List of Dacian plant names

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This is a list of plant names in Dacian, an ancient language of South Eastern Europe, from Dioscorides' De Materia Medica (abb. MM) and Pseudo-Apuleius' Herbarius (abb. Herb.). Dacian plant names are one of the primary sources left to us for studying the Dacian language. This list also includes a Bessian plant name and a Moesian plant name, neighboring Daco-Thracian tribes.

A separate list exists containing Romanian words of possible Dacian origin that form the Eastern Romance substratum.

Dacian English Botanical Notes
Adila
  1. Bistort [1]
  2. Arum [2]
  1. Persicaria bistorta, also classified as Polygonum bistorta [3]
  2. Arum maculatum [4]
  1. ^ primary source for this meaning as yet unidentified
  2. ^ Herb., 14
Amalusta, Amolusta [5], Amulusta Chamomile Matricaria recutita or Anthemis tinctoria ^ Herb. 23; possibly related to Albanian ëmbël, ambël "sweet".[1]
*lustu appears as a proto-Celtic word for "plant".[2]
Aniarsexe, Aniassexie Sainfoin a.k.a. Cock's Head Onobrychis caput galii
Aprus Gladwin Iris Iris foetidissima
Arpopria, Arborria Climbing Ivy Hedera helix
Asa Coltsfoot Tussilago farfara also a Bessian plant name.
Aurumetti, Aurimetellum Cranesbill a.k.a. Crow's Foot, Wild Geranium ? Geranium sylvaticum or Ranunculus serdous? MM 2.175, Herb. 67
Azila Hound's Tongue Cynoglossum Probably a variant of Usazila (see below)
Bles, Blis Purple Amaranth Amaranthus blitum
Budalla, Budama, Budathala, Budathla Anchusa Anchusa italica
Caropithla, Karopithla
  1. Yellow Serradella
  2. Common Polypody
  1. Ornithopus compressus
  2. Polypodium vulgare
Cercer, Cerceraphron, Kerker, Kerkeraphron Pimpernel Anagallis
Chodela, Khodela Ground Pine Lycopodium (Lycopodium clavatum or Lycopodium annotitum / Lycopodium dubium?)
Cinouboila, Cinuboila, Kinouboila, Kinuboila
  1. Wild Pumpkin
  2. White Bryony.
  3. White Grape
  1. Cucurbita foetidissima
  2. Bryonia alba
  3. Vitis
a compound of kinu "dog" and oboila "apple", akin to Lithuanian šúnobuolas "wild pumpkin", Thracian dinupula, sinupyla "id", Albanian thënukël "dogberry"[3]
Coadama, Koadama Pondweed Potamogeton zosteraefolium
Coicolida, Koikolida Nightshade Atropa belladonna the first element koiko means "one-eyed" or "blind", and is akin to Latin caecus "blind", Irish caoch "one-eyed", Goth haihs "one-eyed", Sanskrit kekara "squint-eyed"
Cotiata, Kotiata Switchgrass Panicum dactylum also refers to genus Agropyron?
Courionnecum, Couriounnecum, Curiounnecum, Kourionnekoum Arum Arum
Coustane, Croustane, Crustane, Custane, Koustane, Kroustane, Krustane, Kustane Greater celandine or Lesser celandine Chelidonium majus or Ranunculus ficaria
Cycolis, Kykolis Groundcherry or Ashwagandha Physalis sp. or Withania somnifera
Dacina, Dakina
  1. Beet
  2. False helleborine
  1. Beta vulgaris
  2. Veratrum nigrum
the Moesian name for these plants was Mendruta (see below)
Dicotella White Bryony Bryonia alba
Dielina, Dielleina, Diellena Henbane Hyoscyamos niger
Diesapter Mullein Verbascum
Diessathel Wavyleaf Mullein Verbascum sinuatum from IE *diwes-sētlo; where the second element meant "sieve" (cf. Old Norse sáld "sieve", Welsh hidl "strainer", Lithuanian sėkla "seed", Greek ēthein "to strain", Old Church Slavonic sito)[4]
Diesema Mullein Verbascum from IE *diyes eusmn. "burning sky" (cf. Latin dies "day", Greek heúein "to burn", Albanian diell "sun") and similar to German Himmelbrand "mullein", literally "burning heavens".[5]
Diodela, Duodela, Duodella, Ziodela
  1. Yarrow?
  2. Chamomile
  3. Sweet Marjoram
  1. Achillea millefolium?
  2. Matricaria recutita
  3. Origanum majorana
Dracontos Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis
Dokela Bugle Ajuga iva
Dyn Nettle Urtica
Ebustrone Lesser celandine Ranunculus ficaria From Pseudo-Apuleis
Gonoleta, Gouoleta, Guoleta, Guolete Gromwell Lithospermum tenuiflorum Consumed as an oral contraceptive
Hormea, Hormia Annual Clary Salvia horminum
Lax Purslane Portulaca oleracea Used as a laxative
Manteia, Mantia Woolly Blackberry Rubus tomentosus
Mendruta
  1. Beet
  2. False Helleborine
  1. Beta vulgaris
  2. Veratrum nigrum
Actually, a Moesian plant name
Mizela, Mizila, Mozula, Mouzula Thyme Thymus
Nemenepsa Ground Pine Lycopodium
Olma Dwarf elder, Danewort Sambucus ebulus
Parithia, Parthia Dog's Tooth Grass Cynodon ?
Pegrina White Bryony Bryonia alba
Phithophthethela Maidenhair fern Adiantum
Polpum Dill Anethum graveolens
Priadela, Priadila White Bryony or Black Bryony Bryonia alba or Tamus communis
Probedula, Procedila [6], Propedila, Propedula, Propodila Creeping Cinquefoil Potentilla reptans ^ Procedila< Prokedila, probably a scribal error for *Probedila, a graphic confusion between β/κ being rather common in Greek manuscripts. Compare to the Gaulish name for this plant, Pempedula (five-leaved).
Prodiarna, Prodiorna Black Hellebore Helleborus niger
Rathibida Italian Aster Aster amellus
Riborasta Burdock Arctium
Salia
  1. Anise
  2. Stinking Tutsan
  1. Pimpinella tragium
  2. Hypericum hircunum
Seba Elderberry Sambucus
Skiare Wild Teasel Dipsacus sylvestris or Dipsacus fullonum
Skinpoax, Sipoax, Spioax Broadleaf Plantain Plantago major
Sikupnoex, Sikupnux Eryngo Eryngium campestre
Stirsozila Centaury Centaurium erythraea, formerly classified as Erythraea centaurium from Pseudo-Apuleis
Tanidila Catmint Nepeta
Teudila Peppermint or Horsemint or Calamint? Mentha x piperita or Mentha sylvestris or Calamintha?
Troutrastra, Trutrastra, Tutrastra
  1. Pumpkin
  2. Colocynth
  1. Cucurbita
  2. Citrullus colocynthis
Toulbela, Tulbela Centaury Centaurium erythraea
Usazila Hound's Tongue Cynoglossum Probably a variant of Azila (see above)
Zena Poison Hemlock Conium maculatum
Zired Redstem Wormwood Artemisia scoparia
Zououster, Zuste, Zuuster Wormwood Artemisia arborescens or campestris

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Malcolm, Noel. Kosovo: A Short History. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
  2. ^ Prifysgol Cymru University of Wales; Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies; English - proto-Celtic word list
  3. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian Language: Reconstruction of Proto-Albanian. Brill, 2000.
  4. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Brill, 1998.
  5. ^ Katičic', Radislav. Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Part One. Paris: Mouton, 1976: 149.

External links[edit]