List of Constellation missions

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Artist's rendition of the docking of Orion to the ISS
Ares I-X launches from LC-39B, 15:30 UTC, October 28, 2009.

The Constellation Program was NASA's planned future human spaceflight program between 2005 and 2009, which aimed to develop a new crewed spacecraft (Orion) and a pair of launchers (Ares I and Ares V) to continue servicing the International Space Station and return to the Moon.

As of 2009, a single unmanned suborbital launch test (Ares I-X) had been flown, with crewed missions anticipated to begin between 2014 (by NASA projections) and 2017-19 (according to the independent Augustine Commission). On February 1, 2010, President Obama announced that he intended to cancel the program with the U.S. 2011 fiscal year budget. A revised proposal in April confirmed that the Orion spacecraft would be retained for future mission beyond low earth orbit, with the Ares launchers redeveloped into the Space Launch System. However, the Constellation Program itself was cancelled, with low-earth orbit operations transferred to the Commercial Crew Development program.

Development of mission plans[edit]

In October 2006 NASA released a draft schedule of all planned NASA Project Constellation missions through 2019.[1][2] This document included descriptions of a series of proposed vehicle test missions. In July 2007 the schedule was reviewed.[3] In January 2008 the schedule was again reviewed.[4][5] The most recent published set of milestones is from February 2009.[6] Also, an independent assessment by the Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee in October 2009 found that under NASA's then-current plans and budget the Ares I would not be ready to launch until 2017-2019, with the Ares V not available until the late 2020s.

On October 11, 2010, the Constellation program was cancelled, ending development of the Altair, Ares I, and Ares V. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was renamed the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), to be launched on the Space Launch System.[7]

Constellation missions[edit]

Test launches
Order Date Year Mission Launch Vehicle Duration Crew Size Launch Pad Note
1 October 28 2009 Ares I-X Ares I-X ~2 min. Unmanned 39B Atmospheric test of the first stage of the Ares I-X launcher with four active SRM segments and an inert fifth segment and upper stage.
Planned missions as of 2009
2 2012 Ares I-X Prime Ares I-X Prime ~8 min. Unmanned 39B Second sub-orbital Ares I-X test flight, consisting of a five segment booster with real upper stage and a dummy J-2 engine. High altitude abort.
3 2014 Orion 1 Ares I Unmanned 39B First flight of the Orion spacecraft, in an unmanned orbital flight with a splashdown off Australia.
4 2015 Orion 2 Ares I 39B First manned Orion test flight.[8] Dress rehearsal for the first manned mission including demonstration of rendezvous and proximity operations with the ISS. First docking with the ISS. Landing at Edwards AFB. Leaves an adapter on the ISS.
5 2015 Orion 3 Ares I 39B Second manned Orion test flight. Leaves a second adapter on the ISS.
6 2015 Orion 4 Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight. First operational Orion flight.
7 2016 Orion 5 Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight.
8 2016 Orion 6 Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight.
9 2017 Orion 7 Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight.
10 2017 Orion 8 Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight.
11 2018 Orion 9 Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight.
13 2018 Ares V-Y Ares V-Y 0 39A Maiden flight of Ares V.
14 2018 Orion 10 Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight.
15 2019 Altair 1 Ares V 0 39A Maiden flight of Altair. Altair for Orion 11.
16 2019 Orion 11 Ares I 39B
17 2019 Orion 12 Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight.
18 2019 Altair 2 Ares V 0 39A Altair for Orion 13.
19 2019 Orion 13 Ares I 39B First Orion flight to the Moon.
20 2019 Orion 14 Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight.
21 2020 Altair 3 Ares V 0 39A Altair for Orion 15.
22 2020 Orion 15 Ares I 39B Flight to the Moon.
23 2020 Orion 16 Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight.
24 2020 Altair 4 Ares V 0 39A Direct lunar flight?
25 2020 Orion 17[9] Ares I 39B ISS Crew Rotation Flight.

Ascent abort tests[edit]

These will be conducted using the Orion Abort Test Booster (ATB), similar to the Little Joe II used for Apollo testing. A boilerplate Orion capsule[10] and the escape tower will be tested on these missions.

Order Month Year Mission Note
Planned missions
1 Q3 2017? AA-1 Transonic speeds. Date subject to change with test experience.[6]
2 Q4 2018? AA-2 Maximum dynamic pressure region (max Q). Date subject to change with test experience.[6]

Pad abort tests[edit]

These were planned to test the launch escape system of the Orion spacecraft on the launchpad.[3]

Order Date Year Mission Note
1 May 6 2010 Pad Abort 1 Used the former shape of the LAS adapter.

Also known as abort flight test (AFT). The full-scale Orion AFT crew module underwent preparations at Dryden Flight Research Center. [11]

Orion Crew Module Pathfinder 'Test Article' fabricated at Langley Research Center. The PA-1 Test took place at U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico.[12] The test slipped to "early 2010" from an originally planned date of late 2008.[13] In October 2009 Orbital Sciences indicated the test was scheduled for March 2010.[14]

Planned missions
2 Q4 2017-18 Pad Abort 2 Use of recycled EFTA spacecraft expected.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "NASA sets Orion 13 for Moon Return". NASAspaceflight.com. 11 Oct 2006. 
  2. ^ "Constellation Program Initial Capability Content (PMR Rev. #1)". NASA. 
  3. ^ a b "Multi-Program Integrated Milestones". NASA. 2007-07-10. Archived from the original on 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  4. ^ "$700m gap threatens major delays to Ares test flights/development". NASAspaceflight.com. 2008-01-18. Archived from the original on 2008-01-22. Retrieved 2008-02-01. 
  5. ^ "Manifest Comparison PMR07 vs. PMR08 Guidelines". NASA. 2008-01-18. Retrieved 2008-02-01. 
  6. ^ a b c "Multi-Program Integrated Milestones, Q2 FY 2009". NASA. 2009-02-03. Archived from the original on 2009-10-28. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  7. ^ "Today – President Signs NASA 2010 Authorization Act". Universetoday.com. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  8. ^ "Managers reevaluating Ares I-Y flight test". NASA.gov. 3 Nov 2009. 
  9. ^ 2009 MPIM gives "Orion 8"; presumably a typo
  10. ^ "NASA GRC Solicitation: NASA Abort Test Boilerplate Crew Module Gaseous Nitrogen Cold-gas Reaction Control System". SpaceRef.com. June 8, 2006. 
  11. ^ "Surrounded by work platforms, the full-scale Orion AFT crew module is undergoing preparations for the first flight test of Orion's launch abort system". NASA. 2008-05-20. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  12. ^ "Langley Reaches Milestone, Completes Orion Crew Module Test Article". NASA. 2008-10-06. Archived from the original on 2009-10-29. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  13. ^ "Orion Pad Abort Test Slips Into 2010". Aviation Week. 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2009-08-18. 
  14. ^ "Q3 2009 Orbital Sciences Corporation Earnings Conference Call". Thomson Reuters. Oct 27, 2009. 

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