List of Classical Age states

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For the preceding article, see List of Iron Age states. For the succeeding article, see List of states during Late Antiquity.

Development of states[edit]

The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia c. 3700 BC, in Egypt c. 3300 BC, in the Indus Valley c. 2500 BC, India c. 1700 BC, and in China c. 1600 BC. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. Professor Gil Stein at the University of Chicago Oriental Institute states "The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term 'the Ancient World'".[1] This list's the main types state that existed in Africa, Americas, Central Asia, East Asia, Europe, Eurasian Steppe, South Asia, and West Asia, from early Classical antiquity to the beginning of Late Antiquity, a period of 800 years.

Classical Age 600 BC to 200 AD[edit]

The classical age(also the classical antiquity, classical period or classical era) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history generally centered on the Mediterranean Sea and Near East, comprising the interlocking ancient civilizations. It is the period in which societies flourished and wielded great influence throughout East Asia, Europe, North Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. It is conventionally taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity and (AD 300–600), blending into the Dark Ages (AD 600–1000). Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many disparate cultures and periods. "Classical antiquity" may refer also to an idealised vision among later people of what was, in Edgar Allan Poe's words, "the glory that was Greece, the grandeur that was Rome!"[2] The culture of the ancient Greeks, together with some influences from the ancient Orient, prevailed throughout classical antiquity as the basis of art,the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period. but in some parts of the world, the Copper Age served as a transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.

  • Note 1: China's classical period lasted from 500 BC until 600 AD.
  • Note 2: India's classical period lasted from the 3rd century BC until the 13th century AD.

Africa[edit]

State Capital State type Existed
Aethiopia Adulis Kingdom c. 13th - 5th centuries BC
Aksumite Empire Aksum Empire 100 - 960 AD
Blemmyes Tribal kingdom 600 BC - 8th century AD
Carthaganian Empire Carthage Empire 650-146 BC
D'mt Yeha Kingdom 980 - 400 BC
Cyrenaica Cyrene Kingdom 631-525 BC
Garamantian Garama Tribal confederation/empire 1000 BC - 700 AD
Gaetulia Tribal confederation c. 350 BC - 550 AD
Kush Kerma; Napata; Meroe Kingdom 1070 BC - 350 AD
Libu Tribal confederation 1550-146BC
Macedonian Empire Pella Empire 334 - 323 BC
Macrobia Tribal kingdom c. 8th - 4th centuries BC
Mauri Tribal confederation 580- 285 BC
Mauretania Julia Caesara Kingdom/client kingdom 285 BC - 698 AD
Nok Tribal chiefdom/kingdom 1000 BC - 300AD
Numidia Cirta Kingdom 202 - 46 BC
Persian Empire Ecbatana,Pasargadae, Persepolis, Susa Empire 549 - 330 BC
Ptolemaic Alexandria Kingdom/empire 305 - 30 BC
Roman Empire Rome Empire 27 BC-476 AD
Roman Republic Rome Republic 509-29 BC
Sao Various Tribal city states 6th century BC - 6th century AD
Vandals Tribal chiefdoms 429 - 435 AD

Americas[edit]

Map of the world in 500 BC
name capital state type existed
Nazca Various Tribal chiefdom's 100 BC - 800 AD
Maya Various Kingdom city states 2000 BC - 900 AD
Moche Moche-Trujillo United Independent Polities 100 - 800 AD
Olmec La Venta, Tenochtitlán Kingdom city states 1400-400 BC
Paracas Various Tribal Chiefdom's 800 - 100 BC
Pueblo Various Tribal chiefdom's 12th century BC - 14th century AD
Teotihuacan Empire Teotihuacan Empire 100 BC - 8th century AD
Zapotec Kingdom city states 700 BC - 1521 AD

Europe[edit]

