List of English-language idioms

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This is a list of notable idioms in the English language.

An idiom is a common word or phrase with a culturally understood meaning that differs from what its composite words' denotations would suggest. For example, an English speaker would understand the phrase "kick the bucket" to mean "to die" – as well as to actually kick a bucket. Furthermore, they would understand when each meaning is being used in context. An idiom is not to be confused with other figures of speech such as a metaphor, which invokes an image by use of implicit comparisons (e.g., "the man of steel" ); a simile, which invokes an image by use of explicit comparisons (e.g., "faster than a speeding bullet"); and hyperbole, which exaggerates an image beyond truthfulness (e.g., like "missed by a mile" ). Idioms are also not to be confused with proverbs, which are simple sayings that express a truth based on common sense or practical experience.

For a more complete list see Wiktionary's Category.

Notable Idioms In English
Idiom Source Definition/Translation Notes
"A bitter pill" [1] A situation or information that is unpleasant but must be accepted.
"A dime a dozen" [2] Anything that is common, inexpensive, and easy to get or available any where.
"Ace in the hole" [3] A hidden or secret strength, or unrevealed advantage.
"Achilles' heel" [4] A metaphor for a fatal weakness in spite of overall strength.
"Add insult to injury" [5] To further a loss with mockery or indignity; to worsen an unfavorable situation.
"All ears" [6] Listening intently; fully focused or awaiting an explanation.
"All thumbs" [7] Clumsy, awkward.
"Apple of discord" [8] Anything causing trouble, discord, or jealousy.
"At the drop of a hat" Without any hesitation; instantly.
"Barking up the wrong tree" [9] Looking in the wrong place. [note 1]
"Basket case" One made powerless or ineffective, as by nerves, panic, or stress. [note 2]
"Beat around the bush" To treat a topic, but omit its main points, often intentionally or to delay or avoid talking about something difficult or unpleasant.
"Bite off more than one can chew" To take on more responsibility than one can manage.
"Bite the bullet" To endure a painful or unpleasant situation that is unavoidable.
"Bite the dust" Euphemism for dying or death.
"Break a leg" [10] A saying from the theatre that means "good luck".
"Burn the midnight oil" [11] To work late into the night, alluding to the time before electric lighting. [note 3]
"Bust one's chops" [12] To say things intended to harass. [note 4]
"By the seat of one's pants" [13] To achieve through instinct or do something without advance preparation.
"By the skin of one's teeth" [14] Narrowly; barely. Usually used in regard to a narrow escape from a disaster. [note 5]
"Call it a day" [15] To declare the end of a task. [note 6]
Cat nap Short sleep.
"Champ at the bit" or "Chomp at the bit" [16][better source needed] To show impatience or frustration when delayed.
"Chew the fat" To chat idly or generally waste time talking.
"Chink in one's armor" [17] An area of vulnerability [note 7]
"Clam up" To become silent; to stop talking, to shut up.
"Cold shoulder" [18] To display aloofness and disdain.
"Couch potato" [19] A lazy person.
"Cut a rug" To dance
"Cut the cheese" To pass gas, fart, break wind
"Cut the mustard" To succeed; to come up to expectations.
"Don't have a cow " Don't overreact.
"Drop a dime " Make a telephone call; to be an informant.
"Fit as a fiddle" [20] In good physical health.
"For a song" Almost free. Very cheap.
"From A to Z" Covering a complete range; comprehensively.
"From scratch / to make from scratch" Make from original ingredients; start from the beginning with no prior preparation
"Get bent out of shape" To take offense; to get worked up, aggravated, or annoyed
"Have a blast" [21] To have a good time or to enjoy oneself.
"Have eyes in the back of one's head " Someone can perceive things and events that are outside of their field of vision.
"Hit the road " To leave.
"Hit the sack "/sheets/hay To go to bed.
"Let the cat out of the bag " To reveal a secret.
"Kick the bucket" Euphemism for dying or death.
"Off one's trolley" or
"Off one's rocker"
[22] Crazy, demented, out of one's mind, in a confused or befuddled state of mind, senile. [note 8]
"Off the hook" [23] To escape a situation of responsibility, obligation, or (less frequently) danger.
"Pop one's clogs" (UK) Euphemism for dying or death.
"Piece of cake " A job, task or other activity that is pleasant – or, by extension, easy or simple.
"Pull somebody's leg" To tease or to joke by telling a lie.
"Pushing up daisies" Euphemism for dying or death.
"Put the cat among the pigeons" [24] To create a disturbance and cause trouble.
"Right as rain" [25] Needed, appropriate, essential, or hoped-for and has come to mean perfect, well, absolutely right. [note 9]
"Screw the pooch" To screw up; to fail in dramatic and ignominious fashion.
"Shoot the breeze" To chat idly or generally waste time talking.
"Sleep with the fishes" Euphemism for dying or death. [note 10]
"Spill the beans" Reveal someone's secret.
"Split the whistle" To arrive just on time.
"Take the biscuit (UK)" To be particularly bad, objectionable, or egregious.
"Take the cake (US)" To be especially good or outstanding.
"Through thick and thin" In both good and bad times.
"Thumb one's nose" To express scorn or to disregard.
"Trip the light fantastic" To dance
"Under the weather" [26] Feel sick or poorly
"You can say that again" That is very true; expression of wholehearted agreement


