List of English words of Arabic origin (T-Z)

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The following English words have been acquired either directly from Arabic or else indirectly by passing from Arabic into other languages and then into English. Most entered one or more of the Romance languages before entering English.

To qualify for this list, a word must be reported in etymology dictionaries as having descended from Arabic. A handful of dictionaries has been used as the source for the list.[1] Words associated with the Islamic religion are omitted; for Islamic words, see Glossary of Islam. Archaic and rare words are also omitted. A bigger listing including many words very rarely seen in English is available at Wiktionary dictionary.

Loanwords listed in alphabetical order[edit]


tabla (percussion instrument in music of India) 
طبل tabl, drum. English tabla is from Hindi/Urdu tabla, which is from Persian tabla = "small drum", Persian tabl = "drum", and Arabic tabl; and the Persian word is from the Arabic word. Tabl in Arabic has been the usual word for drum (noun and verb) since the beginning of written records.[2] [1]
طحينة tahīna, tahini. Derives from the Arabic verb for "grind" and is related to tahīn = "flour". The written Arabic tahīna is pronounced "taheeny" in Levantine Arabic. The word entered English directly from Levantine Arabic around year 1900. More recently it can be found in English in the word-form tahina. [2]
طلق talq, mica or talc. Common in medieval Arabic. Documented in Latin alchemy from around 1300 onward. Not common in the West until the later 16th century.[3] [3]
طلسم tilsam | tilasm, talisman. The Arabic came from Late Greek telesma = "consecration rite". Medievally in Arabic and Syriac it was used in the sense of "incantation" sometimes. Al-Masudi (died 956) and Ibn al-Awwam (died c. 1200) are examples of Arabic writers who used the word in the sense of an astrology-based talisman. An 11th-century, 400-page Arabic book about occult magic, astrology and talismans, the book entitled the Ghāyat al-Hakīm, uses the word about 200 times in the sense of a talisman, meaning an image with talismanic powers created through the guidance of astrology. The word entered astrology in the West with this meaning in the early 17th century, beginning in French. Early users in French said the word came from Arabic.[4] [4]
تمر هندي tamr hindī (literally: "Indian date"), tamarind. Tamarinds were in use in ancient India. They were not known to the ancient Greeks and Romans. They entered medieval Latin medical practice from Arabic. In English the early records are in translations of Latin medical texts. Tamarind's medieval medical uses were various.[5] [5]
tanbur, tanbura, tambur, tambura, tambouras, tamburica, tembûr 
These are all long-necked plucked string musical instruments. From Arabic طنبور ṭunbūr (also ṭanbūr), long-necked plucked string instrument. The word occurs early and often in medieval Arabic. It was also in use in Early Medieval Aramaic.[6] The English tambourine, a percussive instrument, is without any documentary evidence that would etymologically relate it. Likewise tambour = "drum" is either unrelated to tambur = "string instrument" or else the relation is poorly understood.[7] [6]
طنجة Tanja, port city in Morocco: Tangier ("Tanger" in most European languages). Tangerine oranges or mandarin oranges were not introduced to the Mediterranean region until the early 19th century.[8] The English word "tangerine" arose in the UK in the early 1840s from shipments of tangerine oranges from Tangier. The word origin was in the UK.[9] The Arabic name for a tangerine is unrelated. The city existed in pre-Arabic times named "Tingi". [7]
tare (weight) 
طرحة tarha, a discard (something discarded; from root tarah, to throw). The tare weight is defined in English as the weight of a package that's empty. To get the net weight of goods in a package, you weigh the goods in their package, which is the gross weight, and then discard the tare weight. Catalan tara dates from 1271,[10] French tare 1311, Italian tara 1332,[11] England tare 1380.[12] The word is seen in Spanish around 1400 in the form atara, which helps affirm Arabic ancestry[13] (the leading 'a' in atara is the vestige of the Arabic definite article[14]). It is spelled tara in today's Spanish, Italian, German, and Russian. [8]
تعريف taʿrīf, notification, specification (from ʿarraf, to notify). The word was widely used in medieval Arabic and meant any kind of notification or specification.[15] In the West in late medieval Mediterranean commerce it meant a tabular statement of inventory on a merchant ship (bill of lading) or any tabular statement of products and prices offered for sale. In use by Italian and Catalan merchants in the 14th century. Entered French and English in the 16th as a tabular statement. Spanish tarifa is not on record before the late 17th.[16] From the meaning of a tabular statement of import tax liabilities on different goods, the meaning of an import tax grew out by metonymy. [9]
tarragon (herb) 
طرخون tarkhūn, tarragon. The word with that sense was used by Ibn Al-Baitar (died 1248), who gives a description of the plant and mentions both culinary and medical uses.[17] Tarkhūn comes up in a medical context in Al-Razi (died circa 930), and in a culinary context in Ibn al-Awwam (died circa 1200).[17] In later-medieval Latin (late 12th century onward) it comes up in a medicine context spelled altarcon, tarchon and tragonia and was acknowledged at the time to be from Arabic. Until then in Latin there is no record of the plant under any name, or at least no clear record. Records for Italian tarcone, French targon, Spanish tarragoncia, English tarragon and German Tragon all start in the 16th century and in a culinary context.[18] [10]
tazza, demitasse 
طاسة tāsa | طسّة tassa, round, shallow, drinking cup or bowl. The word has been in all the western Romance languages since the 13th and 14th centuries.[11] It was common in Arabic for many centuries before that.[15] English had it as tass in the 16th century, which continued much later in colloquial use in Scotland, but today's English tazza and demitasse came from Italian and French in the 19th century. [11]
التنّ al-tunn, tunafish. The standard etymology report is: Ancient Greek and classical Latin thunnus = "tunafish" -> medieval Arabic al-tunn (or al-tūn) -> medieval Spanish atún -> colloquial American Spanish tuna -> late 19th century California tuna -> international English. Note: Modern Italian tonno, French thon, and English tunny, each meaning tuna, are descended from the classical Latin without an Arabic intermediary. Note: Isidore of Seville (died 636, lived in southern Spain) spelled it thynnus in Latin, where the Latin letter 'y' in Isidore's case was likely pronounced "eu", roughly like in British "tuna", which was roughly how the letter 'y' was pronounced in classical Latin.[19] Note: The word was common in ancient Greek and Latin; and common in late medieval Spanish; but a rarity in medieval Arabic, and it is not listed in medieval Arabic dictionaries.[20] [12]. The Albacore species of tunafish got its name from 16th century Spanish & Portuguese albacora, which might be from Arabic, although there is no clear precedent in Arabic.[21] [13]. In the tuna family the Bonito is another commercial fish species whose name comes from Spanish. The name is in late medieval Spanish, and it might have got there from Arabic, or might not.[22] [14]
see Monsoon


varanoid (in lizard taxonomy), Varanus (lizard genus) 
ورل waral and locally (particularly in Algeria) ورن waran, varanoid lizard especially Varanus griseus. In Europe in the 16th to 18th centuries it was usually spelled with an L, e.g. "varal" (1677, French), "oûaral" (1725, French), "worral" (1828 English dictionary), but certain influential writers in the early 19th century adopted the N spelling.[23] The V in place of W reflects Latinization. Historically in Latin and Romance languages there was no letter W. [15]
see sultan