North and West[edit]

name capital state type existed
Alamani Tribal confederation 85 BC - 213 AD
Basternae Various Tribal confederation 200 BC - 300AD
Belgae Various Tribal confederation 600 BC -
Brigantia Tribal kingdom 700 BC -
Cait Tribal kingdom 25 - 871 AD
Caledonia Tribal confederacy 650 BC - 1st century AD
Catuvellauni Verulamium Tribal kingdom/client 550 BC - 51 AD
Ce Tribal kingdom 1st century - 900 AD
Connacht Tribal chiefdom/kingdom c. 10th century BC - 1474 AD
Deceangli Tribal kingdom 500 BC - 76 AD
Fortriu Tribal kingdom 1 - 850 AD
Helvetii Tribal confederacy 650 BC - 68 AD
Iceni Venta Icenorum Tribal kingdom/client 500 BC - 64 AD
Iverni Ivernis Tribal federated chiefdom's 500 BC - 400 AD
Meath Dublin Kingdom 1st century - 1173 AD
Noricum Magdalensberg Tribal kingdom/federation 400 - 16 BC
Ordovice Tribal kingdom 500 BC -
Ossory Kilkenny Kingdom 150 - 1185 AD
Pictland Tribal confederation 250 BC - 850 AD [3]
Raeti Tribal confederation 500 - 15 BC
Saxons Tribal confederation 5th century BC - 754 AD
Silure Tribal kingdom 650 BC -
Suebi Tribal confederation 60 BC - 409 AD
Taurisci Tribal federation c. 450 - 112 BC
Vandals Tribal chiefdoms 2nd century BC - 409 AD
Vindelicia Tribal kingdom 5th century BC - 1st century AD

South and East[edit]

State Capital Type Existed
Achaean League Various Confederation of city states 280 - 140 BC
Aetolian League Various Confederation of city states 290 - 189 BC
Antigonid Empire Empire 306 - 168 BC
Aquitani Various Tribal confederation/client 550-27 BC
Arcadia Kingdom 980-743 BC
Acarnania Kingdom 7th - 1st century BC
Argolis Argos Kingdom/republic 1200-226 BC
Astures Asturica Tribal federation 550 BC - 68 AD
Athens Republican city state/client 1068-146 BC
Boii Felsina Tribal kingdom 390 BC - 8 AD
Cantabri Tribal confederation 650 BC - 1st century AD
Carthaganian Empire Carthage Empire 650-146 BC
Celtici Tribal confederation 600 - 19 BC
Celtiberia Tribal confederation 650-19 BC
Corinthia Corinth City state 700-338 BC
Dacia Sarmizegetusa, Regia Kingdom 700 BC - 106 AD
Dardania Ulpiana? Tribal Kingdom 4th century - 168 BC
Delian Various League of city states 478-404 BC
Etruria Veii Kingdom 768 - 264 BC
Gallaeci Various Tribal confederation 500-139 BC
Getae Not specified Tribal Kingdom 7th century BC -4th century AD
Iapydes Various Tribal confederation 9th century - 34 BC
Illyria Scodra Kingdom 2000-168 BC
League of Corinth Various Federated states 338 - 337 BC
Liburnia Tribal thalassocracy [4] 11th century - 34 BC
Ligures Tribal confederation 5th century - 2nd century BC
Locria Amphissa, Naupactus Kingdom 1250-386 BC
Lucania Tribal kingdom 1000-356 BC[5]
Lusitania Tribal confederation c. 450 - 27 BC
Macedonian Empire Pella Empire 334 - 323 BC
Maedi Iamphorynna Tribal kingdom 5th century - 86 BC
Magna Graecia Various Kingdom city states 740 - 89 BC
Odrysia Seuthopolis Kingdom 460 BC- 46 AD
Oenotria Metabon Tribal kingdom 1000-325 BC
Paeonia Principality/kingdom/client 535 BC - 681 AD
Padanian Etruria Various Federated city states 9th century - 5th century BC
Phocis Delphi Amphictyony[6] 690 - 222 BC
Rome Rome Kingdom 753-509 BC
Roman Empire Rome Empire 27 BC-476 AD
Roman Republic Rome Republic 509-29 BC
Sabinum Bovianum Tribal kingdom c. 760 - 494 BC
Samnium Tribal confederation c. 600 - 82 BC
Scordisci Singidunum Independent tribal state 3rd century BC - 1st century AD
Sicani Tribal confederation c. 13th century - 300 BC
Sicels Tribal confederation c. 11th century - 425 BC
Sparta Sparta Kingdom 950-146 BC
Thessaly Larissa Kingdom 950 - 344 BC
Tartessos Tartessus Tribal kingdom 1000-450 BC [7]
Thrace Tribal chiefdoms 1500-450 BC
Turdetani Tribal confederation 5th century - 190 BC
Umbria Tribal kingdom 9th century - 3rd century BC
Vandals Tribal chiefdoms 409 - 429 AD
Venedae Tribal confederation 400 BC - 7th century AD
Veneti Tribal federation 6th century - 218 BC
Vettones Tribal confederation 300 - 14 BC

