List of monarchs of Brazil

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Monarchy of Brazil
Former Monarchy
Imperial
Coat of arms of the Empire of Brazil.svg
Imperial Coat of arms
Pedro II of Brazil 1850.jpg
Pedro II
First monarch Maria I
(as Queen)
Last monarch Pedro II
(as Emperor)
Style
Official residence
Monarchy began 16 December 1815
Monarchy ended 15 November 1889
Current pretender(s) Disputed:

The Monarchs of Brazil were the rulers of Brazil, first as a kingdom united with Portugal in the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822), and subsequently as a sovereign and independent State, the Empire of Brazil (1822–1889).

Before 1815, Brazil was a colony of the Kingdom of Portugal. Thus, from the formal arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, when the land was claimed by the Portuguese Crown, until 1815 when the Kingdom of Brazil was created and the colonial bond was formally terminated and replaced by a political union with Portugal, the Kings of Portugal were Monarchs over Brazil.

During the colonial era, from 1645 onwards, the heir apparent of the Portuguese Crown was styled Prince of Brazil. In 1817, in the wake of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal Brazil and the Algarves, the heir apparent's title was changed to Prince Royal.

Brazil had two monarchs during the United Kingdom epoch: Queen Maria I (1815–1816) and King John VI (1816–1822). By the time of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, Queen Maria I was long incapacitated, and the Portuguese Empire was ruled by Prince John, the future King John VI, as Prince Regent.

As an independent Nation, Brazil had two monarchs: Emperors Pedro I (1822–1831) and Pedro II (1831–1889). In 1889, the monarchy was abolished in a military coup d'état that proclaimed Brazil a Republic.

During the imperial era, King John VI of Portugal briefly held the honorific style of Titular Emperor of Brazil under the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, by which Portugal recognized the independence of Brazil. The style of Titular Emperor was a life title, and became extinct upon the holder's demise. John VI held the imperial title for a few months only, from the ratification of the Treaty in November 1825 until his death in March 1826. During those months, however, as John's imperial title was purely honorific, Emperor Pedro I remained the sole Head of State and Government of the Empire.

United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Maria I
(1734-12-17)17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816(1816-03-20) (aged 81) 16 December 1815 20 March 1816 Brazil elevated to the status of kingdom united with Portugal and the Algarves Braganza Queen Maria I
João VI
(1767-05-13)13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826(1826-03-10) (aged 58) 20 March 1816 7 September 1822 Son of Maria I
Prince Regent for Maria I
Braganza King John VI

Empire of Brazil (1822–1889)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Pedro I
(1798-10-12)12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834(1834-09-24) (aged 35) 12 October 1822 7 April 1831 Son of John VI. Declared Brazilian independence and was acclaimed as the new country's first monarch.
Also ruled as Pedro IV as King of Portugal in 1826.
Braganza Emperor Pedro I
Pedro II
(1825-12-02)2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891(1891-12-05) (aged 66) 7 April 1831 15 November 1889 Son of Pedro I Braganza Emperor Pedro II

Titular Emperor[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
João VI
13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826 (aged 58) 15 November 1825 10 March 1826 João VI was created Titular Emperor of Brazil for life by a provision of the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro. While João VI held the title, his son, Emperor Pedro I, held all power and was the head of state and government. Braganza King João VI  King-Emporer João VI

Claimants to the throne of Brazil (1889–present)[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]