List of Egyptian deities

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Pharaoh Menkaure of the Fourth dynasty, accompanied by the goddesses Bat and Hathor

Ancient Egyptian deities represent natural and social phenomena, as well as abstract concepts.[1] These gods and goddesses appear in virtually every aspect of ancient Egyptian civilization, and more than 1,500 of them are known by name. Many Egyptian texts mention deities' names without indicating their character or role, while other texts refer to specific deities without even stating their name, so a complete list of them is difficult to assemble.[2]


List of deities[edit]

  • Aker – A god of the earth and the horizon[3]
  • Ammit – Goddess who devoured condemned souls[4]
  • Amenhotep son of Hapu – A scribe and architect in the court of Amenhotep III, later deified for his wisdom[5]
  • Am-heh – A dangerous underworld god[5]
  • Amun – A creator god, patron deity of the city of Thebes, and the preeminent deity in Egypt during the New Kingdom[6]
  • Amunet – Female counterpart of Amun and a member of the Ogdoad[3]
  • Anat – A war and fertility goddess, originally from Syria, who entered Egyptian religion in the Middle Kingdom[7]
  • Anhur – A god of war and hunting[8]
  • Anti – Falcon god, worshipped in Middle Egypt,[9] who appears in myth as a ferryman for greater gods[10]
  • Anubis – God of embalming and protector of the dead[11]
  • Anuket – A goddess of Egypt's southern frontier regions, particularly the lower cataracts of the Nile[12]
  • Apedemak – A warlike lion god from Nubia who appears in some Egyptian-built temples in Lower Nubia[13]
  • Apophis – A serpent deity who personified malevolent chaos and was said to fight Ra in the underworld every night[14]
  • Apis – A live bull worshipped as a god at Memphis and seen as a manifestation of Ptah[15]
  • Arensnuphis – A Nubian deity who appears in Egyptian temples in Lower Nubia in the Greco-Roman era[16]
  • Ash – A god of the Libyan Desert and oases west of Egypt[17]
  • Astarte – A warrior goddess from Syria and Canaan who entered Egyptian religion in the New Kingdom[18]
  • Aten – Sun disk deity who became the focus of the monolatrous or monotheistic Atenist belief system in the reign of Akhenaten[19]
  • Atum – A creator god and solar deity, first god of the Ennead[20]
  • Baal – Sky and storm god from Syria and Canaan, worshipped in Egypt during the New Kingdom[21]
  • Ba'alat Gebal – A Caananite goddess, patroness of the city of Byblos, adopted into Egyptian religion[22]
  • Babi – A baboon god characterized by sexuality and aggression[23]
  • Banebdjedet – A ram god, patron of the city of Mendes[24]
  • Ba-Pef – A little-known underworld deity[25]
  • Bast – Goddess represented as a cat or lioness, patroness of the city of Bubastis, linked with fertility and protection from evil[26]
  • Bat – Cow goddess from early in Egyptian history, eventually absorbed by Hathor[27]
  • Bennu – A solar and creator deity, depicted as a bird[28]
  • BesApotropaic god, represented as a dwarf, particularly important in protecting children and women in childbirth[29]
  • Buchis – A live bull god worshipped in the region around Thebes and a manifestation of Montu[30]
  • Dedun – A Nubian god, said to provide the Egyptians with incense and other resources that came from Nubia[31]
  • Geb – An earth god and member of the Ennead[32]
  • Ha – A god of the Libyan Desert and oases west of Egypt[33]