Eurasian Steppe[edit]

name capital state type existed
Aria Kingdom/client 700 BC - 300 BC
Albania Kabalak, Partav Kingdom/client 65 BC - 628 AD
Caspiane Tribal kingdom/client 650 BC - 387 AD
Bactria Bactra Tribal kingdom/client 2140 - 550 BC
Balhara Balkh Tribal kingdom 12th - 7th centuries BC
Cimmerian Bosporus Panticapaeum Kingdom/client 480 BC - 370 AD
Bulgar Balkh/Phanagoria Tribal confederation 7th century BC - 7th century AD
Chorasmia Tribal confederation 1290-180 BC
Cimmeria Tribal confederation 1300 - 625 BC
Colchis Phasis Kingdom 1300 BC - 2nd century AD
Dahae Tribal confederation 700 - 530 BC
Dayuan Kingdom/client 329 BC - 280 AD
Fergana Khokand Kingdom 220 BC - 590 AD
Gelonia Gelonos Tribal kingdom 5th century BC - 5th century AD
Greco-Bactria Bactra, Alexandria on the Oxus Kingdom 256 - 125 BC
Huns Nomadic confederation 600 BC - 370 AD
Iberia Armazi, Mtskheta, Tbilisi Kingdom 302 BC - 508 AD
Issedone Tribal chiefdom 650-58 BC
Kangju Tribal federation 280 BC - 585 AD
Kashgar Kashgar Kingdom/client 80 - 850 AD
Kucha Kucha Buddhist kingdom 46 - 658 AD
Kushan Empire Bagram,Peshawar,Taxila,Mathura Empire 30 - 375 AD
Khwarezm Kath, Gurganj Kingdom 180 BC - 98 AD
Lazica Phasis Kingdom/client 1st century BC - 7th century AD
Macedonian Empire Pella Empire 334 - 323 BC
Magyar Tribal confederation/principality 1100 BC - 895 AD
Maurya Empire Pataliputra Empire 322-185 BC
Massagatae Tribal confederation 600 - 46 BC
Parthian Empire Ctesiphon Empire 247 BC - 224 AD
Persian Empire Ecbatana,Pasargadae, Persepolis, Susa Empire 549 - 330 BC
Qiang Tribal chiefdoms/confederation 2000 BC - 150 BC
Saka Tribal confederation 500 BC-50 BC
Sarmatia Tarki (Makhachkala) Tribal confederation 450BC-400 AD
Scythia Neopolis Tribal kingdom 690BC-250 BC
Seleucid Empire Seleucia, Antioch Empire 312 - 63 BC
Sogdiana Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Kesh Kingdom/client 750 - 550 BC
Thyssagetae Tribal chiefdom 650 BC - 110 AD
Venedae Tribal confederation 400 BC - 7th century AD
Xiongnu Tribal confederation (empire) 209 - 155 BC
Xianyun Nomadic tribal federation 824-209 BC

East Asia[edit]

