List of Ebola outbreaks

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Ebola outbreaks have been restricted to Africa, with the exception of Reston ebolavirus. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses currently recognizes four species of the Ebola: Zaire virus (ZEBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV), Reston ebolavirus (REBOV), and Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus (CIEBOV).[1] One additional species or type of Ebola is often recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV) or Ebola-Bundibugyo, following the outbreak in Uganda in 2007.[2][3][4]

Transmission between natural reservoirs and humans is rare, and outbreaks are often traceable to a single index case where an individual has handled the carcass of a gorilla, chimpanzee, or duiker.[5] The virus then spreads person-to-person, especially within families, hospitals, and during some mortuary rituals where contact among individuals becomes more likely.[6] Before outbreaks are confirmed in areas of weak surveillance on the local or regional levels, Ebola is often mistaken for malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery, influenza, or various bacterial infections which may be endemic to the region. Learning from failed responses, such as that to the 2000 Uganda outbreak, public health measures including the WHO's Global Outbreak and Response Network were instituted in areas at high risk. Field laboratories were established in order to confirm cases, instead of shipping samples to South Africa.[7]

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Special Pathogens Branch charter to study highly infectious viruses, many causing hemorrhagic fevers, has historically endowed it to closely follow Ebola outbreaks.[8] Compiling scientific journals and public health announcements, the following list is from Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, in Chronological Order:[9]

Year Country Type Reported human cases Reported deaths % Fatality Description
1976 Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) ZEBOV 318 280 88% Occurred in Yambuku and surrounding area. Disease was spread by close personal contact and by use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals/clinics. This outbreak was the first recognition of the disease.[10]
1976 Sudan SEBOV 284 151 53% Occurred in Nzara, Maridi and the surrounding area. Disease was spread mainly through close personal contact within hospitals. Many medical care personnel were infected.[11]
1977 Zaire ZEBOV 1 1 100% Noted retroactively in the village of Tandala.[12]
1979 Sudan SEBOV 34 22 65% Occurred in Nzara, Maridi. Recurrent outbreak at the same site as the 1976 Sudan epidemic.[13]
1989 USA REBOV 0 0 0% REBOV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines.[14]
1990 USA REBOV 4 (asymptomatic) 0 0% REBOV was introduced once again into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. Four humans developed antibodies but did not get sick.[15]
1989–1990 Philippines REBOV 3 (asymptomatic) 0 0% High mortality among cynomolgus macaques in a primate facility responsible for exporting animals in the USA.[16] Three workers in the animal facility developed antibodies but did not get sick.[17]
1992 Italy REBOV 0 0 0% REBOV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Siena by monkeys imported from the same export facility in the Philippines that was involved in the episodes in the United States. No humans were infected.[18]
1994 Gabon ZEBOV 52 31 60% Occurred in Mékouka and other gold-mining camps deep in the rain forest. Initially thought to be yellow fever; identified as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in 1995.[19]
1994 Ivory Coast CIEBOV 1 0 0% Scientist became ill after conducting an necropsy on a wild chimpanzee in the Tai Forest. The patient was treated in Switzerland.[20]
1995 Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) ZEBOV 315 250 79% Occurred in Kikwit and surrounding area. Traced to index case-patient who worked in forest adjoining the city. Epidemic spread through families and hospitals.[21]
1996 Jan–Apr Gabon ZEBOV 37 21 57% Occurred in Mayibout area. A chimpanzee found dead in the forest was eaten by people hunting for food. Nineteen people who were involved in the butchery of the animal became ill; other cases occurred in family members.[19]
1996–1997 Jul–Jan Gabon ZEBOV 60 45 75% Occurred in Booué area with transport of patients to Libreville. Index case-patient was a hunter who lived in a forest camp. Disease was spread by close contact with infected persons. A dead chimpanzee found in the forest at the time was determined to be infected.[19]
1996 South Africa ZEBOV 2 1 50% A medical professional traveled from Gabon to Johannesburg, South Africa, after having treated Ebola virus-infected patients and thus having been exposed to the virus. He was hospitalized, and a nurse who took care of him became infected and died.[22]
1996 USA REBOV 0 0 0% REBOV was introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No human infections were identified.[23]
1996 Philippines REBOV 0 0 0% REBOV was identified in a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human infections were identified.[24]
2000–2001 Uganda SEBOV 425 224 53% Occurred in Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. The three most important risks associated with Ebola virus infection were attending funerals of Ebola hemorrhagic fever case-patients, having contact with case-patients in one's family, and providing medical care to Ebola case-patients without using adequate personal protective measures.[25]
2001–2002 Oct–Mar Gabon ZEBOV 65 53 82% Outbreak occurred over the border of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo.[26]
2001–2002 Oct–Mar Republic of Congo ZEBOV 57 43 75% Outbreak occurred over the border of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. This was the first time that Ebola hemorrhagic fever was reported in the Republic of the Congo.[26]
2002–2003 Dec–Apr Republic of Congo ZEBOV 143 128 90% Outbreak occurred in the districts of Mbomo and Kéllé in Cuvette Ouest Département.[27]
2003 Nov–Dec Republic of Congo ZEBOV 35 29 83% Outbreak occurred in Mbomo and Mbandza villages located in Mbomo district, Cuvette Ouest Département.[28]
2004 Sudan SEBOV 17 7 41% Outbreak occurred in Yambio county in Western Equatoria of southern Sudan. This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area, and several suspected EHF cases were later reclassified as measles cases.[29]
2007 Democratic Republic of Congo ZEBOV 264 187 71% Outbreak occurred in Kasai-Occidental Province. The outbreak was declared over on November 20. Last confirmed case on October 4 and last death on October 10.[30]
2007–2008 Dec–Jan Uganda BDBV 149 37 25% Outbreak occurred in Bundibugyo District in western Uganda. First reported occurrence of a new strain.[2][3][4]
2008 Nov Philippines REBOV 6 (asymptomatic) 0 0% Outbreak in the Philippines and the first known occurrence of REBOV in pigs. Strain closely similar to earlier strains. Six workers from the pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies but did not become sick.[31][32]
2008–2009 Dec–Feb Democratic Republic of Congo ZEBOV 32 14 45% Outbreak occurred in the Mweka and Luebo health zones of the Province of Kasai-Occidental.[33]
2012 Jun–Aug Uganda SEBOV 24 17 71% Outbreak occurred in the Kibaale District.[34]
2012 Jun–Nov Democratic Republic of Congo BDBV 77 36 47% Outbreak occurred in Province Orientale.[35][36]
2014 (Presently Ongoing) Guinea
Liberia
Sierra Leone
ZEBOV 1048 632 60% Outbreak is currently ongoing in southeastern Guinea, including the capital Conakry and the neighbour countries Sierra Leone and Liberia[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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