سمت samt, direction; سمت الرأس samt al-rā's, direction vertically upwards, zenithal direction, literally the "top direction". Samt al-rā's is in the astronomy books of, for example, Al-Farghani (lived mid 9th century)[24] and Al-Battani (died 929),[25] both of whom were translated to Latin in the 12th century. From its use in astronomy in Arabic, the term was borrowed into astronomy in Latin in the 12th century, with the first record in the West in the Arabic-to-Latin translation of Al-Battani.[25] Crossref the word nadir, whose first record in the West is in the very same Arabic-to-Latin translation. [16]
صفر sifr, zero. The use of zero as one of the elementary digits was the Hindu-Arabic numeral system's key innovation. Medieval Arabic sifr -> Latin zephirum = "zero" (used in 1202 by Leonardo of Pisa, who was one of the early Latin adopters of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system) -> Old Italian zefiro (used by Piero Borgi in the 1480s)[26] -> contracted to zero in Old Italian before 1485 -> French zéro 1485[11] -> English zero 1604; rare in English before 1800.[27] Crossref cipher. [17]

Addendum for words that may or may not be of Arabic ancestry[edit]

English tambourine is from French tambourin = "small drum" (15th century), which is from French tambour = "drum" (14th century), which is from French tabour = "drum" (13th century), which is from French tabour = "military drum used by Muslim armies" (12th century).[11] Which is probably from Arabic طبول taboul = "military drums, and any drums". Military drums were not in use in French armies nor other Western armies at the time when the word emerged in French in the 12th century as a military drum. All the early records in French are in a genre of military-legend ballad-poetry known as chansons de geste in which war-drums are pounded by the enemy side and the enemy is non-Christian. Taboul is the usual word for drums in Arabic since the beginning of written records. In evaluating this etymology, different people have expressed different judgements about the prior probability of the phonetic change involved in the step from taboul to tabour.[28]
tartar (a chemical), tartrates (chemicals), tartaric acid 
Early records of tartar as a chemical name in Latin are in the mid-12th century in the medical books of the Salernitan school of medicine in southern Italy, spelled tartarum, designating a substance that consisted mainly of what is now called potassium bitartrate.[29] The ancient Greeks and Romans used this substance, including in medicine (e.g. Dioscorides in Greek in the 1st century AD called it trux[30]). The name tartar is not in classical Latin or Greek in any chemical sense, although there was a classical mythological hell called Tartarus. The origin of the medieval Latin name is obsure. A parent in Arabic has been speculatively suggested by a number of dictionaries. A parent in Byzantine Greek is also speculated. [18]
The English word comes from Spanish. A majority of dictionaries say the Spanish comes from the Amerindian language of Haiti. But: "Spanish tabaco (also Italian tabacco) was a name of medicinal herbs from circa 1410, from Arabic tabbaq, attested since the 9th century as the name of various herbs. So the word may be a European one transferred to an American plant."[31] [19]
This word, which is in the great majority of European languages today, is seen earliest in early 14th century Italian.[11] Records from the port of Pisa in the 1320s have noun traffico and verb trafficare.[32] The early meaning was "bringing merchandise to a distant selling market", more often than not by sea, "commerce, usually and especially long-distance commerce". The origin is obscure: various propositions have been aired from Latin and Arabic sources but none convincingly. The following are Arabic loanwords in English that got established in later medieval commerce on the Mediterranean Sea with start dates in Italian (also Catalan) earlier than Spanish or Portuguese: arsenal, average, carat, carrack, garble, magazine, sequin, tare (weight), and tariff. In view of those borrowings, and because "traffic" lacks a convincing derivation from Latin, an Arabic source for "traffic" is a possibility. [20]
zircon, zirconium 
Today's definitions for zircon and zirconium were set by chemists in Germany around the year 1800. Medieval Arabic زرقون zarqūn meant cinnabar, red lead, and similar minerals. The Arabic was clearly borrowed into Spanish and Portuguese as azarcon | zarcão with the same meaning as the Arabic. But the connection between those and zircon is obscure. About half the etymology dictionaries take the position that zircon's ancestry is not known beyond the late-18th-century German word Zirkon. The other half say zircon descends from Arabic somehow, or probably does.[33] [21]

Addenda for certain specialist vocabularies[edit]

Islamic terms[edit]

Main article: Glossary of Islam

Arabic astronomical and astrological names[edit]

Arabic botanical names[edit]

The following plant names entered medieval Latin texts from Arabic. Today, in descent from the medieval Latin, they are international systematic classification names (commonly known as "Latin" names): Azadirachta, Berberis, Cakile, Carthamus, Cuscuta, Doronicum, Galanga, Musa, Nuphar, Ribes, Senna, Taraxacum, Usnea, Physalis alkekengi, Melia azedarach, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula, Cheiranthus cheiri, Piper cubeba, Phyllanthus emblica, Peganum harmala, Salsola kali, Prunus mahaleb, Datura metel, Daphne mezereum, Rheum ribes, Jasminum sambac, Cordia sebestena, Operculina turpethum, Curcuma zedoaria, Alpinia zerumbet + Zingiber zerumbet. (List incomplete.)[34]