Map of the world in 100 BC
Name Capital/s Type Existed
Âu Lạc Cổ Loa Kingdom 257-207 BC
Ba Yíchéng Tribal confederation 13th century - 311 BC
Baekje Wirye,Ungjin,Sabi Kingdom 18 BC - 660 AD
Buyeo Buyeoseong Kingdom 189 BC - 494 AD
Cai Shàngcài,Xīncài,Xiàcài Client-Marquisate 980-447 BC
Cao Táoqiū Client-Dukedom 1053-487 BC
Champa Indrapura, Vijaya, Panduranga Kingdom 192 – 1832 AD
Chen Wǎnqiū Client-Dukedom 1046 - 479 BC
Chi Tu Kingdom 100 BC - 7th century AD
Chouchi Lüeyang Principality 184 – 511 AD
Chu Danyang,JiangYing,JiYing,Shouchun, Client-viscountcy/kingdom 1030 - 223 BC
Dian Kingdom 300 - 109 BC
Donghu Nomadic tribal confederation 1400 - 150 BC
Funan Vyadhapura,Óc Eo Kingdom 60 - 550 AD
Gangga Negara Gangga Negara Kingdom 2nd - 11th centuries AD
Gaya Gaya Confederacy 42 - 562 AD
Goguryeo Jolbon, Gungnae, Pyongyang. Kingdom 37 BC - 668 AD
Gojoseon Asadal, Wanggeom-seong Kingdom 2333 - 108 BC
Han Empire Chang'an, Luoyang, Xuchang Empire 206 BC-220 AD
Jin Tribal federation 550-108 BC
Jin Tang, Quwo, Jiang, Xintian Client-marquisate/dukedom 1042-376 BC
Jolbon Tribal kingdom 1st century - 37 BC
Jōmon Heijō-kyō, Heian-kyō (Kyoto), Tokyo Principalities/empire 600 BC - present day
Langkasuka Kedah, Pattani Kingdom 100 - 1516 AD
Kushan Empire Bagram, Peshawar, Taxila, Mathura Empire 30 - 375 AD
Langkasuka Kedah, Pattani Kingdom 100 - 1516 AD
Mahan Cheonan Confederacy 98 BC - 250 AD
Maurya Empire Pataliputra Empire 322-185 BC
Nanyue Panyu Kingdom 204-111 BC
Pi Xuecheng Earldom/client 1046-418 BC
Pyu Sri Ksetra Federated city states 250 BC - 1085 AD
Qiang Tribal chiefdoms/confederation 2000 BC - 150 BC
Qi Qi Dukedom 1600-445 BC
Qi Linzi Client-Dukedom 1046-221 BC
Qin Qin, Quanqiu,Qian, Pingyang Client-marquisate/dukedom 858-221 BC
Qin Empire Xianyang Empire 221-206 BC
Quanrong Nomadic tribal confederacy 954-301 BC
Siljik Kingdom 102 - 6th century AD
Silla Gyeongju Kingdom 55 BC - 935 AD
Sui Suizhou Marquisate & Client 771-221 BC
Sumpa Tribal chiefdom/client 1600 BC - 7th century AD
Shu Kingdom 1046-316 BC
Teng Tengzhou Viscountcy 1046-414 BC
Thaton Thaton Kingdom 300 BC - 1085 AD
Wim Joseon Wanggeom-seong Kingdom 194-108 BC
Wei Anyi,Daliang Marquisate/kingdom 403-225 BC
Văn Lang Anyang Confederation/kingdom 2879-258 BC
Xu Gusu Viscountcy/client 2000-512 BC
Xianbei Nomadic (empire) 93-234 AD
Xiongnu Tribal confederation (empire) 209 - 155 BC
Yamatai Kingdom 300 BC - 300 AD
Yan Ji Principality 1046-222 BC
Zhongshan Nomadic kingdom 580-296 BC
Zhou Haojing, Luoyi Kingdom 1046-256 BC
Zou Viscountacy/dukedom 1012-350 BC

South Asia[edit]

