List of Chinese martial arts
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The hundreds of different styles and schools of Chinese martial arts (中國武術) are collectively called kungfu (功夫), wushu (武術), kuoshu (國術), or ch'uan fa (拳法), depending on the persons or groups participating. The following list is by no means exhaustive.
The following martial arts have not been influenced by other cultures or have a lineage that predates the 1940s:
- Bafaquan (八法拳) - Eight method
- Baguazhang (八卦掌; Bagua Zhang) - Eight trigrams palm
- Bājíquán (八極拳) - Eight extreme fists
- Bak Mei (白眉拳) - White Eyebrow
- Chāquán (查拳) - Cha Fist
- Changquan (長拳) - Long Fist
- Chuōjiǎo (戳腳) - Poking Feet
- Choy gar (蔡家拳) - Choi Family style
- Choi Li Fut (蔡李佛; Càilǐfó)
- Ditangquan (地躺拳) - Ground-Prone Fist, Ground Tumbling Boxing
- Duan Quan (短拳) - Short Range Boxing
- Emeiquan (峨嵋拳) - Emei Fist
- Fanzi (翻子拳) - Overturning Fist, Tumbling Boxing
- Five Ancestors (五祖拳) - Wuzuquan or Ngo Cho Kun
- Five Animals (五形)
- Fujian White Crane (福建白鶴拳) - also known as Bai He Quan (白鶴拳)
- Fu Jow Pai (虎爪派) - Tiger Claw System
- Fut Gar (佛家)- Buddhist Palm
- Gouquan (狗拳) - Dog Fist
- Hakka Kuen (客家拳) - Hakka Boxing
- Hap Ga (俠家)
- Houquan (猴拳) - Monkey Fist
- Drunken Monkey (醉猴)
- Hei hu quan (黑虎拳) - Black Tiger Fist
- Huaquan (華拳) - China Fist
- Hung Fut (洪佛) - Hung and Buddha style kung fu
- Hung Ga (洪家拳; also known as Hung Kuen)
- Jing Wu Men (精武門) - Jing Wu, a famous school founded in Shanghai that teaches several different styles.
- Jow-Ga Kung Fu (周家) - Jow family style
- Lai Tung Pai - Shaolin Style that mixes long and short fist
- Lama Pai (喇嘛派)
- Lau Gar
- Leopard Kung Fu (豹拳)
- Li Gar (李家) - Li Family or Lee Family style
- Liuhebafa (六合八法; Liu He Ba Fa) - Six Harmonies, Eight Methods or Water Boxing
- Longquan (龙拳) - Dragon Fist
- Luohan Quan (羅漢拳) Arhat Boxing, Loh Han Kuen
- Meihuaquan (梅花拳) - Plum Blossom Fist
- Mian Quan (棉花拳擊) - Cotton Boxing
- Mizongyi (迷蹤拳; Mízōngquán) - Lost Track Fist (also known as My Jong Law Horn; 迷蹤羅漢拳)
- Mok Gar (莫家拳) Mok family style
- Nam Pai Chuan (南北拳) - North South Fist
- Nanquan (南拳) - Southern Fist
- Ng Ga Kuen - Five Family/Five Animal style (Hung, Mok, Li, Choy, Fut)
- Northern Praying Mantis (北派螳螂拳)
- Northern Shaolin (北少林) - Bei Shaolin
- Pào Chuí (炮捶) - Cannon Fist, Sanhaung Paochui
- Piguaquan (劈掛拳) - Chop-Hitch Fist, Axe-hitch boxing
- Shaolin Kung Fu (少林拳) - Shaolin Fist
- Shequan (蛇拳) - Snake Fist
- Shuai jiao (摔跤; Shuaijiao) - Chinese and Mongolian styles of wrestling
- Southern Praying Mantis (南派螳螂拳)
- Chow Gar (周家)- Chow Style Southern Praying Mantis
- T'ai chi ch'uan (太極拳 Taijiquan) - Supreme Ultimate fist
- Tán Tuǐ (彈腿/譚腿) - Springing legs style
- Tibetan White Crane (白鶴派)
- Tien Shan Pai (天山派)
- Tongbeiquan (通背拳) - Through-the-Back Fist
- Wing Chun (詠春 or 永春)
- Wing Tsun (詠春)
- Wudang chuan (武當拳)
- Xingyiquan (形意拳; Hsing-i Chuan) - Form-Intent Fist
- Yau Kung Moon (软功門) - Flexible-Power Style
- Yingzhaoquan (鷹爪拳) - Eagle Claw Fist
- Yuejiaquan (岳家拳) - Yue family Fist/Boxing
- Yiquan (意拳; I Ch'uan) - Mind Boxing