Over eighty percent of those botanical names were introduced to medieval Latin in a herbal medicine context. The Arabic-to-Latin translation of Ibn Sina's The Canon of Medicine helped establish many Arabic plant names in later medieval Latin, especially of medicinal plants of tropical Asian source for which there had been no prior Latin or Greek name, such as azedarach, bellerica, cubeba, emblica, galanga, metel, turpethum, zedoaria and zerumbet.[34] A book about medicating agents by Serapion the Younger containing hundreds of Arabic botanical words circulated in Latin among apothecaries in the 14th and 15th centuries.[35] Medieval Arabic botany was primarily concerned with the use of plants for medicines. In a modern etymology analysis of one medieval Arabic list of medicines, the names of the medicines —primarily plant names— were assessed to be 31% ancient Mesopotamian names, 23% Greek names, 18% Persian, 13% Indian (often via Persian), 5% uniquely Arabic, and 3% Egyptian, with the remaining 7% of unassessable origin.[36]

The Italian botanist Prospero Alpini stayed in Egypt for several years in the 1580s. He introduced to Latin botany from Arabic from Egypt the names Abrus, Abelmoschus, Lablab, Melochia, each of which designated plants that were unknown to Western European botanists before Alpini, plants native to tropical Asia that were grown with artificial irrigation in Egypt at the time.[37]

In the early 1760s Peter Forsskål systematically cataloged plants and fishes in the Red Sea area. For genera and species that did not already have Latin names, Forsskål used the common Arabic names as the scientific names. This became the international standard for most of what he cataloged. Forsskål's Latinized Arabic plant genus names include Aerva, Arnebia, Cadaba, Ceruana, Maerua, Maesa, Themeda, and others.[38]

Some additional miscellaneous botanical names with Arabic ancestry include Abutilon, Alchemilla, Alhagi, Argania, argel, Averrhoa, Avicennia, azarolus + acerola, bonduc, lebbeck, Retama, seyal.[39] (List incomplete).

Arabic textile words[edit]

The list above included the six textiles cotton, damask, gauze, macrame, mohair, & muslin, and several textile dyes. The following are six lesser-used textile fabric words that were not listed. Some of them are archaic. Baldachin [22], Barracan [23], Camaca [24], Camlet[40] [25], Morocco leather[41] [26], and Tabby [27]. Those have established Arabic ancestry. The following are six textile fabric words whose ancestry is not established and not adequately in evidence, but Arabic ancestry is entertained by many reporters. Five of the six have Late Medieval start dates in the Western languages and the sixth started in the 16th century. Buckram [28], Chiffon [29], Fustian [30], Gabardine [31], Satin [32], and Wadding (padding) [33]. The fabric Taffeta [34] has provenance in 14th-century French and Italian and is believed to come ultimately from a Persian word for woven (tāftah), and it might have Arabic intermediation. Fustic [35] is a textile dye. The name dates from the late medieval Spanish fustet dye, which is often thought to be from Arabic فستق fustuq = "pistachio".[42] Carthamin is another old textile dye. Its name was borrowed in the late medieval West from Arabic قرطم qartam | qirtim | qurtum = "the carthamin dye plant or its seeds".[43] The textile industry was the largest manufacturing industry in the Arabic-speaking lands in the medieval and early modern eras.

Arabic cuisine words[edit]

Part of the vocabulary of Middle Eastern cuisine is from Turkish, not Arabic. The following words are from Arabic, although some of them have entered the West via Turkish. Baba ghanoush, Couscous, Falafel, Fattoush, Halva, Hummus, Kibbeh, Kebab, Lahmacun, Shawarma, Tabouleh, Tahini, Za'atar .... and some cuisine words of lesser circulation are Ful medames, Kabsa, Kushari, Labneh, Mahlab, Mulukhiyah, Ma'amoul, Mansaf, Shanklish, Tepsi Baytinijan .... For more see Arab cuisine.

Arabic music words[edit]

Some words used in English in talking about Arabic music: Ataba, Baladi, Dabke, Darbouka, Khaleeji, Maqam, Mawal, Mizmar, Oud, Qanun, Raï, Raqs sharqi, Takht, Taqsim.

Notes about the List[edit]

The various etymology dictionaries are not always consistent with each other. This reflects differences in judgment about the reliability or uncertainty of a given etymological derivation.

Obsolete words and very rarely used non-technical words are not included in the list, but some specialist technical words are included. For example, the technical word "alidade" comes from the Arabic name for an ancient measuring device used to determine line-of-sight direction. Despite few English-speaking people being acquainted with it, the device's name remains part of the vocabulary of English-speaking surveyors, and today's instrument uses modern technology, and is included in the list.

There are no words on the list where the transfer from Arabic to a Western language occurred before the ninth century AD; the earliest records of transfer are in ninth century Latin. Before then some words were transferred into Latin from Semitic sources (usually via Greek intermediation), including some that later ended up in English, but in most cases the Semitic source was not Arabic and in the rest of the cases it is impossible to know whether the Semitic source was Arabic or not. See List of English words of Semitic origin, excluding words known to be of Hebrew or Arabic origin.