  • Hapi – Personification of the Nile flood[33]
  • Hathor – One of the most important goddesses, linked with the sky, the sun, sexuality and motherhood, music and dance, foreign lands and goods, and the afterlife. One of many forms of the Eye of Ra.[34]
  • Hatmehit – Fish goddess worshipped at Mendes[35]
  • Hedetet – A minor scorpion goddess[36]
  • Heh – Personification of infinity and a member of the Ogdoad[35]
  • Heka – Personification of magic[37]
  • Heket – Frog goddess said to protect women in childbirth[38]
  • Heryshaf – Ram god worshipped at Herakleopolis Magna[39]
  • Hesat – A maternal cow goddess[40]
  • Horus – A major god, usually shown as a falcon or as a human child, linked with the sky, the sun, kingship, protection, and healing. Often said to be the son of Osiris and Isis.[41]
  • Hu – Personification of the authority of the spoken word[42]
  • Iah – A moon god[43]
  • Iat – A goddess of milk and nursing[44]
  • Ihy – A child deity born to Horus and Hathor, representing the music and joy produced by the sistrum[45]
  • Imentet – An afterlife goddess closely linked with Isis and Hathor[46]
  • Imhotep – Architect and vizier to Djoser, eventually deified as a healer god[47]
  • Ishtar – The East Semitic version of Astarte, occasionally mentioned in Egyptian texts[48]
  • Isis – Wife of Osiris and mother of Horus, linked with funerary rites, motherhood, protection, and magic. She became a major deity in Greek and Roman religion.[49]
  • Iusaaset – A female counterpart to Atum[50]
  • Khepri – A solar creator god, often treated as the morning form of Ra and represented by a scarab beetle[51]
  • Kherty – A netherworld god, usually depicted as a ram[52]
  • Khnum – A ram god, the patron deity of Elephantine, who was said to control the Nile flood and give life to gods and humans[53]
  • Khonsu – A moon god, son of Amun and Mut[54]
  • Maahes – A lion god, son of Bastet[55]
  • Maat – Goddess who personified truth, justice, and order[56]
  • Mafdet – A predatory goddess said to destroy dangerous creatures[57]
  • Mandulis – A Lower Nubian solar deity who appeared in some Egyptian temples[58]
  • Mehit – A lioness goddess, consort of Anhur[59]
  • Menhit – A lioness goddess[59]
  • Mehen – A serpent god who protects the barque of Ra as it travels through the underworld[60]
  • Mehet-Weret – A celestial cow goddess[60]
  • Meretseger – A cobra goddess who oversaw the Theban Necropolis[61]
  • Meskhenet – A goddess who presided over childbirth[62]
  • Min – A god of virility, as well as the cities of Akhmim and Qift and the Eastern Desert that beyond them[63]
  • Mnevis – A live bull god worshipped at Heliopolis as a manifestation of Ra[64]
  • Montu – A god of war and the sun, worshipped at Thebes[65]
  • Mut – Consort of Amun, worshipped at Thebes[66]
  • Nebethetepet – A female counterpart to Atum[67]
  • Nefertum – God of the lotus blossom from which the sun god rose at the beginning of time. Son of Ptah and Sekhmet.[67]
  • Nehebu-Kau – A protective serpent god[68]
  • Nehmetawy – A minor goddess, the consort of Nehebu-Kau or Thoth[69]
  • Neith – A creator and hunter goddess goddess of the city of Sais in Lower Egypt[70]
  • Nekhbet – A vulture goddess, the tutelary deity of Upper Egypt[71]
  • Neper – A god of grain[72]
  • Nephthys – A member of the Ennead, the consort of Set, who mourned Osiris alongside Isis[73]