- Zi Ran Men (自然门) - Natural Boxing or "fist of nature"
- Zui Quan (醉拳) - Drunk Fist
The following martial arts systems are either influenced by other cultures or possess a lineage that started after 1940:
- Hong Cha
- I Liq Chuan (意力拳) - Mind-Body Art
- Jeet Kune Do (振藩截拳道) - Bruce Lee's Way of the Intercepting Fist; though it is not considered a Chinese martial art it incorporates concepts from Chinese martial arts
- Jing Quan Dao (精拳道) - A modern synthetic style
- Kenpō - Japanese description of various Chinese arts
- Kuntao (拳道 or 拳頭) - Way of the Fist, a Hokkien term referring to Chinese martial arts practiced in Southeast Asia and Indonesia in particular
- Sanshou (散手) or Sanda (散打) - Free Fighting
- Shaolin-Do ( 少林道) - Translated as the Way of Shaolin
- Wushu (sport) (武術) - Exhibition and a full-contact sport derived from traditional Chinese martial arts
- Chi Gerk (黐腳) - Term used for sticky legs sensitivity training most notably used in Wing Chun. Similar concepts are also practiced in Hung Gar and other Chinese martial arts.
- Chi Sao (黐手) - Term used for sticky arm sensitivity training most notably used in Wing Chun. Similar concepts are also practiced in Hung Gar and other Chinese martial arts.
- Zui Quan (醉拳) "Drunken Fist" - Term used for "drunken" techniques in many styles of Chinese Martial Arts.
- Dim Mak (點脈) - General term for point striking.
- Iron Palm (Chinese: 铁掌功; Cantonese: tit1 zoeng2 gung1) is a body of training techniques in various Chinese martial arts.
- Iron Shirt (Traditional Chinese: 鐵衫; Simplified Chinese: 铁衫; Pinyin: tiě shān; Cantonese: tit1 saam1) is a form of hard style martial art exercise for protecting the human body from impacts in a fight.
- Lei tai (擂台; Lèi tái) - Full Contact competition platform used in Chinese Martial Arts.
- Chin na (擒拿) - General term for joint locks.
- Sanshou (散手) - General term for sparring methods, but also another name for the sport, San da. (散打)
- Tuishou (推手) - Term used for the "push hands" partner exercises used in the neijia arts.
Internal and external styles
There is a discussion within the martial arts community, at both the popular and scholar level, over the distinction between "internal" and "external" arts. Consequently, the list of styles considered internal or external may vary greatly from source to source. There are only three Chinese styles that are universally recognized as internal, sometimes referred to the "Orthodox Internal Styles." These three styles are: Xingyiquan, Baguazhang, and T'ai chi ch'uan (Taijiquan). These three internal arts were categorized as such by Sun Lutang, who greatly popularized the terms "neijia" and "wàijiā" as a method of classifying martial arts.
Styles often considered internal styles
- Baguazhang (八卦掌 Pa Kua Chang) - Eight Trigrams Palm
- Liuhebafa Chuan (六合八法 Liu He Pa Fa, Lok Hup Ba Fa) - Water Boxing
- T'ai chi ch'uan (太極拳 Taijiquan) - Ultimate Supreme Fist
- Tongbeiquan (通背拳) - Through-the-Back Fist
- Xingyiquan (形意拳 Hsing-i Chuan) - Shape-Intent Fist
- Yiquan (意拳 I Chuan) - Mind Boxing