The list has been restricted to loan words: It excludes loan translations. Here's an example of a loan translation. Surrounding the brain and spinal chord is a tough outer layer of membrane called the dura mater. The words dura and mater are each in Latin from antiquity. Medieval Latin dura mater [cerebri], literally "hard mother [of the brain]" is a loan-translation of Arabic الأمّ الجافية al-umm al-jāfīa [al-dimāgh], literally "dry-husk mother [of the brain]" (a dry husk is a hard shell), and the translator in this case was Constantinus Africanus.[44] In Arabic the words father, mother and son are often used to denote relationships between things. As another well-known example of a loan-translation, the word "sine"—as in sine, cosine and tangent—has its first record with that meaning in an Arabic-to-Latin book translation in the 12th century, translating Arabic jayb. Jayb had a second and quite unrelated meaning in Arabic that was translatable to Latin as sinus and the translator took up that connection to confer a new meaning to the Latin sinus, in preference to borrowing the foreign word jayb, and the translator was (probably) Gerard of Cremona.[45] About half of the loan-words on the list have their earliest record in a Western language in the 12th or 13th century. Some additional, unquantified number of terms were brought into the West in the 12th and 13th centuries by Arabic-to-Latin translators who used loan-translations in preference to loan-words. Some related information is at Translations from Arabic to Latin in the 12th century.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The dictionaries used to compile the list are these: Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales: Etymologies, Online Etymology Dictionary, Random House Dictionary, Concise Oxford English Dictionary, American Heritage Dictionary, Collins English Dictionary, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Arabismen im Deutschen: lexikalische Transferenzen vom Arabischen ins Deutsche, by Raja Tazi (year 1998), A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (a.k.a. "NED") (published in pieces between 1888 and 1928), An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English (year 1921) by Ernest Weekley. Footnotes for individual words have supplementary other references. The most frequently cited of the supplementary references is Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe (year 1869) by Reinhart Dozy.
  2. ^ Tabl = "drum" is a common word in medieval Arabic. As one reflection of that, in the 14th-century dictionary of Fairuzabadi, normal definitions of well-known words were given by the notation م denoting "well-known (definition unnecessary)", and طبل tabl was so given – In Arabic dictionaries today, another written form of the noun is طبلة tabla. But that is not in medieval and early modern Arabic dictionaries. In some Urdu dictionaries, طبل tabl is one of the words for a drum – e.g. in Platts' Urdu-English Dictionary year 1884.
  3. ^ Talq = "mica or talc" is seen in Arabic writings by Jabir Ibn Hayyan (died 815), Al-Jahiz (died 869), Yahya ibn Sarafyun (died before 900), Al-Razi (died circa 930), Al-Masudi (died 956), Ibn Sina (died 1037), Ibn Al-Baitar (died 1248), and others. Ref: ref1; ref2; ref3. The influential Latin alchemist Pseudo-Geber, who was influenced by Arabic literature, used the word in Latin around 1300 (ref4). He was not the only late medieval Latin alchemist who used it (ref5). But the word is not in the extensive medieval Latin glossary of Du Cange (ref6) and the earliest attestations in the vernacular Western languages come relatively late: Spanish = 1492, German = 1526, Italian = 1550, French = 1553, English talcum = 1558, English talc = 1582. ref7, ref1, ref8. The writings of Paracelsus (died 1541) increased the circulation of the word in 16th-century Europe.
  4. ^ "Talisman" with roughly today's meaning is first recorded in French in 1592 (, in English in 1638 (NED). The word with the same meaning is in today's Italian and Spanish and arrived there from French (as reported by today's Italian and Spanish etymology dictionaries). In the Western languages for three centuries before 1638 and continuing for a while after, a "talismani" meant an Islamic prayer leader or mullah, as documented in Yule & Burnell (page 893). With regard to "talisman" with roughly today's meaning, this meaning is found in French in Joseph Scaliger in 1590s, Jacques Gaffarel in the 1620s, and Charles Sorel in the 1630s, and the more exact meaning they have for the word is an astrology-based constructed image serving as an amulet, and those three writers say the word with this meaning has come from the Arabic language. More details on the history of the word are at English Words That Are Of Arabic Etymological Ancestry: Note #137: Talisman.
  5. ^ In Latin, tamarindi occurs in the later 11th century in the Arabic-to-Latin medical translator Constantinus Africanus (ref), and the word is frequent in the writings of the 12th and 13th century medical school at Salerno in southern Italy (collected in the five-volume set Collectio Salernitana). It entered late medieval English in medical books that were influenced by the Salernitan school (see the Middle English Dictionary). In Arabic, the book on medicaments by Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) gives brief summaries of the statements of a handful of medieval Arabic medical writers about tamr hindīref: page 166-167. One of the people quoted by Ibn al-Baitar says the tamarind "grows in Yemen and India and Central Africa [Bilād al-Sūdān]". The tamarind has a large number of different names spread across the languages of Central Africa, and the tree is evidently native in Central Africa. Nevertheless Arabic medicine got introduced to the tamarind from India. Another one of the medieval commentators quoted by Ibn al-Baitar says the tamarind is used as a cuisine item in Oman. That is surely true, but other evidence indicates that tamarind's use as a cuisine item was rare among the medieval Arabs (ref, ref, ref), though it was not rare in medieval India (ref). The most commonly recorded use of the tamarind among the medieval Arabs and Latins was as a laxative (see the medical books just referenced, including Ibn al-Baitar's).
  6. ^ Early Medieval Aramaic has ṭnbwr = "long-necked string instrument", with records in the Syriac and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic dialects. Aramaic writing systems omit short vowels, so ṭnbwr may be read as tanbawr | tunboūr | etc. – Tnbwr @ Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon. An Arabic writer who wrote at length about the tunbūr was Al-Farabi (died 950). A 17-page extract from Al-Farabi about the tunbūr is online in Arabic in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of Orientalists meeting in Leiden year 1883. The records for the word tunbur | tanbur are many centuries older in Arabic and Aramaic than in Persian. In Persian the very old word for a long-necked string instrument was tar and dotar and setarDictionary of Music by Willi Apel, year 1969, entry under "Lute II".
