List of ancient Egyptian dynasties
Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
In Ancient Egyptian history, dynasties are series of rulers sharing a common origin, who are usually, though not necessarily, of the same family.
Ancient Egypt's historical period is traditionally divided into thirty-one pharaonic dynasties. These divisions are due to the 3rd century BC Egyptian priest Manetho, and first appeared in his work Aegyptiaca, which was perhaps written for the Greek-speaking Ptolemaic Egyptian ruler of the time. The thirty-first Dynasty's name is not due to Manetho and is a later coining.
While widely used and useful, the system does have its shortcomings. Some dynasties only ruled part of Egypt and existed concurrently with other dynasties based in other cities. The Seventh might not have existed at all, the Tenth seems to be a continuation of the Ninth, and there might have been one or several Upper Egyptian Dynasties before the First Dynasty.
- Protodynastic Period of Egypt
- Third Dynasty of Egypt (Memphis)
- Fourth Dynasty of Egypt (Memphis)
- Fifth Dynasty of Egypt (Memphis)
- Sixth Dynasty of Egypt (Memphis)
- Seventh Dynasty of Egypt (Memphis), perhaps spurious
- Eighth Dynasty of Egypt (Memphis)
- Ninth Dynasty of Egypt (Herakleopolis Magna)
- Tenth Dynasty of Egypt (Herakleopolis Magna), continuation of the ninth
- Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt (Thebes)
- Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt (Itjtawy, Faiyum region)
- Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt (Itjtawy)
- Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt (Avaris)
- Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt (Avaris)
- Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt (obscure, Thebes or Avaris)
- Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt (Thebes), concurrent to the Fifteenth Dynasty
- Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (Thebes, Amarna, then again Thebes)
- Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt (Thebes, Memphis, then Pi-Ramesses)
- Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt (Pi-Ramesses)
- Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt (Tanis)
- Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt (Bubastis)
- Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt (obscure, perhaps Herakleopolis Magna, Hermopolis Magna, or Thebes)
- Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt (Sais, Western Nile Delta)
- Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (Memphis, under foreign control by Napata, Nubia)
- Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (Sais)
- Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt or the First Egyptian Satrapy (under control by the First Persian Empire)
- Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt (Sais)
- Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt (Mendes)
- Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt (Sebennytos)
- Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt or the Second Egyptian Satrapy (under control by the First Persian Empire)
- Starting on the far right of this chart, only one dynasty lasted over 250 years (18th Dynasty). Two dynasties lasted between 200 and 225 years (2 boxes). One dynasty lasted between 175 and 200 years (1 box), etc.
- Wilkinson, Toby (2010). "Timeline". The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. New York: Random House. p. xiii. ISBN 9781408810026. "The system of dynasties devised in the third century B.C. is not without its problems—for example, the Seventh Dynasty is now recognized as being wholly spurious, while several dynasties are known to have ruled concurrently in different parts of Egypt..."
- Seidlmayer, Stephan (2000). Shaw, Ian, ed. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 118. ISBN 0-19-815034-2. "After the 8th Dynasty power was held by a succession of rulers originating from Herakleopolis Magna, which was located in northern Middle Egypt. These kings appear as both the 9th and 10th Dynasties in Manetho's history, having been mistakenly subdivided in the course of the transmission of the original king-list."