List of Emperors of Japan

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The List of Emperors of Japan presents the traditional order of succession.[1] Records of the reigns of the Emperors of Japan are compiled according to the traditional Japanese calendar. In the nengō system which has been in use since the late-7th century, years are numbered using the Japanese era name and the number of years which have taken place since that nengō era started.[2]

The sequence, order and dates of the first 28 Emperors of Japan, and especially the first 16, are based on the Japanese Calendar system.[3]

Emperors of Japan (660 BC–present)[edit]

# Reign Portrait Posthumous name Personal name (imina) Notes
Legendary Emperors (660 BC-269 AD)
1 00340660–585 BC Emperor Jimmu.jpg Emperor Jimmu Kan'yamato Iwarebiko   Traditional dates; claimed descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu; [4] presumed legendary
2 00491581–549 BC Suizei thumb 1.jpg Emperor Suizei Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[5] 3rd son of Jimmu;[6] presumed legendary
3 00451549–511 BC Tennō Annei thumb.jpg Emperor Annei Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[7] son and heir of Suizei;[6] presumed legendary
4 00490510–476 BC Tennō Itoku thumb.jpg Emperor Itoku Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[8] 2nd son of Anei;[6] presumed legendary
5 00525475–393 BC Tennō Kōshō thumb.jpg Emperor Kōshō Mimatsuhiko Kaeshine no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[9] son and heir of Itoku;[6] presumed legendary
6 00608392–291 BC Tennō Kōan thumb.jpg Emperor Kōan Oho Yamato Tarasihiko Kunioshi Hito no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[10] 2nd son of Kōshō;[6] presumed legendary
7 00710290–215 BC Tennō Kōrei thumb.jpg Emperor Kōrei Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[11] son and heir of Kōan;[6] presumed legendary
8 00786214–158 BC Tennō Kōgen thumb.gif Emperor Kōgen Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[12] son and heir of Korei;[6] presumed legendary
9 00843157–98 BC Tennō Kaika thumb.jpg Emperor Kaika Waka Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[13] 2nd son of Kōgen;[6] presumed legendary
10 0090397–30 BC Emperor Sujin.jpg Emperor Sujin Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto Traditional dates;[14] first Emperor with a direct possibility of existence
11 0097129 BC–70 AD No image.png Emperor Suinin Ikume Irihiko Isachi no Mikoto Traditional dates[15]
12 9007171–130 No image.png Emperor Keikō Oho Tarasihiko Osirowake no Mikoto Traditional dates[16]
13 9131131–191 No image.png Emperor Seimu Waka Tarasihiko Traditional dates[17]
14 9192192–200 Tennō Chūaii thumb.gif Emperor Chūai Tarasi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto Traditional dates[18]
0145 90201201–269 Empress OKINAGA TARASI.JPG Empress Jingu Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto Traditional dates;[19] served as regent for Emperor Ōjin; not counted among the officially numbered emperors
Kofun Period (270-539)
15 90270270–310 Emperor Ōjin.jpg Emperor Ōjin Honda no Sumera-mikoto / Ōtomowake no Mikoto / Homutawake no Mikoto Traditional dates;[20] last proto-historical emperor[citation needed]; deified as Hachiman.
