List of Ebola outbreaks

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Ebola outbreaks have been restricted to Africa with the exception of Reston ebolavirus. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses currently recognizes four species of the Ebola: Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), Reston ebolavirus (RESTV), and Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV).[1] One additional species or type of Ebola is often recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV) or Ebola-Bundibugyo, following the outbreak in Uganda in 2007.[2][3][4]

Transmission between natural reservoirs and humans is rare, and outbreaks are often traceable to a single case where an individual has handled the carcass of a gorilla, chimpanzee, or duiker.[5] The virus then spreads person-to-person, especially within families, hospitals, and during some mortuary rituals where contact among individuals becomes more likely.[6] Before outbreaks are confirmed in areas of weak surveillance on the local or regional levels, Ebola is often mistaken for malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery, influenza, or various bacterial infections which may be endemic to the region. Learning from failed responses, such as that to the 2000 Uganda outbreak, public health measures including the WHO's Global Outbreak and Response Network were instituted in areas at high risk. Field laboratories were established in order to confirm cases, instead of shipping samples to South Africa.[7]

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Special Pathogens Branch charter to study highly infectious viruses, many causing hemorrhagic fevers, has historically endowed it to closely follow Ebola outbreaks.[8] Compiling scientific journals and public health announcements, the following list is from Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, in Chronological Order:[dead link][9]

Date Country Species Reported human virulence Description
Cases Deaths Fatality
1976
Aug
Zaire EBOV 318 280 88% First recognition of Ebola virus disease. Occurred in Yambuku and surrounding areas. Disease was spread by close personal contact and by use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals/clinics.[10]
1976 Sudan SUDV 284 151 53% Occurred in Nzara, Maridi and the surrounding area. Disease was spread mainly through close personal contact within hospitals. Many medical care personnel were infected.[11]
1977 Zaire EBOV 1 1 n/a Noted retroactively in the village of Tandala.[12]
1979 Sudan SUDV 34 22 65% Occurred in Nzara, Maridi. Recurrent outbreak at the same site as the 1976 Sudan epidemic.[13]
1989 USA RESTV 0 0 n/a RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines.[14]
1990 USA RESTV 4[note 1] 0 n/a RESTV was introduced once again into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. Four humans developed antibodies but did not get sick.[15]
1989–1990 Philippines RESTV 3[note 2] 0 n/a High mortality among crab-eating macaques in a primate facility responsible for exporting animals in the USA.[16] Three workers in the animal facility developed antibodies but did not get sick.[17]
1992 Italy RESTV 0 0 n/a RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Siena by monkeys imported from the same export facility in the Philippines that was involved in the episodes in the United States. No humans were infected.[18]
1994 Gabon EBOV 52 31 60% Occurred in Mékouka and other gold-mining camps deep in the rain forest. Initially thought to be yellow fever; identified as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in 1995.[19]
1994 Ivory Coast[note 3] TAFV 1 0 n/a First and thus far only recognition of TAFV. Approximately one week after conducting necropsies on infected western chimpanzees in Taï National Park, a scientist contracted the virus and developed symptoms similar to those of dengue fever. She was discharged from a Swiss hospital two weeks later, and fully recovered after six weeks.[20]
1995 Zaire EBOV 315 250 79% Occurred in Kikwit and surrounding area. Traced to index case-patient who worked in forest adjoining the city. Epidemic spread through families and hospitals.[21]
1996
Jan–Apr
Gabon EBOV 37 21 57% Occurred in Mayibout area. A chimpanzee found dead in the forest was eaten by people hunting for food. Nineteen people who were involved in the butchery of the animal became ill; other cases occurred in family members.[19]
1996 South Africa EBOV 2 1 n/a A medical professional traveled from Gabon to Johannesburg, South Africa, after having treated Ebola virus-infected patients and thus having been exposed to the virus. He was hospitalized, and a nurse who took care of him became infected and died.[22]
1996
Mar
Philippines
USA
RESTV 0 0 n/a RESTV was introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by crab-eating macaques from a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human infections were identified.[23][24]
1996–1997
Jul–Jan
Gabon EBOV 60 45 75% Occurred in Booué area with transport of patients to Libreville. Index case-patient was a hunter who lived in a forest camp. Disease was spread by close contact with infected persons. A dead chimpanzee found in the forest at the time was determined to be infected.[19]
2000–2001 Uganda SUDV 425 224 53% Occurred in Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. The three greatest risks associated with Ebola virus infection were attending funerals of Ebola hemorrhagic fever case-patients, having contact with case-patients in one's family, and providing medical care to Ebola case-patients without using adequate personal protective measures.[25]
2001–2002
Oct–Jul
Gabon
Congo
EBOV 122 96 79% Occurred over the border of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. This was the first time that Ebola hemorrhagic fever was reported in the Republic of the Congo.[26]
2002–2003
Dec–Apr
Congo EBOV 143 128 90% Occurred in the districts of Mbomo and Kéllé in Cuvette Ouest Département.[27]
2003
Nov–Dec
Congo EBOV 35 29 83% Occurred in Mbomo and Mbandza villages located in Mbomo district, Cuvette Ouest Département.[28]
2004 Sudan SUDV 17 7 41% Occurred in Yambio county in Western Equatoria of southern Sudan. This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area, and several suspected EHF cases were later reclassified as measles cases.[29]
2007 DR Congo EBOV 264 187 71% Occurred in Kasai-Occidental Province. The outbreak was declared over on November 20. Last confirmed case on October 4 and last death on October 10.[30]
2007–2008
Dec–Jan
Uganda BDBV 149 37 25% First recognition of BDBV. Occurred in Bundibugyo District in western Uganda.[2][3][4]
2008
Nov
Philippines RESTV 6[note 4] 0 n/a First recognition of RESTV in pigs. Strain closely similar to earlier strains. Six workers from the pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies but did not become sick.[31][32]
2008–2009
Dec–Feb
DR Congo EBOV 32 14 45% Occurred in the Mweka and Luebo health zones of the Province of Kasai-Occidental.[33]
2012
Jun–Aug
Uganda SUDV 24 17 71% Occurred in the Kibaale District.[34]
2012
Jun–Nov
DR Congo BDBV 77 36 47% Occurred in Province Orientale.[35][36]
2013–2014
Dec–present
Guinea
Liberia[note 5]
Sierra Leone
Nigeria
EBOV 3,069 1,552 64% The most severe Ebola outbreak recorded in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities.[39] It began in Guéckédou, Guinea[40] and spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, and to a lesser degree, Nigeria.[41]
2014
Aug–present
DR Congo ???? 24 13 54% Occurred in Equateur Province. Outbreak revealed 24 August 2014.[42]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ All four cases were asymptomatic.
  2. ^ All three cases were asymptomatic.
  3. ^ The single Ivorian case was repatriated to Switzerland for medical treatment.[20]
  4. ^ All six cases were asymptomatic.
  5. ^ Three Liberian cases were repatriated for medical treatment; two to the U.S. and one to Spain.[37][38]

References[edit]

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