Map of the world in 200 AD
Name Capital State type Existed
Anarta Dvaraka Kingdom 1100-550 BC
Anuradhapura Anuradhapura Kingdom 377 BC - 1017 AD
Anga Champa or Campā Kingdom 1380-550 BC
Avanti Mahissati,Ujjaini Kingdom 900-322 BC
Ay Aykudi Kingdom 4th century BC - 12th century AD
Chola Urayur/Kaveripattinam Kingdom 2645-110 BC
Danda Janasthana Kingdom 1100 - 450 BC
Drangiana Tribal chiefdom 950 - 600 BC
Gangaridai Ganges Kingdom 450 - 200 BC
Greco-Bactria Bactra, Alexandria on the Oxus Kingdom 256 - 125 BC
Haryanka Rajagriha, later Pataliputra Kingdom 684 - 413 BC
Indo-Greek Alexandria in the Caucasus,Taxila,Sagala Kingdom 180 BC - 10 AD
Indo-Parthia Taxila Kingdom 12 BC - 98 AD
Indo-Scythia Sigal,Taxila,Mathura Kingdom 200 BC - 400 AD
Kalinga Dantapura/Rajapura Kingdom 1376-285 BC
Kalinga Republic Dantapura/Rajapura Republic 285 - 261 BC
Kamboja Rajapura Kingdom 1450 - 195 BC
Kasmira Asirgarh Qila Kingdom 1250 - 322 BC
Kimpurusha Kingdom 1000 - 325 BC
Kirata Tribal kingdom 1350 - c. 300 BC
Kosala Shravasti Kingdom 1000 - 266 BC
Kuninda Shravasti Kingdom 500 BC - 300 AD
Kushan Empire Bagram,Peshawar,Taxila,Mathura Empire 30 - 375 AD
Lanka Lankapura Kingdom 1100 - 543 BC
Macedonian Empire Pella Empire 334 - 323 BC
Magadha Rajagriha/Rajgir /Pataliputra Kingdom 799 - 323 BC
Malla Kusavati, Pava Republic 780 - 323 BC
Matsya Bairat Kingdom 1180 - 318 BC
Maurya Empire Pataliputra Empire 322 - 185 BC
Mushika Ezhimalai Kingdom 3rd century BC - 4th century AD
Nanda Empire Pataliputra Empire 345 - 322 BC
Panchala Ahichatra, Kampilya Confederacy 1100 - 700 BC
Panchala Ahichatra, Kampilya Kingdom/republic 700 - 323 BC
Pandya Madurai Kingdom 1350 - 460 BC
Pallava Empire Kanchi Empire 250 BC - 800 AD
Parthian Empire Ctesiphon Empire 247 BC - 224 AD
Parvata Kingdom c. 9th century - 325 BC
Persian Empire Ecbatana,Pasargadae, Persepolis, Susa Empire 549 - 330 BC
Pundra Pundravardhana Kingdom 1300 BC - 550 AD
Rajarata Anuradhapura, Sigiriya, Polonnaruwa Kingdom 377 BC -1310 AD
Ror Rori Kingdom 450 BC - 489 AD
Ruhuna Magama Principality 200 BC - 450 AD
Satavahana Empire Amaravati Empire 230 BC - 230 AD
Seleucid Empire Seleucia, Antioch Empire 312 - 63 BC
Shakya Kapilavatthu Monarchical Republic 800 - 320 BC
Shishunaga Empire Rajagriha, Vaishali Empire 413 - 345 BC
Sindhu Vrsadarbhpura Kingdom 800 - 320 BC
Sinhala Methora Kingdom 700 - 505 BC
Surasena Methora Kingdom 1000 - 323 BC
Tambapanni Tambapanni Kingdom 543-505 BC
Trigarta Prasthala Kingdom 1150-322 BC
Upatissa Nuwara Upatissa Nuwara Kingdom 505-377 BC
Vanga Gange Kingdom 1300 BC - 580 AD
Vatsa Kauśāmbī Kingdom 1100-323 BC
Vriji Vaishali Confederacy 1250 - 322 BC
Yaksha Narmada Kingdom 1200 - 350 BC

West Asia[edit]

