List of Ebola outbreaks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Ebola outbreak" and "Ebola epidemic" redirect here. For the most severe current outbreak, see Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa.

The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses currently recognizes five ebolaviruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Reston virus (RESTV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV).[1][2][3][4][5][6] Four of these viruses are known to cause Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans, and the fifth, RESTV, has caused EVD in other primates.[7][8]

Transmission between natural reservoirs and humans is rare, and outbreaks of Ebola virus disease are often traceable to a single case where an individual has handled the carcass of a gorilla, chimpanzee, or duiker.[9] The virus then spreads person-to-person, especially within families, hospitals, and during some mortuary rituals where contact among individuals becomes more likely.[10] Before outbreaks are confirmed in areas of weak surveillance on the local or regional levels, Ebola is often mistaken for malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery, influenza, or various bacterial infections which may be endemic to the region. Learning from failed responses, such as that to the 2000 Uganda outbreak, public health measures including the WHO's Global Outbreak and Response Network were instituted in areas at high risk. Field laboratories were established in order to confirm cases, instead of shipping samples to South Africa.[11] Outbreaks are closely followed by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Special Pathogens Branch) as well.[12]

List of outbreaks[edit]

Major or massive cases[13][edit]

Year Country Virus Human affection count Human death count Case fatality rate Description
1976  Sudan SUDV 284 151 53% Occurred in Nzara, Maridi and surrounding areas between June and November 1976.[14] Mainly spread by personal contact in hospitals. Many medical care personnel were infected.[15]
1976  Zaire EBOV 318 280 88% Occurred in Yambuku and surrounding areas in August. Spread by personal contact and use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals/clinics.[16]
1979  Sudan SUDV 34 22 65% Occurred in Nzara, Maridi. Recurrent outbreak at the same site as the 1976 Sudan epidemic.[17]
1994  Gabon EBOV 52 31 60% Occurred in Mékouka and other gold-mining camps deep in the rain forest. Thought to be yellow fever until 1995.[18]
1995  Zaire EBOV 315 254 81% Occurred in Kikwit and surrounding areas. Traced to index case-patient who worked in forest adjoining the city. Epidemic spread through families and hospitals.[19]
1996  Gabon EBOV 37 21 57% Occurred in Mayibout area between January and April. A chimpanzee found dead in the forest was eaten by people hunting for food. Nineteen people who were involved in the butchery of the animal became ill; other cases occurred in family members.[18]
1996–1997  Gabon EBOV 60 45 75% Occurred in Booué area with transport of patients to Libreville between July 1996 and January 1997. Index case-patient was a hunter who lived in a forest camp. Disease was spread by close contact with infected persons. A dead chimpanzee found in the forest at the time was determined to be infected.[18]
2000–2001  Uganda SUDV 425 224 53% Occurred in Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. The three greatest risks associated with Sudan virus infection were attending funerals of case-patients, having contact with case-patients in one's family, and providing medical care to case-patients without using adequate personal protective measures.[20]
2001–2002  Gabon
 Republic of the Congo
EBOV 122 96 79% Occurred over the border of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo between October 2001 and July 2002. First reported occurrence of Ebola virus disease in the Republic of the Congo.[21]
2002–2003  Republic of the Congo EBOV 143 128 90% Occurred in the districts of Mbomo and Kéllé in Cuvette Ouest Département between December 2002 and April 2003.[22]
2003  Republic of the Congo EBOV 35 29 83% Occurred in Mbomo and Mbandza villages located in Mbomo district, Cuvette Ouest Département, between November and December.[23]
2004  Sudan SUDV 17 7 41% Occurred in Yambio county in Western Equatoria of southern Sudan. This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area, and several suspected EVD cases were later reclassified as measles cases.[24]