  7. ^ "Tabor #1" (plus "tambour", "tamboura") in NED. More etymology details about the Western word tambour | tambourine meaning drum are at English words of Arabic ancestry: Note #140: Tambour (drum), Tambourine.
  8. ^ Origin of Cultivated Plants by Alphonse de Candolle (year 1885), pages 178–181 for lemon and lime, pages 183–188 for orange, page 188 for mandarin orange. "Études sur les noms arabes des végétaux: l'oranger et ses congénères", by J.J. Clément-Mullet in Journal Asiatique sixième série Tome XV, pages 17 to 41, year 1870.
  9. ^ "Tangerine" in NED (year 1919). Like Levant -> Levantine, Alexandria -> Alexandrine, and Damascus -> Damascene, "Tangerine" meaning "of Tangier city" has records in English that pre-date the creation of "tangerine" the orange. The English word "tang" meaning piquant flavour was also in English before "tangerine" the orange. Incidentally, Morocco today is one of the world's biggest exporters of fresh tangerine and mandarin oranges, with the exports mostly in the form called clementine, which is a variety of tangerine with no seeds and a less tangy taste. Tangier is not one of the main export ports – ref.[dead link]
  10. ^ (in Catalan).
  11. ^ a b c d e More details at Etymologie in French language. This site is a division of the French National Centre for Scientific Research.
  12. ^ The first record of "tare" in England, recorded 1380, is in Anglo-Norman French in London; and the first pure English record for "tare" is in 1429 as per the MED. Later records are cited in the NED.
  13. ^ Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe by R. Dozy & W.H. Engelmann. 430 pages. Published in 1869.
  14. ^ In medieval and modern Arabic where tarha = "a discard", al-tarha = "the discard" but the written al-tarha is universally always pronounced "at-tarha" (see pronunciation of al- in Arabic). At-tarha transfers into medieval Spanish as atara.
  15. ^ a b A number of large dictionaries were written in Arabic during medieval times. Searchable copies of nearly all of the main medieval Arabic dictionaries are online at and/or One of the most esteemed of the dictionaries is Ismail ibn Hammad al-Jawhari's "Al-Sihah" which is dated around and shortly after year 1000. The biggest is Ibn Manzur's "Lisan Al-Arab" which is dated 1290 but most of its contents were taken from a variety of earlier sources, including 9th- and 10th-century sources. Often Ibn Manzur names his source then quotes from it. Therefore, if the reader recognizes the name of Ibn Manzur's source, a date considerably earlier than 1290 can often be assigned to what is said. A list giving the year of death of a number of individuals who Ibn Manzur quotes from is in Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon, volume 1, page xxx (year 1863). Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon contains much of the main contents of the medieval Arabic dictionaries in English translation. At, in addition to searchable copies of medieval Arabic dictionaries, there are searchable copies of a large number of medieval Arabic texts on various subjects.
  16. ^ Catalan tarifa is first recorded in 1315 – Italian tariffa 1358, and French tariffe 1572 – Spanish tarifa 1680 – Raja Tazi 1998 citing Corominas.
  17. ^ a b Ibn al-Baitar's 13th century Book of Simple Medicaments and Foods is online in Arabic (5 megabytes; PDF) (tarkhūn on page 558), and in German translation (year 1842, tarkhūn in volume 2 page 156). The book was compiled in the 1240s. It says طرخون tarkhūn is a herb that grows to a height of between a handspan and a forearm tall, has long narrow delicate leaves, and has "camphor-like" aromatic qualities, and the leaves can be dined on at table mixed with mint and other herbs, but when chewed in quantity it causes a numbing effect in the mouth. Ibn al-Baitar gives excerpts from ten medieval Arabic commentators about the plant. The commentators are not totally consistent with each other in what they have to say, and some of them are exclusively interested in the medical utility of the numbing effect. Ibn Al-Baitar himself says tarkhūn is "a herb well-known among the people of the Levant". More than three centuries later, in the 1570s, a German visitor to the Levant, the physician and botanist Leonhard Rauwolff, observed that the local inhabitants of Lebanon used tarragon culinarily and they called it "Tarchon"Der Raiß inn die Morgenländer, year 1582 page 24. Ibn al-Awwam in 12th century southern Spain has طرخون tarkhūn listed together with mint, endive, rocket (arugula), basil, parsley, chard, and a few other small leafy plants of an ordinary vegetable garden – ref.
  18. ^ See "tarragon" in the NED (year 1919). A late-13th-century Latin medical dictionary, "Synonyma Medicinae" by Simon of Genoa, spelled it both tarcon and tarchon and defined the plant solely by saying what was written about it by Avicenna. One of the things noted in the NED is that an English botany book explaining Latin names in English in 1548 said: "[Latin] Tarchon... is called with us [English] Tarragon". The earliest cited record in French is 1539 (earliest English is 1538). The early French is in the form Later-16th-century French also has the forms tragon | estragon = "tarragon". The 18th-century French etymology writer Jacob Le Duchat and others believed in the idea that the word had arisen within the Latinate languages as a mutant of the classical Latin draco[n] = "dragon", an idea which they supported with the fact that various botanicals have been called dragonwort, Dracunculus and suchlike in Europe going back uninterruptedly to ancient Greek and Roman times. No one entertains that idea today. "It would be the sole example of Latin dr becoming tr in French." – Marcel Devic, year 1876. Italian dragoncello = "tarragon" is historically younger than Italian targoncello | targone | tarcone | taracone = "tarragon" –; see also Italian tarcóne + taracóne in John Florio's year 1611 Italian-to-English Dictionary. However, the Arabic tarkhūn = "tarragon" doesn't look very native in Arabic (especially, the ending "-ūn" looks non-native) and today's dictionaries widely entertain the idea that the Arabic may have been derived from the ancient Greek drakōn = "dragon".
  19. ^ Classical Latin borrowed the letter Y from Greek in the 1st century BC to represent the Greek letter Υ, which in Greek was pronounced approximately "eu" (/ü/). Up until the 1st century BC, Latin borrowings from Greek had used the Latin letter U to represent this Greek sound. The Latin letter Y in its early history was pronounced in the same way as the Greek letter Υ. The Latin that survives from Spain from the era of Isidore of Seville, including the output of Isidore himself, preserves classical usages, in general. Thynni (the plural of thynnus) is in Isidore of Seville's Origines Book XII paragraph 6 (in Latin).