16 90313313–399 Nintoku-tennō detail.jpg Emperor Nintoku Ō Sazaki no Mikoto Traditional dates[21]
17 90400400–405 No image.png Emperor Richū Isaho Wake no Mikoto Traditional dates[22]
18 90406406–410 No image.png Emperor Hanzei Tajihi Mizuha Wake no Mikoto Traditional dates[23]
19 90411411–453 No image.png Emperor Ingyō Wo Asazuma Wakugo no Sukune Traditional dates[24]
20 90453453–456 No image.png Emperor Ankō Anaho no Mikoto Traditional dates[25]
21 90456456–479 Tennō Yūryaku detail.jpg Emperor Yūryaku Oho Hatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto Traditional dates[26]
22 90480480–484 No image.png Emperor Seinei Siraka Takehiro Kuni Osi Waka Yamato Neko no Mikoto Traditional dates[27]
23 90485485–487 No image.png Emperor Kenzō Ohoke no Mikoto Traditional dates[28]
24 90488488–498 No image.png Emperor Ninken Ohosi(Ohosu) no Mikoto/ Simano Iratsuko Traditional dates[29]
25 90498498–506 No image.png Emperor Buretsu Wohatsuse Wakasazaki Traditional dates[30]
26 90507507–531 No image.png Emperor Keitai Ōto/Hikofuto (Hikofuto no Mikoto/Ōdo no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates;[31] genealogy from this point is considered accurate[citation needed]
27 90531531–535 No image.png Emperor Ankan Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi no Mikoto Traditional dates[32]
28 90535535–539 No image.png Emperor Senka Takeo Hirokuni Oshitate no Mikoto Traditional dates[33]
Asuka Period (539–710)
29 90539539–571 No image.png Emperor Kimmei Amekuni Oshiharuki Hironiwa no Sumera Mikoto Traditional dates[34]
30 90572572–585 No image.png Emperor Bidatsu Osada no Nunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto Traditional dates[35]
31 90585585–587 Yomeitenno.jpg Emperor Yōmei Ooe/Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto Traditional dates[36]
32 90587587–592 No image.png Emperor Sushun Hatsusebe no (Wakasasagi) Mikoto Traditional dates[37]
33 90592592–628 Empress Suiko.jpg Empress Suiko Nukatabe/Toyomike Kashikiyahime Traditional dates;[38] first non-legendary female emperor; Prince Shotoku acted as her regent
34 90629629–641 No image.png Emperor Jomei Tamura (Oki Nagatarashihi Hironuka no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[39]
35 90642642–645 Empress Kogyoku-Saimei.jpg Empress Kōgyoku Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates;[40] reigned twice
36 90645645–654 No image.png Emperor Kōtoku Karu (Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[41]
37 90655655–661 Empress Kogyoku-Saimei.jpg Empress Saimei Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates;[42] second reign of Empress Kōgyoku
38 90661661–672 Hyakuninisshu 001.jpg Emperor Tenji Katsuragi/Nakano-ooe (Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Mikoto/Amatsu Mikoto Sakiwake no Mikoto) Traditional dates[43]
39 90672672 No image.png Emperor Kōbun Ōtomo Traditional dates;[44] usurped by Temmu; posthumously named (1870)
40 90672672–686 Emperor Temmu.jpg Emperor Temmu Ōama/Ohoshiama/Ōsama (Ame no Nunahara Oki no Mahito no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[45]
41 90686686–697 Hyakuninisshu 002.jpg Empress Jitō Unonosarara (Takama no Harahiro no Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[46]
42 90697697–707 Monmu.gif Emperor Mommu Karu (Ame no Mamune Toyoohoji no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[47]
43 90707707–715 Empress Gemmei.jpg Empress Gemmei Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[48]
Nara Period (710–794)
43 90707707–715 Empress Gemmei.jpg Empress Gemmei Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[48]
44 90715715–724 Empress Genshō.jpg Empress Genshō Hidaka/Niinomi (Yamatoneko Takamizu Kiyotarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[49]
45 90724724–749 Emperor Shomu.jpg Emperor Shōmu Obito (Ameshirushi Kunioshiharuki Toyosakurahiko no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[50]
46 90749749–758 No image.png Empress Kōken Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates;[51] reigned twice
47 90758758–764 No image.png Emperor Junnin Ōi Traditional dates[52] dethroned by Shōtoku; posthumously named (1870)
48 90764764–770 No image.png Empress Shōtoku Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates;[53] second reign of Empress Kōken
49 90770770–781 No image.png Emperor Kōnin Shirakabe (Amemune Takatsugi no Mikoto) Traditional dates[54]
0145 90201posthumous reign Prince Sawara (Sudō-Tennō) Sawara-shinnō Traditional dates. Only recorded instance of posthumously elevated Emperor in Japan.