2007  Democratic Republic of the Congo EBOV 264 187 71% Occurred in Kasai-Occidental Province. The outbreak was declared over on November 20. Last confirmed case on October 4 and last death on October 10.[25]
2007–2008  Uganda BDBV 149 37 25% First recognition of BDBV. Occurred in Bundibugyo District in western Uganda between December 2007 and January 2008[2][3][4]
2008–2009  Democratic Republic of the Congo EBOV 32 14 45% Occurred in the Mweka and Luebo health zones of the Province of Kasai-Occidental between December 2008 and February 2009[26]
2012  Uganda SUDV 24 17 71% Occurred in the Kibaale District between June and August.[27]
2012  Democratic Republic of the Congo BDBV 77 36 47% Occurred in Province Orientale between June and November.[28][29]
2013–present Widespread:
 Sierra Leone
Limited and local:
 United States
 United Kingdom
EBOV 21,724[30] 8,641 71%[note 1] The most severe Ebola outbreak recorded in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities began in Guéckédou, Guinea, in December 2013, and spread abroad where it is still ongoing.[32][33][34]
2014  Democratic Republic of the Congo EBOV 66[35] 49[35] 74% Occurred in Equateur Province. Outbreak detected 24 August and according to the WHO, as of 28 October 2014 twenty days had passed since the last reported case was discharged and no new contacts were being followed.[36][35] Declared over on 15 November 2014.[37]

Minor or single cases[edit]

Year Country Virus Human cases Human deaths Description
1976  United Kingdom SUDV or EBOV[note 2] 1 0 Laboratory infection by accidental stick of contaminated needle.[38][39]
1977  Zaire EBOV 1 1 Noted retroactively in the village of Tandala.[39][40][41][42]
1989–1990  Philippines RESTV 3[note 3] 0 High mortality among crab-eating macaques in a primate facility responsible for exporting animals in the USA.[43] Three workers in the facility developed antibodies but did not get sick.[44]
1989  United States RESTV 0 0 RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No human cases.[45]
1990  United States RESTV 4[note 4] 0 RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. Four humans developed antibodies but did not get sick.[46]
1992  Italy RESTV 0 0 RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Siena by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines as the 1989 and 1990 US outbreaks. No human cases.[47]
1994  Côte d'Ivoire[note 5] TAFV 1 0 First and thus far only recognition of TAFV. Approximately one week after conducting necropsies on infected western chimpanzees in Taï National Park, a scientist contracted the virus and developed symptoms similar to those of dengue fever. She was discharged from a Swiss hospital two weeks later, and fully recovered after six weeks.[48]
1996  South Africa EBOV 2 1 A medical professional traveled from Gabon to Johannesburg, South Africa, in October 1996 after having treated Ebola virus-infected patients. He was hospitalized, and the nurse that took care of him became infected and died.[49]
1996  United States RESTV 0 0 RESTV was introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines as the 1989 and 1990 US outbreaks. No human cases.[50]
1996  Philippines RESTV 0 0 RESTV was identified at a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human cases.[51]
1996  Russia EBOV 1 1 Laboratory contamination.[52]
2004  Russia EBOV 1 1 Laboratory contamination.[53]
2008  Philippines RESTV 6[note 6] 0 First recognition of RESTV in pigs. Strain closely similar to earlier strains. Occurred in November. Six workers from the pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies but did not become sick.[54][55]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The estimated case fatality rate for this ongoing epidemic differs from the number of deaths divided by the number of cases due to the estimation method used. Current infections have not run their course, and the estimate may be poor if reporting is biased towards severe cases.[31]
  2. ^ The Centers for Disease Control chronology notes this infection as "Sudan virus", whereas the 1977 British Medical Journal (BMJ) article refers to it as "Ebola virus". In 1977, there was not yet a distinction between different ebolaviruses. The BMJ article only notes that the patient received "convalescent serum from the Sudan" following similar serum from Zaire.
  3. ^ All three cases were asymptomatic.
  4. ^ All four cases were asymptomatic.
  5. ^ The single Ivorian case was repatriated to Switzerland for medical treatment.[48]
  6. ^ All six cases were asymptomatic.