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A bitter pill". The free dictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  2. ^ "IdiomSite.com - Find out the meanings of common sayings". Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  3. ^ "Ace in the hole". The free dictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  4. ^ "Achilles' heel". phrases.org.uk free. 
  5. ^ "Re: Adding insult to injury". The Phrase Finder. 3 March 2008. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  6. ^ "All ears". The free dictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  7. ^ "Idioms = "All Thumbs" = Today's English Idioms & Phrases". Goenglish.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  8. ^ "Idioms.in - Idioms and Phrases.". Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  9. ^ "Barking up the wrong tree". The Phrase Finder. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  10. ^ Urdang, Laurence; Hunsinger, Walter W.; LaRoche, Nancy (1985). Picturesque Expressions: A Thematic Dictionary (2 ed.). Gale Research. p. 321. ISBN 0-8103-1606-4. 
  11. ^ "Burning the midnight oil". The Phrase Finder. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  12. ^ "Idioms & Axioms currently used in America". Pride UnLimited. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  13. ^ "Idiom: By the seat of your pants". www.usingenglish.com. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Skin of your teeth". Idiom site.com. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  15. ^ "American-English idiom Call it a day". Quotations.me.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  16. ^ "Champ at the bit - Wiktionary". wiktionary.org. Retrieved 2013-12-05. 
  17. ^ "Chink in one's armor | Define Chink in one's armor at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  18. ^ "The Phrase Finder". 
  19. ^ "My English Pages". 
  20. ^ "Idiom: Fit as a fiddle". UsingEnglish.com. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  21. ^ "Have a blast". iStudyEnglishOnline.com. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 
  22. ^ Greenwald, Ken (24 June 2005). "off your rocker". wordwizard.com. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  23. ^ "Off the hook". Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved 2013-04-05. 
  24. ^ "Random Idiom Definition - put the cat among the pigeons". myenglishpages.com. Retrieved 2013-05-03. 
  25. ^ "Right as rain". Islandnet.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011. 
  26. ^ "Freedictionary dot com". 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Originally a hunting term.
  2. ^ Originally a British slang term for a quadruple amputee during World War I.
  3. ^ Originating with the English writer Francis Quarles who wrote:
    "Wee spend our mid-day sweat, or mid-night oyle;
    Wee tyre the night in thought; the day in toyle."
  4. ^ At the turn of the century, wearing very long sideburns – called mutton chops was common. A bust in the chops was to get hit in the face.
  5. ^ The phrase first appears in English in the Geneva Bible (1560), in Job 19:20, which provides a literal translation of the original Hebrew
    "I haue escaped with the skinne of my tethe."
  6. ^ Its 19th-century predecessor is seen in the line "It would have been best for Merlin... to quit and call it half a day", from the novel A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889) by Mark Twain (page 271)[clarification needed]
  7. ^ Chink here is generally used in the sense of fissure; it may also be used as a derogatory racial slur.
  8. ^ Since both "off one's trolley" and "off one's rocker" became popular in the late 1890s about the same time streetcars were installed in major American cities, and since "rocker", like "trolley", means the wheel or runner that makes contact with an overhead electric cable, it is likely that the "rocker" of the expression carries the same meaning as "trolley". "Off your trolley" may refer to the fact that when the wires are "off the trolley", the vehicle no longer receives an electric current and is, therefore, rendered inoperative.
  9. ^ Years ago, most agriculture depended on rain. The life of everyone in a village depended on the success of the local crops which in turn depended on rain. Rain was essential to survival.
  10. ^ The original text in Mario Puzo's book The Godfather (1969) read: “The fish means that Luca Brasi is sleeping on the bottom of the ocean,” he said. “It’s an old Sicilian message.”."