50 90781781–806 Emperor Kammu large.jpg Emperor Kammu Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) Traditional dates[55]
Heian Period (794–1185)
50 90781781–806 Emperor Kammu large.jpg Emperor Kammu Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) Traditional dates[55]
51 90806806–809 No image.png Emperor Heizei Ate (Yamatoneko Ameoshikuni Takahiko no Mikoto) Traditional dates[56]
52 90809809–823 Emperor Saga large.jpg Emperor Saga Kamino Traditional dates[57]
53 90823823–833 No image.png Emperor Junna Ōtomo Traditional dates[58]
54 90833833–850 No image.png Emperor Ninmyō Masara Traditional dates[59]
55 90850850–858 Emperor Montoku.jpg Emperor Montoku Michiyasu Traditional dates[60]
56 90858858–876 Emperor Seiwa.jpg Emperor Seiwa Korehito Traditional dates[61]
57 90876876–884 Hyakuninisshu 013.jpg Emperor Yōzei Sadaakira Traditional dates[62]
58 90884884–887 Tennō Kōkō.jpg Emperor Kōkō Tokiyasu Traditional dates[63]
59 90887887–897 Emperor Uda large.jpg Emperor Uda Sadami Traditional dates[64]
60 90897897–930 Emperor Daigo.jpg Emperor Daigo Atsuhito Traditional dates[65]
61 90930930–946 Tennō Suzaku detail.jpg Emperor Suzaku Yutaakira Traditional dates[66]
62 90946946–967 Emperor Murakami.jpg Emperor Murakami Nariakira Traditional dates[67]
63 90967967–969 No image.png Emperor Reizei Norihira Traditional dates[68]
64 90969969–984 No image.png Emperor En'yū Morihira Traditional dates[69]
65 90984984–986 Tennō Kazan detail.jpg Emperor Kazan Morosada Traditional dates[70]
66 90986986–1011 Emperor Ichijō.jpg Emperor Ichijō Yasuhito/Kanehito Traditional dates[71]
67 910111011–1016 Hyakuninisshu 068.jpg Emperor Sanjō Okisada/Iyasada Traditional dates[72]
68 910161016–1036 No image.png Emperor Go-Ichijō Atsuhira Traditional dates[73]
69 910361036–1045 No image.png Emperor Go-Suzaku Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi Traditional dates[74]
70 910451045–1068 No image.png Emperor Go-Reizei Chikahito Traditional dates[75]
71 910681068–1073 No image.png Emperor Go-Sanjō Takahito Traditional dates[76]
72 910731073–1086 No image.png Emperor Shirakawa Sadahito Traditional dates[77]
73 910871087–1107 No image.png Emperor Horikawa Taruhito Traditional dates[78]
74 911071107–1123 Emperor Toba.jpg Emperor Toba Munehito Traditional dates[79]
75 911231123–1142 Emperor Sutoku2.jpg Emperor Sutoku Akihito Traditional dates[80]
76 911421142–1155 No image.png Emperor Konoe Narihito Traditional dates[81]
77 911551155–1158 Emperor Go-Shirakawa2.jpg Emperor Go-Shirakawa Masahito Traditional dates[82]
78 911581158–1165 Nijotenno.jpg Emperor Nijō Morihito Traditional dates[83]
79 911651165–1168 No image.png Emperor Rokujō Yorihito Traditional dates[84]
80 911681168–1180 Emperor Takakura.jpg Emperor Takakura Norihito Traditional dates[84]
81 911801180–1185 Emperor Antoku.jpg Emperor Antoku Tokihito Traditional dates[85]
Kamakura Period (1185–1333)
82 911831183–1198 Emperor Go-Toba.jpg Emperor Go-Toba Takahira Traditional dates[86]
83 911981198–1210 Emperor Tsuchimikado.jpg Emperor Tsuchimikado Tamehito Traditional dates[87]
84 912101210–1221 Emperor Juntoku large.jpg Emperor Juntoku Morihira/Morinari Traditional dates[88]
85 912211221 No image.png Emperor Chūkyō Kanehira/Kanenari Traditional dates;[89] posthumously named (1870)
86 912211221–1232 Emperor Go-Horikawa.jpg Emperor Go-Horikawa Yutahito Traditional dates[90]
87 912321232–1242 Emperor Shijō.jpg Emperor Shijō Mitsuhito/Hidehito Traditional dates[91]
88 912421242–1246 Emperor Go-Saga.jpg Emperor Go-Saga Kunihito Traditional dates[92]
89 912461246–1260 No image.png Emperor Go-Fukakusa Hisahito Traditional dates[93]
90 912601260–1274 Emperor Kameyama.jpg Emperor Kameyama Tsunehito Traditional dates[94]
91 912741274–1287 Emperor Go-Uda2.jpg Emperor Go-Uda Yohito Traditional dates[95]
92 912871287–1298 Emperor Fushimi.jpg Emperor Fushimi Hirohito Traditional dates[96]