name capital state type existed
Adiabene Arbela Kingdom/client 15 - 310 AD
Antigonid Empire Empire 306 - 168 BC
Araba Hatra Kingdom 3rd century BC - 300AD
Armenia Van Kingdom 553 BC - 428AD
Atropatene Ganzak Kingdom/client 320 BC - 226AD
Awsan Ḥajar Yaḥirr Kingdom 7th century BC - 100 AD
Bithynia Nicomedia, Nicaea Kingdom/client 297 - 74 BC
Cappadocia Mazaca Kingdom/client 332 - 130 BC
Carmania Kingdom/client 600 BC - 651 AD
Chaldea Bit Yakin Kingdom 1100 - 539 BC
Characene Charax Spasinou Kingdom 127 BC - 222 AD
Cilicia Tarsus Kingdom 795 - 546 BC
Commagene Samosata Kingdom/client 163 BC - 72 AD
Corduene Principality/kingdom/client 800 BC - 653 AD
Doris Doris Kingdom 1200-580 BC
Edom Rabbath Ammon Kingdom 1200 - 125 BC
Elamite Empire Susa Empire 1210-535 BC
Elymais Susa Kingdom/client 147 BC -224 AD
Galatia Ancyra Empire 280 - 64 BC
Gardman Parisos Principality/kingdom/client 66 - 428 AD
Gedrosia Kingdom/client 600 BC -
Greco-Bactria Bactra, Alexandria (Oxus) Kingdom 256 - 125 BC
Hadhramaut Kingdom 700 BC - 320 AD
Haram Haram Kingdom city state 600 - 175 BC
Hasmonea Jerusalem Kingdom 140 - 37 BC
Herodian Jerusalem Kingdom/client 37 - 4 BC
Indo-Greek Alexandria(Caucasus),Taxila,Sagala Kingdom 180 BC - 10 AD
Indo-Parthia Taxila Kingdom 12 BC - 98 AD
Indo-Scythia Sigal,Taxila,Mathura Kingdom 200 BC - 400 AD
Kindah Qaryat Dhāt Kāhil Tribal kingdom 2nd century BC - 525 AD
Lycaonia Iconium Kingdom 340-200 BC
Lycia Xanthos,Patara Kingdom 1183-546 BC
Lydian Empire Sardis Empire 680-546 BC
Macedonian Empire Pella Empire 334 - 323 BC
Magan Kingdom 2200-550 BC
Ma'in ?/ Yathill Kingdom 580-85 BC
Median Empire Ecbatana Empire 678-549 BC
Mysia Pergamon Kingdom 1320 - 301 BC [8]
Nabataea Petra Kingdom 168 BC - 106 AD
Neo-Babylonian Empire Babylon Empire 626 - 539 BC
Osroene Edessa Kingdom/client 134 BC - 244 AD
Paphlagonia Gangra Kingdom 1480 - 183 BC[9]
Pamphylia Perga Kingdom 398 - 190 BC
Parsua Tribal chiefdom/kingdom[10] 860-600 BC
Parthian Empire Ctesiphon Empire 247 BC - 224 AD
Pergamon Pegamon Kingdom 282 - 133 BC
Persian Empire Pasargadae, Persepolis, Susa Empire 549 - 330 BC
Pontic Empire Amaseia, Sinope Empire 250 BC - 68 AD
Pontus Amaseia, Sinope Kingdom 281 - 250 BC
Qataban Timna Kingdom 6th century BC - 2nd century AD
Ptolemaic Alexandria Kingdom/empire 305 - 30 BC
Roman Empire Rome Empire 27 BC-476 AD
Roman Republic Rome Republic 509-29 BC
Seleucid Empire Seleucia, Antioch Empire 312 - 63 BC
Sophene Karkathiokerta Kingdom 298 - 94 BC
Zabdicene Principality/client 780 BC - 5th century AD
Zikirti Kingdom 750 - 521 BC

Types of state[edit]

  • Chiefdoms

A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in ancient tribal societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'. These elites form a political-ideological aristocracy relative to the general group.[11] A chiefdom is thus led by a highly ranked incumbent of an inherited political role, tribal chief or king: chiefs lead because of their ascribed status, not their achieved status, examples of this type of state would be, Aedui, Brigantes.

  • City states

A city-state is an independent or autonomous entity, not administered as a part of another local government, whose territory consists of a sovereign city its dependencies and possibly its surrounding territory, examples of this type of state would be, Sparta, Tyre.

  • Client states

A client state is a state that is economically, politically or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.[12] Types of client states include: satellite state, associated state, puppet state, neo-colony, protectorate, vassal state and tributary state, More powerful ancient states would create client states by making the leaders of that state subservient out of those it defeated, examples of this type of state would be, Armenia, Ammon, Zheng.

  • Confederations

A confederation In the context of the history may refer to a semi-permanent political and military alliance consisting of multiple "nations" or "chiefdoms" or "tribes" which maintained their separate leadership, examples of this type of state would be, the Alemanni, Caledonii, Xiongnu.

  • Dukedoms

A dukedom or, duchy' is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.Some historic duchies were sovereign in areas that would become unified realms,others were subordinate districts of those kingdoms that unified either partially or completely during the ancient era, examples of this type of state would be the Qin and Swabia.