  20. ^ Records of the use of the word in ancient Greek, classical Latin, medieval Arabic, and medieval Spanish are reviewed at English words of Arabic ancestry: Note #190: Tunafish (this review of the documentary evidence concludes that "it is uncertain and debatable whether the word tuna can be claimed to be of Arabic ancestry or not").
  21. ^ The earliest records of the "albacora" tunafish name are in 16th-century Spanish and Portuguese. The origin of the name is obscure according to the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española – ref: Diccionario RAE. Old Arabic dictionaries do not contain a phonetically similar word with the meaning of a fish – ref: Dozy (year 1869, pages 61 & 388). "Alba" is a classical Latin and old Spanish & Portuguese word for white (e.g. English albino is borrowed from Portuguese); and the Portuguese word for color is "cor". Hence "albacora" may have been created in Portuguese meaning "white color" [tuna meat] – that is the judgement of the Portuguese and Arabic expert pt:José Pedro Machado. But there is uncertainty because the Portuguese word did not have the exclusive meaning of white meat tuna. It could also designate the Thunnus albacares tuna species. Another consideration is the 16th century start date of the Spanish and Portuguese word. Spanish & Portuguese had stopped borrowing words from Arabic well before the 16th century. Of the words they had borrowed from Arabic in the earlier centuries, the large majority of those in use today are found in writing before the 16th century. A small minority, borrowed before the 16th century, do not show up in writing until the 16th century.
  22. ^ Bonítol is a commercially caught bonito-type fish in Catalan records in 1313, 1361, 1365, 1370 and later – "Una llista de peixos valencians de Mariano Bru" by Antoni Corcoll in Estudis de Llengua i Literatura Catalanes, Volume XL, year 2000, pages 21 - 22. The terminal letter L in Catalan bonítol is a diminutive (similarly, Catalan fillol = "godson" is from Catalan fill = "son" and classical Latin formula is from Latin forma = "form"). Some dictionaries report the name bonito may be a Spanish-ization of بينيث baynīth which is a sea fish in medieval Arabic general dictionaries (including Lisan al-Arab); others report the name's origin is unknown or may be from Spanish bonito = "pretty good".
  23. ^ Varan @ (in French).
  24. ^ The following book published in 1669 consists of a text in Arabic by Al-Farghani (aka Alfraganus), plus a translation of the text into Latin by Jacobus Golius, plus notes by the translator. The Arabic page with the term "samt al-rā's" is here and the translator has a note about it in Latin here. The translator notes that the term was used by Arabic writers in two ways, (1) the top path (which is a direction; vertically up) and (2) the top of a path (which is a point).
  25. ^ a b Al-Battani's Kitāb Al-Zīj was translated to Latin around 1140. The translator was Plato Tiburtinus. In the translation, Al-Battani's Arabic samt al-rā's = "top path" was written down in Latin as zenith capitis and zenith capitum. The Latin capitis | capitum = "head (or top)" is a straight translation of Arabic rā's = "head (or top)". Today's etymology dictionaries are unanimous that the Latin zenith was a mangling of Arabic samt = "direction (or path)". In the same book translated by Plato Tiburtinus, Arabic سمت مطلع samt motalaa = "direction to the rising sun" was translated as Latin zenith ascensionis (chapter 7); قد تعرف السمت qad taarif al-samt = "the direction can be made known by" was translated as zenith sciri potest (chapter 11); سمت الجنوب samt al-janoub = "southern direction" was translated as zenith meridianum (chapter 12) (where medieval Latin meridianus meant "southern" and "midday"). In other words, for Plato Tiburtinus zenith meant "direction" and did not mean "zenith". But the direction that was used the most was the samt al-rā's = zenith capitis = "top direction; vertically up". The phrase zenith capitis or zenith capitum meaning "zenith" occurs in medieval Latin in Johannes de Sacrobosco (died circa 1245) (ref), Roger Bacon (died 1294) (ref), Albertus Magnus (died 1280) (ref), and others. Later writers dropped the capitis and used zenith alone to mean the zenith capitis. Refs: zenith at; zenith in Brill's Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1st Edition; zenith capitis and zenith capitum in Plato Tiburtinus in Latin; سمت الرأس samt al-ra's in Al-Battani's book in Arabic.
  26. ^ The Introduction and Spread of the Hindu-Arabic Numerals, by Smith and Karpinski, year 1911, page 59: Online.
  27. ^ Nathan Bailey's English Dictionary in year 1726 defined zero as "a word used for cypher or nought especially by the French" – ref. Samuel Johnson's English Dictionary in 1755 and 1785 did not include the word zero at all. The usual names for zero in English from the late medieval period until well into the 19th century were "nought" and "cifre" | "cipher" – ref1a, ref1b, ref2a, ref2b. Meanwhile, the use of "cipher" & "decipher" to mean "encrypt" & "decrypt" started in English in the 16th century, borrowed from French – ref.
  28. ^ Discussed at length at English words of Arabic ancestry: Note #140: Tambour (drum), Tambourine.
  29. ^ Details at English Words That Are Of Arabic Etymological Ancestry: Note #187.
  30. ^ The Materia Medica of Dioscorides is downloadable from links on the Wikipedia Dioscorides page. Trux meaning "tartar" is in Dioscorides' Book 5, where Dioscorides briefly describes how to make it and how to use it in medicine.
  31. ^ Harper, Douglas. "tobacco". Online Etymology Dictionary.  The same is reported by Diccionario RAE and Cf Medieval Arabic طبّاق @ A number of reports in Spanish in the 16th century clearly say the word tabaco is indigenous to the West Indies – According to the same and other reports at the time, there were a number of indigenous names for tobacco in the West Indies and tabaco was not one of those names strictly speaking, and the reporters are in conflict about what the indigenous name tabaco meant, and they are writing after tobaco had already been established in Spanish in the New World – NED.
  32. ^ "Traffic" in NED (1926).
  33. ^ Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) used word zarqūn for red lead or cinnabar, which are red-coloured minerals chemically different from zircon. The derived Spanish azarcon and Portuguese zarcão had the sense of a specifically red-colored mineral, typically red lead or cinnabar – Dozy year 1869 page 225. This is thought by some to be the source-word for the not-at-all-red zircon gemstone Jargoon, which in turn is thought by some to be the source-word for zircon; dictionaries expressing support for this idea include Yule & Burnell, Weekley, Webster's New World Dictionary (2010), Collins English Dictionary, NED: zircon, NED: jargoon, Klein. Today's English word zircon certainly came from 18th-century German Zirkon. Available evidence that Zirkon came from jargon (the zircon gemstone) is incomplete, and evidence that jargon came from zarqūn is completely missing. Dictionaries not supporting the idea that Zirkon descends from Arabic include Concise OED, Merriam-Webster, Random House, (in French), Raja Tazi (in German). According to Diccionario RAE, Zirkon came from Spanish circón which came from Arabic zarqūn and there is no role for jargon in the etymology. According to American Heritage Dictionary, Zirkon came from Arabic siriqun, a different word, without a Spanish connection.