93 912981298–1301 Emperor Go-Fushimi.jpg Emperor Go-Fushimi Tanehito Traditional dates[97]
94 913011301–1308 Emperor Go-Nijō.jpg Emperor Go-Nijō Kuniharu Traditional dates[98]
95 913081308–1318 Tennō Hanazono detail.jpg Emperor Hanazono Tomihito Traditional dates[99]
96 913181318–1339 Emperor Godaigo.jpg Emperor Go-Daigo Takaharu Traditional dates;[100] Southern Court
Northern Court (1333–1392)
0961 913311331–1333 Emperor Kōgon.jpg Emperor Kōgon Kazuhito Traditional dates[101]
0962 913361336–1348 Emperor Kōmyō.jpg Emperor Kōmyō Yutahito Traditional dates[102]
0962 913481348–1351 No image.png Emperor Sukō Okihito Traditional dates[103]
0962 913511351–1352 Interregnum
0963 913521352–1371 Emperor Go-Kōgon.jpg Emperor Go-Kōgon Iyahito Traditional dates[104]
0964 913711371–1382 Emperor Go-En'yū detail.jpg Emperor Go-En'yū Ohito Traditional dates[105]
0964 913821382–1392 Emperor Go-Komatsu.jpg Emperor Go-Komatsu Motohito Traditional dates;[106] reunified courts in 1392; see 100 below
Muromachi Period (1333–1573)
96 913181318–1339 Emperor Godaigo.jpg Emperor Go-Daigo Takaharu Traditional dates;[100] Southern Court
97 913391339–1368 Emperor Go-Murakami.jpg Emperor Go-Murakami Norinaga/Noriyoshi Traditional dates; [107] Southern Court
98 913681368–1383 No image.png Emperor Chōkei Yutanari Traditional dates;[108] Southern Court
99 913831383–1392 Emperor Go-Kameyama.jpg Emperor Go-Kameyama Hironari Traditional dates;[109] Southern Court
100 913921392–1412 Emperor Go-Komatsu.jpg Emperor Go-Komatsu Motohito Traditional dates;[110] reunified courts; see also entry in Northern Court section above
101 914121412–1428 No image.png Emperor Shōkō Mihito Traditional dates[111]
102 914281428–1464 Emperor Go-Hanazono.jpg Emperor Go-Hanazono Hikohito Traditional dates[112]
103 914641464–1500 No image.png Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado Fusahito Traditional dates[113]
104 915001500–1526 No image.png Emperor Go-Kashiwabara Katsuhito Traditional dates[114]
105 915261526–1557 Emperor Go-Nara.jpg Emperor Go-Nara Tomohito Traditional dates[115]
106 915571557–1586 Emperor Ogimachi3.jpg Emperor Ōgimachi Michihito Traditional dates[116]
Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1573–1603)
106 915571557–1586 Emperor Ogimachi3.jpg Emperor Ōgimachi Michihito Traditional dates[116]
107 915861586–1611 Emperor Go-Yōzei2.jpg Emperor Go-Yōzei Kazuhito/Katahito Traditional dates[117]
Edo Period (1603–1867)
107 915861586–1611 Emperor Go-Yōzei2.jpg Emperor Go-Yōzei Kazuhito/Katahito Traditional dates[117]
108 916111611–1629 Emperor Go-Mizunoo2.jpg Emperor Go-Mizunoo
(Go-Minoo)
Kotohito Traditional dates[118]
109 916291629–1643 Meisho of Japan.jpg Empress Meishō Okiko Traditional dates[119]
110 916431643–1654 Emperor Go-Kōmyō.jpg Emperor Go-Kōmyō Tsuguhito Traditional dates[120]
111 916551655–1663 Emperor Go-Sai.jpg Emperor Go-Sai Nagahito Traditional dates[121]
112 916631663–1687 Emperor Reigen.jpg Emperor Reigen Satohito Traditional dates[122]
113 916871687–1709 Emperor Higashiyama.jpg Emperor Higashiyama Asahito Traditional dates[123]
114 917091709–1735 Emperor Nakamikado.jpg Emperor Nakamikado Yasuhito Traditional dates[124]
115 917351735–1747 Emperor Sakuramachi.jpg Emperor Sakuramachi Teruhito Traditional dates[125]
116 917471747–1762 Emperor Momozono.jpg Emperor Momozono Toohito Traditional dates[126]
117 917621762–1771 Go-Sakuramachi cropped.jpg Empress Go-Sakuramachi Toshiko Traditional dates[127]
118 917711771–1779 Emperor Go-Momozono.jpg Emperor Go-Momozono Hidehito Traditional dates[128]
119 917801780–1817 Emperor Kōkaku.jpg Emperor Kōkaku Tomohito Traditional dates[129]
120 918171817–1846 Emperor Ninkō.jpg Emperor Ninkō Ayahito Traditional dates[130]
121 918461846–1867 The Emperor Komei.jpg Emperor Kōmei Osahito
Modern Japan (Imperial and Postwar) (1867–present)
122 918671867–1912 Black and white photo of emperor Meiji of Japan.jpg Emperor Meiji Mutsuhito First Emperor of the Empire of Japan.