  • Earldoms

A Earldom is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by an Earl, Count or Countess in which case it would be called a Countship. Some historic earldom's/countship's were sovereign in areas that would become unified realms,others were subordinate districts of those kingdoms that unified either partially or completely during the ancient era, examples of this type of state would be the,

  • Empires

The term empire derives from the Latin imperium (power, authority). Politically, an empire is a geographically extensive group of states and peoples (ethnic groups) united and ruled either by a monarch (emperor, empress) or an oligarchy. An imperial political structure is established and maintained in two ways: (i) as a territorial empire of direct conquest and control with force (direct, physical action to compel the emperor's goals) or (ii) as a coercive, hegemonic empire of indirect conquest and control with power (the perception that the emperor can physically enforce his desired goals).Examples of this type of state would be, the Athenian Empire, Median Empire and Roman Empire.

  • Federations

A Federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government. Several ancient chiefdoms and kingdoms, such as the 4th century BC League of Corinth, Noricum in Central Europe, and the Haudenosaunee Confederation in pre-Columbian North America, could be described as federations or confederations. The Old Swiss Confederacy was an early example of formal non-unitary statehood.

  • Khanates

A khanate,or khaganate or chanat, is a Turco-Mongol-originated word used to describe a political entity ruled by a khan. In modern Turkish, the word used is kağanlık or hanlık and in modern Azeri of the republic of Azerbaijan, xanlıq. In Mongolian the word khanlig is used, as in "Khereidiin Khanlig" meaning the Khanate of the Kerait. This political entity is typical for people from the Eurasian Steppe and it can be equivalent to tribal chiefdom, principality, kingdom or even empire, examples of this type of state would be, the Göktürk Khaganate,

  • Kingdoms

A kingdom is a state ruled by a king or queen) is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in a single individual (the monarch).[13] Forms of monarchy differ widely based on the level of legal autonomy the monarch holds in governance, the method of selection of the monarch, and any predetermined limits on the length of their tenure. When the monarch has no or few legal restraints in state and political matters, it is called an absolute monarchy and is a form of autocracy.Examples of this type of state would be, Epirus, Nabatea and Pontus.

  • Marquisates

A marquisate or, march' is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a Marquis or marchioness .Some historic marquisate's were sovereign in areas that would become unified realms,others were subordinate districts of those kingdoms that unified either partially or completely during the ancient era, examples of this type of state would be the Jin.

  • Principality

A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. Most of these states have historically been a polity, but in some occasions were rather territories in respect of which a princely style is held. The prince's estate and wealth may be located mainly or wholly outside the geographical confines of the principality, examples of this type of state would be Gardman, Corduene.

  • Republics

A republic is a form of government in which power is exercised by the public at large,[1] and affairs of state are a concern of the public sphere (from Latin: res publica), rather than privately accommodated (such as through inheritance or divine mandate). In modern times the definition of a republic is also commonly limited to a government which excludes a monarch, *Example: Roman Republic, and Kalinga (India).

  • Viscountcy

A viscountcy or, county is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a Viscount or Viscountess.Some historic viscountcies were sovereign in areas that would become unified realms,others were subordinate districts of those kingdoms that unified either partially or completely during the ancient era, examples of this type of state would be, Chu (state).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379. 
  2. ^ Poe EA (1831). "To Helen".
  3. ^ Salway, Peter. "Gaelic Kingdoms: Kingdoms of Caledonia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  4. ^ "State definiation". 2014. Collins Dictionary. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  5. ^ Pritchard, James Cowles. "Kingdoms of Italy: Research into the Physical History of Mankind". 1999-2014. The History Files. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  6. ^ "Definition of State Type". 2014. Dictionary.com. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  7. ^ "Ancient Kingdoms of Iberia, Spain & Portugal". 2014. Regnal Chronologies. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  8. ^ "Kingdoms of Anatolia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  9. ^ "Middle East Kingdoms Ancient Anatolia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Eduljee, K D. "Zoroastrian Heritage The Zagros". 2012. The Heritage Site. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Helms, Mary W. (198). Access to Origins: Affines, Ancestors and Aristocrats. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 4. 
  12. ^ Michael Graham Fry, Erik Goldstein, Richard Langhorne. Guide to International Relations and Diplomacy. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Continuum International Publishing, 2002. Pp. 9.
  13. ^ Stuart Berg Flexner and Leonore Crary Hauck, editors, Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd Ed., Random House, New York (1993)

External links[edit]