  • Nu – Personification of the formless, watery disorder from which the world emerged at creation and a member of the Ogdoad[74]
  • Nut – A sky goddess, a member of the Ennead[75]
  • Osiris – God of death and resurrection who rules the underworld and enlivens vegetation, the sun god, and deceased souls[76]
  • Pakhet – A lioness goddess mainly worshipped in the area around Beni Hasan[77]
  • Ptah – A creator deity and god of craftsmen, the patron god of Memphis[78]
  • Qetesh – A goddess of sexuality and sacred ecstasy from Syria and Canaan, adopted into Egyptian religion in the New Kingdom[79]
  • Ra – the foremost Egyptian sun god, involved in creation and the afterlife. Mythological ruler of the gods, father of every Egyptian king, and the patron god of Heliopolis.[80]
  • Raet-Tawy – A female counterpart to Ra[81]
  • Renenutet – An agricultural goddess[82]
  • Reshep – A Syrian war god adopted into Egyptian religion in the New Kingdom[83]
  • Renpet – Goddess who personified the year[81]
  • Satet – A goddess of Egypt's southern frontier regions[84]
  • Seker – God of the Memphite Necropolis and of the afterlife in general[85]
  • Sekhmet – A lioness goddess, both destructive and violent and capable of warding off disease. The consort of Ptah and one of many forms of the Eye of Ra.[86]
  • Serapis – A Greco-Egyptian god from the Ptolemaic Period who fused traits of Osiris and Apis with those of several Greek gods. Husband of Isis who, like her, was adopted into Greek and Roman religion outside Egypt.[87]
  • Serket – A scorpion goddess, invoked for healing and protection[88]
  • Seshat – Goddess of writing and record-keeping, depicted as a scribe[89]
  • Set – An ambivalent god, characterized by violence, chaos, and strength, connected with the desert. Mythological murderer of Osiris and enemy of Horus, but also a supporter of the king.[90]
  • Shai – Personification of fate[91]
  • Shed – A god believed to save people from danger and misfortune[92]
  • Shesmetet – A lioness goddess[92]
  • Shezmu – A god of wine and oil presses who also slaughters condemned souls[93]
  • Shu – embodiment of wind or air, a member of the Ennead[94]
  • Sia – Personification of perception[95]
  • Sobek – Crocodile god, worshipped in the Faiyum and at Kom Ombo[96]
  • Sopdu – A god of the sky and of Egypt's eastern border regions[97]
  • Sopdet – Deification of the star Sirius[98]
  • Ta-Bitjet – A minor scorpion goddess[99]
  • Tatenen – Personification of the first mound of earth to emerge from chaos in ancient Egyptian creation myths[99]
  • Taweret – Hippopotamus goddess, protector of women in childbirth[100]
  • Tefnut – Goddess of moisture and a member of the Ennead[101]
  • Thoth – A moon god, and a god of writing and scribes, and patron deity of Hermopolis[102]
  • Tutu – An apotropaic god from the Greco-Roman era[103]
  • Unut – A goddess represented as a snake or a hare, worshipped in the region of Hermopolis[104]
  • Wadjet – A cobra goddess, the tutelary deity of Lower Egypt[105]
  • Wadj-wer – Personification of the Mediterranean sea or lakes of the Nile Delta[106]
  • Weneg – A son of Ra who maintains cosmic order[106]
  • Wepwawet – A jackal god, the patron deity of Asyut, connected with warfare and the afterlife[107]
  • Werethekau – A goddess who protected the king[108]
  • Wosret – A minor goddess of Thebes[109]
  • Yam – A Syrian god of the sea who appears in some Egyptian texts[110]