  1. ^ Netesov, SV; Feldmann, H; Jahrling, PB; Kiley, MP; Klenk, H-D; Sanchez, A (2004-04-24). "Filoviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  2. ^ a b Towner, J. S.; Sealy, T. K.; Khristova, M. L.; Albariño, C. S. G.; Conlan, S.; Reeder, S. A.; Quan, P. L.; Lipkin, W. I.; Downing, R.; Tappero, J. W.; Okware, S.; Lutwama, J.; Bakamutumaho, B.; Kayiwa, J.; Comer, J. A.; Rollin, P. E.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Nichol, S. T. (2008). Basler, Christopher F., ed. "Newly Discovered Ebola Virus Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Uganda" (Full free text). PLoS Pathogens 4 (11): e1000212. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000212. PMC 2581435. PMID 19023410.  edit
  3. ^ a b "Uganda: Deadly Ebola Outbreak Confirmed - UN". UN News Service. 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  4. ^ a b "End of Ebola outbreak in Uganda" (Press release). World Health Organization. 2008-02-20. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ Spickler, Anna. "Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Infections". 
  8. ^ "About Ebola Virus Disease". CDC. Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  9. ^ Peterson, AT; Bauer, JT; Mills, JN (Jan 2004). "Ecologic and geographic distribution of filovirus disease.". Emerging Infectious Diseases 10 (1): 40–7. doi:10.3201/eid1001.030125. PMC 3322747. PMID 15078595. 
  10. ^ "Questions and Answers about Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  11. ^ Cohen, J. (2004). "Containing the Threat—Don't Forget Ebola" (Free full text). PLoS Medicine 1 (3): e59. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010059. PMC 539049. PMID 15630468.  edit
  12. ^ "Mission Statement". National Center for Infectious Diseases & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007-10-31. 
  13. ^ "Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, in Chronological Order". National Center for Infectious Diseases & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014-08-30. 
  14. ^
  15. ^ "Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976". Bulletin of the World Health Organization 56 (2): 247–270. 1978. PMC 2395561. PMID 307455.  edit
  16. ^ "Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976". Bulletin of the World Health Organization 56 (2): 271–293. 1978. PMC 2395567. PMID 307456.  edit
  17. ^ Baron, R. C.; McCormick, J. B.; Zubeir, O. A. (1983). "Ebola virus disease in southern Sudan: hospital dissemination and intrafamilial spread". Bulletin of the World Health Organization 61 (6): 997–1003. PMC 2536233. PMID 6370486.  edit
  18. ^ a b c Georges, A. J.; Leroy, E. M.; Renaut, A.  A.; Benissan, C. T.; Nabias, R.  J.; Ngoc, M. T.; Obiang, P. I.; Lepage, J. P.  M.; Bertherat, E. J.; Bénoni, D. D.; Wickings, E.  J.; Amblard, J. P.; Lansoud-Soukate, J. M.; Milleliri, J.  M.; Baize, S.; Georges-Courbot, M. C. (1999). "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks in Gabon, 1994–1997: Epidemiologic and Health Control Issues". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 179: S65–S75. doi:10.1086/514290. PMID 9988167.  edit
  19. ^ Khan, A. S.; Tshioko, F.  K.; Heymann, D. L.; Le Guenno, B.; Nabeth, P.; Kerstiëns, B.; Fleerackers, Y.; Kilmarx, P. H.; Rodier, G. R.; Nkuku, O.; Rollin, P. E.; Sanchez, A.; Zaki, S. R.; Swanepoel, R.; Tomori, O.; Nichol, S. T.; Peters, C.  J.; Muyembe-Tamfum, J.  J.; Ksiazek, T. G. (1999). "The Reemergence of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 179: S76–S86. doi:10.1086/514306. PMID 9988168.  edit
  20. ^ Okware, S. I.; Omaswa, F. G.; Zaramba, S.; Opio, A.; Lutwama, J. J.; Kamugisha, J.; Rwaguma, E. B.; Kagwa, P.; Lamunu, M. (2002). "An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda". Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH 7 (12): 1068–1075. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00944.x. PMID 12460399.  edit
  21. ^ "Outbreak(s) of Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Congo and Gabon, October 2001-July 2002". Releve epidemiologique hebdomadaire / Section d'hygiene du Secretariat de la Societe des Nations = Weekly epidemiological record / Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations 78 (26): 223–228. 2003. PMID 15571171.  edit
  22. ^ Formenty, P.; Libama, F.; Epelboin, A.; Allarangar, Y.; Leroy, E.; Moudzeo, H.; Tarangonia, P.; Molamou, A.; Lenzi, M.; Ait-Ikhlef, K.; Hewlett, B.; Roth, C.; Grein, T. (2003). "Outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the Republic of the Congo, 2003: a new strategy?". Medecine tropicale : revue du Corps de sante colonial How did the Ebola river get its name? What is the origin of the word Ebola? I am wondering what is the origin of the word "Ebola". I understand that the Ebolavirus (Ebola virus) got its name from the Ebola river, but I am wondering how the river got its name. What is the origin and meaning of the word Ebola? What language does it originate from? 63 (3): 291–295. PMID 14579469.  edit
  23. ^ "Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the Republic of the Congo - Update 6". World Health Organization. 6 January 2004. 