123 919121912–1926 Emperor Taishō.jpg Emperor Taishō Yoshihito Crown Prince Hirohito served as Sesshō (Prince Regent) 1921–1926.
124 919261926–1989 Hirohito in dress uniform.jpg Emperor Shōwa Hirohito Served as Sesshō (Prince Regent) 1921–1926. Last Emperor of the Empire of Japan.
125 919891989–present Emperor Akihito cropped 3 Barack Obama Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko 20140424 1.jpg Emperor "Kinjō"
(Reigning monarch)
Akihito Referred to as 'the Present Emperor' or Tenno Heika (i.e. His Imperial Majesty the Emperor) in Japanese and as Emperor Akihito in English. His posthumous name is likely to be Emperor Heisei.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric. (2005). "Traditional Order of Tennō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 962.
  2. ^ Nussbaum, "Nengō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 704.
  3. ^ A list of other Japanese calling themselves or being called emperors (追尊天皇, 尊称天皇, 異説に天皇とされる者, 天皇に準ずる者, 自称天皇) can be seen on the Japanese Wikipedia page 天皇の一覧 (List of Japanese monarchs).
  4. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon (Nihon Ōdai Ichiran), pp. 1-3; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 249; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 84-88;
  5. ^ Titsingh, pp. 3-4; Brown, pp. 250-251; Varley, pp. 88-89.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Brown, p. 248.
  7. ^ Titsingh, p. 4; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89.
  8. ^ Titsingh, p. 4; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89.
  9. ^ Titsingh, pp. 4-5; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90.
  10. ^ Titsingh, p. 5; Brown, pp. 251-252; Varley, p. 90.
  11. ^ Titsingh, pp. 5-6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 90-92.
  12. ^ Titsingh, p. 6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 92-93.
  13. ^ Titsingh, pp. 6-7; Brown, p. 252; Varley, p. 93.
  14. ^ Titsingh, pp. 7-9; Brown, p. 253; Varley, p. 93-95.
  15. ^ Titsingh, p. 9-10; Brown, pp. 253-254; Varley, pp. 95-96.
  16. ^ Titsingh, p. 11-14; Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 96-99.
  17. ^ Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 99–100; Titsingh, pp. 14–15.
  18. ^ Brown, pp. 254–255; Varley, pp. 100–101; Titsingh, p. 15.
  19. ^ Brown, p. 255; Varley, pp. 101–103; Titsingh, pp. 16–19.
  20. ^ Titsingh, pp. 19–22; Brown, p. 255-56; Varley, pp. 103–10.
  21. ^ Brown, pp. 256–257; Varley, pp. 110–111; Titsingh, pp. 22–24.
  22. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 111; Titsingh, pp. 24–25.
  23. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 25.
  24. ^ Brown, pp. 257–258; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 26.
  25. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 26.
  26. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, pp. 113–115; Titsingh, pp. 27–28.
  27. ^ Brown, p. 258–259; Varley, pp. 115–116; Titsingh, pp. 28–29.
  28. ^ Brown, p. 259; Varley, p. 116; Titsingh, pp. 29–30.
  29. ^ Titsingh, p. 30; Brown, p. 259-260; Varley, p. 117.
