侯乙青铜尊盘". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  33. ^ "彩漆木雕小座屏". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  34. ^ "红山文化女神像". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  35. ^ "鸭形玻璃注". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  36. ^ "青铜神树". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  37. ^ "三星堆出土玉边璋". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  38. ^ "摇钱树". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  39. ^ "铜奔马". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  40. ^ "铜车马". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  41. ^ "墙盘". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  42. ^ "淳化大鼎". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  43. ^ "何尊". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  44. ^ "茂陵石雕". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  45. ^ "大秦景教流行中国碑". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  46. ^ "舞马衔杯仿皮囊式银壶". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  47. ^ "兽首玛瑙杯". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  48. ^ "景云铜钟". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  49. ^ "银花双轮十二环锡杖". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  50. ^ "八重宝函". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  51. ^ "铜浮屠". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  52. ^ ""五星出东方"护膊". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  53. ^ "铜错金银四龙四凤方案". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  54. ^ "中山王铁足铜鼎". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  55. ^ "刘胜金缕玉衣". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  56. ^ "长信宫灯". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  57. ^ "铜屏风构件5件". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  58. ^ "角形玉杯". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  59. ^ "人物御龙帛画". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  60. ^ "人物龙凤帛画". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  61. ^ "直裾素纱禅衣". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  62. ^ "马王堆一号墓T型帛画". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  63. ^ "红地云珠日天锦". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  64. ^ "西夏文佛经《吉祥遍至口本续》纸本". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  65. ^ "青花釉里红瓷仓". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site. 
  66. ^ "竹林七贤砖印模画". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.