  24. ^ "Outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Yambio, south Sudan, April - June 2004". Releve epidemiologique hebdomadaire / Section d'hygiene du Secretariat de la Societe des Nations = Weekly epidemiological record / Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations 80 (43): 370–375. 2005. PMID 16285261.  edit
  25. ^ "Outbreak news. Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo--update". Releve epidemiologique hebdomadaire / Section d'hygiene du Secretariat de la Societe des Nations = Weekly epidemiological record / Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations 82 (40): 345–346. 2007. PMID 17918654.  edit
  26. ^ Global Alert and Response (2009-02-17). "End of Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo". Disease Outbreak News. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Retrieved 2011-02-27. 
  27. ^ World Health Organization (2012-10-04). "End of Ebola outbreak in Uganda". Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  28. ^ Centers For Disease Control. "Outbreak Postings". Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  29. ^ Centers For Disease Control. "Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, in Chronological Order". Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  30. ^ "EBOLA SITUATION REPORT- 18 January 2015". World Health organization. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015. 
  31. ^
  32. ^ "Tracing Ebola's Breakout to an African 2-Year-Old". New York Times. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  33. ^ Toll in West Africa Ebola Epidemic Reaches 2,630, Says WHO." Fox News. FOX News Network, 18 Sept. 2014. Web. 19 Sept. 2014.</
  34. ^ WHO Ebola Response Team (2014-09-22). "Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa — The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections". New England Journal of Medicine 371 (16): 1481–95. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1411100. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 25244186. }
  35. ^ a b c "EBOLA RESPONSE ROADMAP SITUATION REPORT UPDATE". World Health organization. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  36. ^ "Update on the Ebola virus disease in DRC, No. 5, 30 August 2014". UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2014-08-30. Retrieved 2014-09-02. 
  37. ^ "Congo declares its Ebola outbreak over". reuters. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  38. ^ Emond RT, Evans B, Bowen ET et al. (1977). "A case of Ebola virus infection". British Medical Journal 2 (6086): 541–544. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6086.541. PMC 1631428. PMID 890413. 
  39. ^ a b Outbreaks Chronology: Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 18 Sept. 2014. Web. 19 Sept. 2014.
  40. ^ Heymann, D. L.; Weisfeld, J. S.; Webb, P. A.; Johnson, K. M.; Cairns, T.; Berquist, H. (1980). "Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Tandala, Zaire, 1977-1978". The Journal of infectious diseases 142 (3): 372–376. doi:10.1093/infdis/142.3.372. PMID 7441008.  edit
  41. ^ Heymann DL, Weisfeld JS, Webb PA, et al. Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Tandala, Zaire, 1977-1978. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1980;142(3):372-376
  42. ^ Ebola Virus Disease." WHO. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2014.