Groups of deities[edit]

  • The Ennead – An extended family of nine deities produced by Atum during the creation of the world. The Ennead usually consisted of Atum, his children Shu and Tefnut, their children Geb and Nut, and their children Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys.[111]
  • The four sons of Horus – Four gods who protected the mummified body, particularly the internal organs in canopic jars[112]
  • The Ogdoad – A set of eight gods who personified the chaos that existed before creation. The Ogdoad commonly consisted of Amun, Amaunet, Nu, Naunet, Heh, Hauhet, Kuk, and Kauket.[113]
  • The Souls of Pe and Nekhen – A set of gods personifying the predynastic rulers of Upper and Lower Egypt[114]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Allen 2000, pp. 43–45
  2. ^ Wilkinson 2003, pp. 6–7,73
  3. ^ a b Hart 2005, p. 11
  4. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 12–13
  5. ^ a b Hart 2005, p. 12
  6. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 13–22
  7. ^ Hart 2005, p. 22
  8. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 113–114
  9. ^ Hart 2005, p. 23
  10. ^ Wilkinson 2003, p. 204
  11. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 25–28
  12. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 28–29
  13. ^ Hart 2005, p. 29
  14. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 31–32
  15. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 29–31
  16. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 32–33
  17. ^ Hart 2005, p. 33
  18. ^ Hart 2005, p. 34
  19. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 34–40
  20. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 40–42
  21. ^ Hart 2005, p. 43
  22. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 43–44
  23. ^ Hart 2005, p. 44
  24. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 44–45
  25. ^ Hart 2005, p. 45
  26. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 45–47
  27. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 47–48
  28. ^ Hart 2005, p. 48
  29. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 49–50
  30. ^ Wilkinson 2003, p. 172–173
  31. ^ Hart 2005, p. 52
  32. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 58–60
  33. ^ a b Hart 2005, p. 61
  34. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 61–65
  35. ^ a b Hart 2005, p. 66
  36. ^ Wilkinson 2003, p. 230
  37. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 66–67
  38. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 67–68
  39. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 68–69
  40. ^ Wilkinson 2003, pp. 173–174
  41. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 70–76
  42. ^ Hart 2005, p. 76
  43. ^ Hart 2005, p. 77
  44. ^ Wilkinson 2003, pp. 145
  45. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 77–78
  46. ^ Wilkinson 2003, pp. 145–146
  47. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 78–79
  48. ^ Hart 2005, p. 79
  49. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 79–83
  50. ^ Hart 2005, p. 83
  51. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 84–85
  52. ^ Hart 2005, p. 85
  53. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 85–86
  54. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 86–88
  55. ^ Hart 2005, p. 92
  56. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 89–90
  57. ^ Hart 2005, p. 90
  58. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 90–91
  59. ^ a b Wilkinson 2003, p. 179
  60. ^ a b Hart 2005, p. 91
  61. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 91–92
  62. ^ Hart 2005, p. 92
  63. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 92–95
  64. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 95–96
  65. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 96–97
  66. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 97–99
  67. ^ a b Hart 2005, p. 99
  68. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 99–100
  69. ^ Wilkinson 2003, p. 156
  70. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 100–101
  71. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 101–102
  72. ^ Hart 2005, p. 102
  73. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 102–103
  74. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 109–110
  75. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 110–112
  76. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 114–124
  77. ^ Hart 2005, p. 125
  78. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 128–131
  79. ^ Hart 2005, p. 132
  80. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 133–135
  81. ^ a b Wilkinson 2003, p. 164
  82. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 135–137
  83. ^ Hart 2005, p. 137
  84. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 140–141
  85. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 148–149
  86. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 138–139
  87. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 139–140
  88. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 141–142
  89. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 142–143
  90. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 143–145
  91. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 145–146
  92. ^ a b Hart 2005, p. 146
  93. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 146–147
  94. ^ Hart 2005, p. 147
  95. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 147–148
  96. ^ Hart 2005, p. 148
  97. ^ Hart 2005, p. 151
  98. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 151–152
  99. ^ a b Hart 2005, p. 154
  100. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 154–155
  101. ^ Hart 2005, p. 156
  102. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 156–159
  103. ^ Hart 2005, p. 159
  104. ^ Wilkinson 2003, p. 199
  105. ^ Hart 2005, p. 161
  106. ^ a b Hart 2005, p. 162
  107. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 162–163
  108. ^ Hart 2005, p. 163
  109. ^ Hart 2005, p. 164
  110. ^ Hart 2005, p. 165
  111. ^ Hart 2005, p. 53
  112. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 149–161
  113. ^ Hart 2005, p. 113
  114. ^ Hart 2005, pp. 152–153

Works cited[edit]

  • Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77483-7. 
  • Hart, George (2005). The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Second Edition. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-02362-5. 
  • Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05120-8. 

Further reading[edit]