  34. ^ a b References for the medieval Arabic sources and medieval Latin borrowings of those plant names are as follows. Ones marked "(F)" go to the French dictionary at Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales, ones marked "(R)" go to Random House Dictionary, and other references are identified with terse labels: Berberis(R), انبرباريس anbarbārīs = Berberis(Ibn Sina), امبرباريس ambarbārīs = Berberis(Ibn Al-Baitar), الأمبرباريس al-ambarbārīs is also called البرباريس al-barbārīs(Fairuzabadi's dictionary), Galen uses name "Oxyacantha" for Berberis(John Gerarde), Arabic amiberberis = Latin Berberis(Matthaeus Silvaticus), Berberis is frequent in Constantinus Africanus (Constantinus Africanus was the introducer of plantname Berberis into medieval Latin), Berberis(Raja Tazi 1998), Barberry(Skeat 1888);; Cakile(Henri Lammens 1890), Cakile(Pierre Guigues 1905), Kakile Serapionis(John Gerarde 1597), Chakile(Serapion the Younger, medieval Latin);; for Carthamus see Carthamin;; Cuscute(F), Cuscuta(Helmut Genaust), spelled كشوث kushūth in Ibn al-Baitar;; Doronicum(F), Doronicum(R), spelled درونج dorūnaj in Ibn al-Baitar;; Garingal & Galanga(F), Galingale & Galanga(NED);; Musa(Devic), Musa(Alphita), موز mauz(Ibn al-Baitar), Muse #4 and Musa(NED);; Nuphar (nénuphar)(F), Nuphar (nenufar)(NED), Nénuphar(Lammens);; Ribes(F), Ribès(Pierre Guigues 1903 in preface to translation of Najm al-Din Mahmud (died 1330)), Ribes(Lammens 1890), the meaning of late medieval Latin ribes was Rheum ribese.g. e.g. – and the medieval Arabic ريباس rībās had the very same meaning – e.g. ;; Senna(F), Senna(R), Séné(Lammens), Sene in Alphita, السنى al-sanā and السني al-senī in Ibn al-Baitar;; Taraxacum(Skeat), Ataraxacon(Alphita), Taraxacum(R);; Usnea(F), Usnea(R), Usnee(Simon of Genoa), Usnée(Lammens);; alkekengi(F), alkekengi(R);; azedarach(F), azedarach(Garland Cannon), azadarach + azedarach(Matthaeus Silvaticus anno 1317), Azadirachta(Helmut Genaust);; bellerica(Yule), bellerica(Devic), beliligi = belirici = bellerici(Simon of Genoa), بليلج belīlej in Ibn al-Baitar;; chebula(Yule), kebulus = chebulae(Alphita), chébule(Devic);; cheiranthe(Devic), keiri(NED), خيري kheīrī(Ibn al-Awwam);; cubeba(F), cubeba(R);; emblic(Yule), emblic(Devic), emblic(Serapion the Younger);; harmala(Tazi), harmale(Devic), harmala(other);; (Salsola) kali(F), kali = a marine littoral plant, an Arabic name(Simon of Genoa year 1292 in Latin, also in Matthaeus Silvaticus);; mahaleb(F), mahaleb(Ibn al-Awwam), mahaleb(Matthaeus Silvaticus year 1317);; mathil->metel(other), metel(Devic), nux methel(Serapion the Younger), metel(other);; mezereum(R), mézéréon(Devic), mezereon(Alphita: see editor's footnote quoting Matthaeus Silvaticus and John Gerarde), spelled مازريون māzarīūn in Ibn Sina and Ibn al-Baitar;; sambac(Devic), zambacca(synonyms of Petrus de Abano, died c. 1316), sambacus(Simon of Genoa), زنبق = دهن الياسمين(zanbaq in Lisan al-Arab);; sebesten(other), sebesten(Devic), sebesten(Alphita) (sebesten in late medieval Latin referred to Cordia myxa, not Cordia sebestena, and the medieval Arabic سبستان sebestān was Cordia myxa);; turpeth(F), turpeth(R);; zedoaria(F), zedoaria(R);; zérumbet(F), zerumbet is from medieval Latin zurumbet | zurumbeth | zerumbet | zirumbet which is from Arabic زرنباد zurunbād | zarunbād which medievally in Latin and Arabic meant Curcuma zedoaria. The great majority of the above plant names can be seen in Latin in the late-13th-century medical-botany dictionary Synonyma Medicinae by Simon of Genoa (online) and in the mid-15th-century medical-botany dictionary called the Alphita (online); and the few that are not in either of those two Latin dictionaries may be seen in Latin in the book on medicaments by Serapion the Younger circa 1300 (online). None of the names are found in Latin in early medieval or classical Latin botany or medicine books. The Arabic predecessors of the great majority of the above plant names can be seen in Arabic as entries in Part Two of Ibn Sina's The Canon of Medicine, dated early 11th century, which became a widely circulated book in Latin medical circles in the 13th and 14th centuries: an Arabic copy is at All of the Arabic predecessor plant-names without exception, and usually with better descriptions of the plants (compared to Ibn Sina's descriptions), are in Ibn al-Baitar's Book of Simple Medicaments and Foods, dated early 13th century, which was not translated to Latin in the medieval era but has since been published in German, French, and Arabic – Arabic copies are at and
  35. ^ "Les Noms Arabes Dans Sérapion, Liber de Simplici Medicina", by Pierre Guigues, published in 1905 in Journal Asiatique, Series X, tome V, pages 473–546, continued in tome VI, pages 49–112.
  36. ^ Analysis of herbal medicine plant-names by Martin Levey reported by him in "Chapter III: Botanonymy" in his 1973 book Early Arabic Pharmacology: An Introduction.
  37. ^ Each discussed in Etymologisches Wörterbuch der botanischen Pflanzennamen, by Helmut Genaust, year 1996. Another Arabic botanical name introduced by Prospero Alpini from Egypt was Sesban meaning Sesbania sesban from synonymous Arabic سيسبان saīsabān | saīsbān (Helmut Genaust 1996; Lammens 1890; Ibn al-Baitar). The Latin botantical Abrus is the parent of the chemical name Abrin; see abrine @ The Arabic لبلاب lablāb means any kind of climbing and twisting plant. The Latin and English Lablab is a certain vigorously climbing and twisting bean plant. Prospero Alpini called the plant in Latin phaseolus niger lablab = "lablab black bean". Prospero Alpini published his De Plantis Aegypti in 1592. It was republished in 1640 with supplements by other botanists – De Plantis Aegypti, 1640. De Plantis Exoticis by Prospero Alpini (died 1617) was published in 1639 – ref.
  38. ^ A list of 43 of Forsskål's Latinized Arabic fish names is at Forsskål was a student of Arabic language as well as of taxonomy. His published journals contain the underlying Arabic names as well as his Latinizations of them (downloadable from links at the Wikipedia Peter Forsskål page).
  39. ^ Most of those miscellaneous botanical names are discussed in Etymologisches Wörterbuch der botanischen Pflanzennamen, by Helmut Genaust, year 1996. About half of them are in Dictionnaire Étymologique Des Mots Français D'Origine Orientale, by L. Marcel Devic, year 1876. The following are supplemental notes. The names argel and seyal were introduced to scientific botany nomenclature from الحرجل harjel and سيال seyāl in the early 19th century by the botanist Delile, who had visited North Africa. Retama comes from an old Spanish name for broom bushes and the Spanish name is from medieval Arabic رتم ratam with the same meaning – ref, ref. Acerola is from tropical New World Spanish acerola = "acerola cherry" which is from medieval Spanish and Portuguese acerola | azerola | azarola = "azarole hawthorn" which is from medieval Arabic الزعرور al-zoʿrūr = "azarole hawthorn" – ref, ref. Alchimilla appears in 16th century Europe with the same core meaning as today's Alchemilla (e.g.). Reporters on Alchemilla agree it is from Arabic although they do not agree on how.