  30. ^ Brown, p. 260; Varley, pp. 117–118; Titsingh, p. 31.
  31. ^ Brown, pp. 260–261; Varley, pp. 17–18, 119–120; Titsingh, p. 31–32.
  32. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, pp. 120–121; Brown, p. 261; Titsingh, p. 33.
  33. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, p. 121; Titsingh, p. 33–34.
  34. ^ Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124; Titsingh, p. 34–36.
  35. ^ Varley, pp. 124–125; Brown, pp. 262–263; Titsingh, p. 36–37.
  36. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, pp. 125–126; Titsingh, p. 37–38.
  37. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, p. 126; Titsingh, p. 38–39.
  38. ^ Brown, pp. 263–264; Varley, pp. 126–129; Titsingh, pp. 39–42.
  39. ^ Brown, pp. 264–265; Varley, pp. 129–130; Titsingh, pp. 42–43.
  40. ^ Brown, pp. 265–266; Varley, pp. 130–132; Titsingh, pp. 43–47.
  41. ^ Brown, pp. 266–267; Varley, pp. 132–133; Titsingh, pp. 47–50.
  42. ^ Brown, p. 267; Varley, pp. 133–134; Titsingh, pp. 50–52.
  43. ^ Brown, p. 268; Varley, p. 135; Titsingh, pp. 52–56.
  44. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 56–58.
  45. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 58–59.
  46. ^ Brown, pp. 269–270; Varley, pp. 136–137; Titsingh, pp. 59–60.
  47. ^ Brown, pp. 270–271; Varley, pp. 137–140; Titsingh, pp. 60–63.
  48. ^ a b Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63–65.
  49. ^ Brown, p. 271–272; Varley, pp. 140–141; Titsingh, pp. 65–67.
  50. ^ Brown, pp. 272–273; Varley, pp. 141–143; Titsingh, pp. 67–73.
  51. ^ Brown, pp. 274–275; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73–75.
  52. ^ Brown, p. 275; Varley, pp. 143–144; Titsingh, pp. 75–78.
  53. ^ Brown, p. 276; Varley, pp. 144–147; Titsingh, pp. 78–81.
  54. ^ Brown, p. 276–277; Varley, pp. 147–148; Titsingh, pp. 81–85.
  55. ^ a b Brown, pp. 277–279; Varley, pp. 148–150; Titsingh, pp. 86–95.
  56. ^ Brown, pp. 279–280; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96–97.
  57. ^ Brown, pp. 280–282; Varley, pp. 151–164; Titsingh, pp. 97–102.
  58. ^ Brown, p. 282–283; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103–106.
  59. ^ Brown, pp. 283–284; Varley, pp. 164–165; Titsingh, pp. 106–112.
  60. ^ Brown, pp. 285–286; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, pp. 112–115.
  61. ^ Brown, pp. 286–288; Varley, pp. 166–170; Titsingh, pp. 115–121.
  62. ^ Brown, pp. 288–289; Varley, pp. 170–171; Titsingh, pp. 121–124.
  63. ^ Brown, p. 289; Varley, pp. 171–175; Titsingh, pp. 124–125.
  64. ^ Brown, p. 289–290; Varley, pp. 175–179; Titsingh, pp. 125–129.
  65. ^ Brown, pp. 290–293; Varley, pp. 179–181; Titsingh, pp. 129–134.
  66. ^ Brown, pp. 294–295; Varley, pp. 181–183; Titsingh, pp. 134–138.
  67. ^ Brown, pp. 295–298; Varley, pp. 183–190; Titsingh, pp. 139–142.
  68. ^ Brown, p. 298; Varley, pp. 190–191; Titsingh, pp. 142–143.
  69. ^ Brown, pp. 299–300; Varley, pp. 191–192; Titsingh, pp. 144–148.
  70. ^ Brown, pp. 300–302; Varley, p. 192; Titsingh, pp. 148–149.
  71. ^ Brown, pp. 302–307; Varley, pp. 192–195; Titsingh, pp. 150–154.
  72. ^ Brown, p. 307; Varley, p. 195; Titsingh, pp. 154–155.
  73. ^ Brown, pp. 307–310; Varley, pp. 195–196; Titsingh, pp. 156–160.
