List of Ebola outbreaks
Ebola outbreaks have been restricted to Africa with the exception of Reston ebolavirus. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses currently recognizes four species of the Ebola: Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), Reston ebolavirus (RESTV), and Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV). One additional species or type of Ebola is often recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV) or Ebola-Bundibugyo, following the outbreak in Uganda in 2007.
Transmission between natural reservoirs and humans is rare, and outbreaks are often traceable to a single case where an individual has handled the carcass of a gorilla, chimpanzee, or duiker. The virus then spreads person-to-person, especially within families, hospitals, and during some mortuary rituals where contact among individuals becomes more likely. Before outbreaks are confirmed in areas of weak surveillance on the local or regional levels, Ebola is often mistaken for malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery, influenza, or various bacterial infections which may be endemic to the region. Learning from failed responses, such as that to the 2000 Uganda outbreak, public health measures including the WHO's Global Outbreak and Response Network were instituted in areas at high risk. Field laboratories were established in order to confirm cases, instead of shipping samples to South Africa.
The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Special Pathogens Branch charter to study highly infectious viruses, many causing hemorrhagic fevers, has historically endowed it to closely follow Ebola outbreaks. Compiling scientific journals and public health announcements, the following list is from Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, in Chronological Order:[dead link]
|Date||Country||Species||Reported human virulence||Description|
|Zaire||EBOV||318||280||88%||First recognition of Ebola virus disease. Occurred in Yambuku and surrounding areas. Disease was spread by close personal contact and by use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals/clinics.|
|1976||Sudan||SUDV||284||151||53%||Occurred in Nzara, Maridi and the surrounding area. Disease was spread mainly through close personal contact within hospitals. Many medical care personnel were infected.|
|1977||Zaire||EBOV||1||1||n/a||Noted retroactively in the village of Tandala.|
|1979||Sudan||SUDV||34||22||65%||Occurred in Nzara, Maridi. Recurrent outbreak at the same site as the 1976 Sudan epidemic.|
|1989||USA||RESTV||0||0||n/a||RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines.|
|1990||USA||RESTV||4[note 1]||0||n/a||RESTV was introduced once again into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. Four humans developed antibodies but did not get sick.|
|1989–1990||Philippines||RESTV||3[note 2]||0||n/a||High mortality among crab-eating macaques in a primate facility responsible for exporting animals in the USA. Three workers in the animal facility developed antibodies but did not get sick.|
|1992||Italy||RESTV||0||0||n/a||RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Siena by monkeys imported from the same export facility in the Philippines that was involved in the episodes in the United States. No humans were infected.|
|1994||Gabon||EBOV||52||31||60%||Occurred in Mékouka and other gold-mining camps deep in the rain forest. Initially thought to be yellow fever; identified as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in 1995.|
|1994||Ivory Coast[note 3]||TAFV||1||0||n/a||First and thus far only recognition of TAFV. Approximately one week after conducting necropsies on infected western chimpanzees in Taï National Park, a scientist contracted the virus and developed symptoms similar to those of dengue fever. She was discharged from a Swiss hospital two weeks later, and fully recovered after six weeks.|
|1995||Zaire||EBOV||315||250||79%||Occurred in Kikwit and surrounding area. Traced to index case-patient who worked in forest adjoining the city. Epidemic spread through families and hospitals.|
|Gabon||EBOV||37||21||57%||Occurred in Mayibout area. A chimpanzee found dead in the forest was eaten by people hunting for food. Nineteen people who were involved in the butchery of the animal became ill; other cases occurred in family members.|
|1996||South Africa||EBOV||2||1||n/a||A medical professional traveled from Gabon to Johannesburg, South Africa, after having treated Ebola virus-infected patients and thus having been exposed to the virus. He was hospitalized, and a nurse who took care of him became infected and died.|
|RESTV||0||0||n/a||RESTV was introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by crab-eating macaques from a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human infections were identified.|
|Gabon||EBOV||60||45||75%||Occurred in Booué area with transport of patients to Libreville. Index case-patient was a hunter who lived in a forest camp. Disease was spread by close contact with infected persons. A dead chimpanzee found in the forest at the time was determined to be infected.|
|2000–2001||Uganda||SUDV||425||224||53%||Occurred in Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. The three greatest risks associated with Ebola virus infection were attending funerals of Ebola hemorrhagic fever case-patients, having contact with case-patients in one's family, and providing medical care to Ebola case-patients without using adequate personal protective measures.|
|EBOV||122||96||79%||Occurred over the border of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. This was the first time that Ebola hemorrhagic fever was reported in the Republic of the Congo.|
|Congo||EBOV||143||128||90%||Occurred in the districts of Mbomo and Kéllé in Cuvette Ouest Département.|
|Congo||EBOV||35||29||83%||Occurred in Mbomo and Mbandza villages located in Mbomo district, Cuvette Ouest Département.|
|2004||Sudan||SUDV||17||7||41%||Occurred in Yambio county in Western Equatoria of southern Sudan. This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area, and several suspected EHF cases were later reclassified as measles cases.|
|2007||DR Congo||EBOV||264||187||71%||Occurred in Kasai-Occidental Province. The outbreak was declared over on November 20. Last confirmed case on October 4 and last death on October 10.|
|Uganda||BDBV||149||37||25%||First recognition of BDBV. Occurred in Bundibugyo District in western Uganda.|
|Philippines||RESTV||6[note 4]||0||n/a||First recognition of RESTV in pigs. Strain closely similar to earlier strains. Six workers from the pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies but did not become sick.|
|DR Congo||EBOV||32||14||45%||Occurred in the Mweka and Luebo health zones of the Province of Kasai-Occidental.|
|Uganda||SUDV||24||17||71%||Occurred in the Kibaale District.|
|DR Congo||BDBV||77||36||47%||Occurred in Province Orientale.|
Main article: 2014 West Africa Ebola virus outbreakThe most severe Ebola outbreak recorded in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. It began in Guéckédou, Guinea and spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, and to a lesser degree, Nigeria.
|DR Congo||????||24||13||54%||Occurred in Equateur Province. Outbreak revealed 24 August 2014.|
- Yambuku — information about the first recognised outbreak
- Covance controversies — information about the 1989 laboratory outbreak
- List of epidemics
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