  43. ^ Hayes, C. G.; Burans, J. P.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Del Rosario, R. A.; Miranda, M. E.; Manaloto, C. R.; Barrientos, A. B.; Robles, C. G.; Dayrit, M. M.; Peters, C. J. (1992). "Outbreak of fatal illness among captive macaques in the Philippines caused by an Ebola-related filovirus". The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 46 (6): 664–671. PMID 1621890.  edit
  44. ^ Miranda, M. E.; White, M. E.; Dayrit, M. M.; Hayes, C. G.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Burans, J. P. (1991). "Seroepidemiological study of filovirus related to Ebola in the Philippines". Lancet 337 (8738): 425–426. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(91)91199-5. PMID 1671441.  edit
  45. ^ Jahrling, P. B.; Geisbert, T. W.; Dalgard, D. W.; Johnson, E. D.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Hall, W. C.; Peters, C. J. (1990). "Preliminary report: isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported to USA". Lancet 335 (8688): 502–505. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)90737-P. PMID 1968529.  edit
  46. ^ Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (1990). "Update: filovirus infection in animal handlers". MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 39 (13): 221. PMID 2107388.  edit
  47. ^°24).pdf
  48. ^ a b Le Guenno, B.; Formenty, P.; Wyers, M.; Gounon, P.; Walker, F.; Boesch, C. (1995). "Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus". Lancet 345 (8960): 1271–1274. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(95)90925-7. PMID 7746057.  edit
  49. ^ "Ebola haemorrhagic fever - South Africa" (PDF). Weekly Epidemiological Record (Geneva: World Health Organization) 71 (47): 353–360. 22 November 1996. ISSN 0049-8114. 
  50. ^ Rollin, P. E.; Williams, R.  J.; Bressler, D. S.; Pearson, S.; Cottingham, M.; Pucak, G.; Sanchez, A.; Trappier, S. G.; Peters, R. L.; Greer, P. W.; Zaki, S.; Demarcus, T.; Hendricks, K.; Kelley, M.; Simpson, D.; Geisbert, T. W.; Jahrling, P. B.; Peters, C.  J.; Ksiazek, T. G. (1999). "Ebola (Subtype Reston) Virus among Quarantined Nonhuman Primates Recently Imported from the Philippines to the United States". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 179: S108–S114. doi:10.1086/514303. PMID 9988173.  edit
  51. ^ Miranda, M. E.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Retuya, T. J.; Khan, A. S.; Sanchez, A.; Fulhorst, C. F.; Rollin, P. E.; Calaor, A. B.; Manalo, D. L.; Roces, M.  C.; Dayrit, M.  M.; Peters, C.  J. (1999). "Epidemiology of Ebola (Subtype Reston) Virus in the Philippines, 1996". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 179: S115–S119. doi:10.1086/514314. PMID 9988174.  edit
  52. ^ Borisevich, I. V.; Markin, V. A.; Firsova, I. V.; Evseev, A. A.; Khamitov, R. A.; Maksimov, V. A. (2006). "Hemorrhagic (Marburg, Ebola, Lassa, and Bolivian) fevers: Epidemiology, clinical pictures, and treatment". Voprosy virusologii 51 (5): 8–16. PMID 17087059.  edit
  53. ^ Akinfeyeva LA, Aksyonova OI, Vasilyevich IV, et al. A case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Infektsionnye Bolezni (Moscow). 2005;3(1):85–88 [Russian].
  54. ^ Barrette, R.; Metwally, S.; Rowland, J.; Xu, L.; Zaki, S.; Nichol, S.; Rollin, P.; Towner, J.; Shieh, W.; Batten, B.; Sealy, T. K.; Carrillo, C.; Moran, K. E.; Bracht, A. J.; Mayr, G. A.; Sirios-Cruz, M.; Catbagan, D. P.; Lautner, E. A.; Ksiazek, T. G.; White, W. R.; McIntosh, M. T. (2009). "Discovery of swine as a host for the Reston ebolavirus". Science 325 (5937): 204–206. Bibcode:2009Sci...325..204B. doi:10.1126/science.1172705. PMID 19590002.  edit
  55. ^ "Outbreak news. Ebola Reston in pigs and humans, Philippines". Releve epidemiologique hebdomadaire / Section d'hygiene du Secretariat de la Societe des Nations = Weekly epidemiological record / Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations 84 (7): 49–50. 2009. PMID 19219963.  edit