  74. ^ Brown, pp. 310–311; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, pp. 160–162.
  75. ^ Brown, pp. 311–314; Varley, pp. 197–198; Titsingh, pp. 162–166.
  76. ^ Brown, pp. 314–315; Varley, pp. 198–199; Titsingh, pp. 166–168.
  77. ^ Brown, pp. 315–317; Varley, pp. 199–202; Titsingh, pp. 169–171.
  78. ^ Brown, pp. 317–320; Varley, p. 202; Titsingh, pp. 172–178.
  79. ^ Brown, pp. 320–322; Varley, pp. 203–204; Titsingh, pp. 178–181.
  80. ^ Brown, pp. 322–324; Varley, pp. 204–205; Titsingh, pp. 181–185.
  81. ^ Brown, pp. 324–326; Varley, p. 205; Titsingh, pp. 186–188.
  82. ^ Brown, p. 326–327; Varley, pp. 205–208; Titsingh, pp. 188–190.
  83. ^ Brown, pp. 327–329; Varley, pp. 208–212; Titsingh, pp. 191–194.
  84. ^ a b Brown, pp. 329–330; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, pp. 194–195.
  85. ^ Brown, pp. 333–334; Varley, pp. 214–215; Titsingh, pp. 200–207.
  86. ^ Brown, pp. 334–339; Varley, pp. 215–220; Titsingh, pp. 207–221.
  87. ^ Brown, pp. 339–341; Varley, pp 220; Titsingh, pp. 221–230.
  88. ^ Brown, pp. 341–343, Varley, pp. 221–223; Titsingh, pp 230–238.
  89. ^ Brown, pp. 343–344; Varley, pp. 223–226; Titsingh, pp. 236–238.
  90. ^ Brown, pp. 344–349; Varley, pp. 226–227; Titsingh, pp. 238–241.
  91. ^ Varley, p. 227; Titsingh, pp. 242–245.
  92. ^ Varley, pp. 228–231; Titsingh, pp. 245–247.
  93. ^ Varley, pp. 231–232; Titsingh, pp. 248–253.
  94. ^ Varley, pp. 232–233; Titsingh, pp. 253–261.
  95. ^ Varley, pp. 233–237; Titsingh, pp. 262–269.
  96. ^ Varley, pp. 237–238; Titsingh, pp. 269–274.
  97. ^ Varley, pp. 238–239; Titsingh, pp. 274–275.
  98. ^ Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, pp. 275–278.
  99. ^ Varley, pp. 239–241; Titsingh, pp. 278–281.
  100. ^ a b Varley, pp. 241–269; Titsingh, pp. 281–286, and Titsingh, p. 290–294.
  101. ^ Titsingh, pp. 286–289.
  102. ^ Titsingh, pp. 294–298.
  103. ^ Titsingh, pp. 298–301.
  104. ^ Titsingh, pp. 302–309.
  105. ^ Titsingh, pp. 310–316.
  106. ^ Titsingh, pp. 317-327.
  107. ^ Varley, pp. 269–270 | Titsingh, p. .
  108. ^ Titsingh, p. .
  109. ^ [Titsingh, p. ]–320.
  110. ^ Titsingh, pp. 320–327.
  111. ^ Titsingh, pp. 327–331.
  112. ^ Titsingh, pp. 331–351.
  113. ^ Titsingh, pp. 352–364.
  114. ^ Titsingh, pp. 364–372.
  115. ^ Titsingh, pp. 372–382.
  116. ^ a b Titsingh, pp. 382–402.
  117. ^ a b Titsingh, pp. 402–409.
  118. ^ Titsingh, pp. 410–411.
  119. ^ Titsingh, pp. 411–412.
  120. ^ Titsingh, pp. 412–413.
  121. ^ Titsingh, p. 413.
  122. ^ Titsingh, pp. 414–415.
  123. ^ Titsingh, pp. 415–416.
  124. ^ Titsingh, pp. 416–417.
  125. ^ Titsingh, pp. 417–418.
  126. ^ Titisngh, pp. 418–419.
  127. ^ Titsingh, p. 419.
  128. ^ Titsingh, pp. 419–420.
  129. ^ Titsingh, pp. 420–421.
  130. ^ Titsingh, p. 421.

References[edit]

External links[edit]