  40. ^ In late medieval English, chamelet | chamlet was a costly fabric and was typically an import from the Near East – MED, NED. Today spelled "camlet", it is synonymous with French camelot which the French says is "from Arabic khamlāt, plural of khamla, meaning plush woollen cloth.... The stuff was made in the Orient and introduced to the Occident at the same time as the word." The historian Wilhelm Heyd (1886) says: "The [medieval] Arabic khamla meant cloth with a long nap, cloth with a lot of plush. This is the common character of all the camlets [of late medieval commerce]. They could be made from diverse materials.... Some were made from fine goat hair." – Histoire du commerce du Levant au moyen-âge, Volume 2 pages 703-705, by W. Heyd, year 1886. The medieval Arabic word was also in the form khamīla. Definitions of خملة khamla | خميلة khamīla taken from some medieval Arabic dictionaries are in Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon page 813.
  41. ^ The English word morocco, meaning a type of leather, is a refreshed spelling of early 16th century English maroquin, from 15th century French maroquin meaning a soft flexible leather from the country of Morocco. In later centuries the word morocco meant a soft flexible leather made in any country. Maroquin @ NED, morocco @ NED, maroquin @
  42. ^ Fustic in the late medieval centuries was a dye from the wood of a Mediterranean tree. After the discovery of America, a better, more durable dye from a tree wood was found, and given the same name. The late medieval fustic came from the Rhus cotinus tree. "Rhus cotinus wood was treated in warm [or boiling] water; a yellow infusion was obtained which on contact with air turned into brown; with acids it becomes greenish yellow and with alkalies orange; in combination with iron salts, especially with ferrous sulphate a greenish-black was produced." – The Art of Dyeing in the History of Mankind, by Franco Brunello, year 1973 page 382. The earliest record of the word as a dye in the Western languages is in 13th-century Spanish as "fustet", followed by 14th-century French as "fustet" and "fustel", DMF, Lexilogos. Medieval Spanish had alfóstigo = "pistachio", medieval Catalan festuc = "pistachio, which were from Arabic (al-)fustuq = "pistachio". Medieval Arabic additionally had fustuqī as a color name, yellow-green like the pistachio nut (e.g.), (e.g.), (e.g.). Many dictionaries today report that the Spanish dye name somehow came from this medieval Arabic word. But the proponents of this idea do not cite evidence of fustuq carrying the dye meaning in Arabic. The use of the word as a dye in medieval Arabic is not recorded under the entry for fustuq in A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic (1997) nor under the entries for fustuq in the medieval Arabic dictionaries – Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon, page 2395, This suggests that the use of the word as a dye may have started in Spanish. From a phonetic angle the medieval Spanish and French fustet is a diminutive of the medieval Spanish and French fuste = "boards of wood, timber", which was from classical Latin fustis = "wooden stick" – DRAE,, Du Cange. From the semantic angle, since most names of natural dyes referred to both the plant that produces the dye and the dye itself, fustet meaning "little pieces of wood" can plausibly beget the dye name fustet. The semantic transformation from "pistachio" to "fustic dye" is poorly understood, assuming it happened. New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (year 1901) says "the name was transferred from the pistachio [tree] to the closely allied Rhus cotinus". But the two trees are not closely allied.
  43. ^ "Carthamin" and "Carthamus" in New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (year 1893). Similarly summarized in (French) and Diccionario RAE (Spanish). Also in Origin of Cultivated Plants by Alphonse de Candolle (year 1885). For the word in medieval Arabic see قرطم @ (see also عصفر ʿusfur), قرطم @ Ibn al-Awwam and قرطم @ Ibn al-Baitar.
  44. ^ The Latin anatomy term dura mater has its earliest record in Latin in the medical writer Constantinus Africanus (died c. 1087). Constantinus Africanus has a 4-page chapter entitled "the composition of the membranes situated on the interior of the skull" (it is in Latin at Ref, and a variant Latin edition is downloadable at Ref). This was the place of birth of the term dura mater in Latin anatomy. Constantinus was fluent in Arabic and most of his overall content was taken from Arabic sources. For his material on dura mater, Constantinus's source was Ali Ibn Al-Abbas Al-Majusi, aka Haly Abbas (died c. 990). Details about how dura mater arose as an Arabic loan-translation are on pages 95-96 (including footnote #27) of the article "Constantine's pseudo-Classical terminology and its survival", by Gotthard Strohmaier in the book Constantine the African and ʻAlī Ibn Al-ʻAbbās Al-Maǧūsī: The Pantegni and Related Texts, year 1994. Constantinus's chapter with the term dura mater also contains the first known use of the term pia mater, which for Constantinus had the same meaning as it has today (i.e. a certain membrane lying between the brain and the skull), and this too was a loan-translation from Arabic – the term was al-umm al-raqīqa = "thin mother" in Ali Ibn Al-Abbas. Cf pia mater @ NED , pia mater @ Early adopters of the names dura mater and pia mater include William of Conches (died c. 1154) and Roger Frugard (died c. 1195), both of whom took much material from Constantinus. As noted by Strohmaier (1994), the Greek medical writer Galen (died c. 200 AD) was acquainted with the dura mater and the pia mater, which he called in Greek sklera meninx (literally "hard membrane") and lepte meninx (literally "thin membrane"), also spelled μῆνιγξ. For the medieval Arabic writers on medicine including Ali Ibn Al-Abbas, the writings of Galen were the most quoted and requoted antecedent source for their knowledge of anatomy. For the early medieval Latins, the writings of Galen were mostly unknown and not in circulation – although a smallish subset was in circulation. The later medieval Latins were introduced to new Galen texts from Arabic sources in the 12th century. Subsequently the Latins found Galen in Late Byzantine sources.
  45. ^ Webster's (1913), (2010), sinus#2 @, and many others. The medieval Arabic جيب jayb in Lane's Arabic Lexicon page 492 can be compared for meaning against the classical Latin sinus in Lewis and Short's Dictionary of Classical Latin.

General references[edit]