List of English words of Sanskrit origin

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This is a list of English words of Sanskrit origin. Many of these words were not directly borrowed from Sanskrit. The meaning of some words has changed slightly after being borrowed. Both languages belong to the Indo-European Language Family and have numerous cognate terms. For example, English "mother" is a cognate of Sanskrit "mātár'; likewise, father-pitár, brother-bhrā́tar, sister-svásar, son-sūnú, daughter-duhitár, man-manu/manav, dental-dántam, nose-nas, cow-gáuḥ, plus many more.

A[edit]

The ten avatars of Vishnu.
Ahimsa 
from Sanskrit अहिंसा ahimsā, which means "not injuring anything, do not harm anyone".[1]
Ambarella 
through Sinhalese: ඇඹරැල්ලා ultimately from Sanskrit: अम्बरेल्ला, a kind of tree.[2]
Amrita 
from Sanskrit अमृतम् amṛtam, nectar of everlasting life.[3] (see Ambrosia)
Aniline 
through German: Anilin, French: Aniline and Portuguese: Anil from Arabic النيل al-nili and Persian نیلا nila, ultimately from Sanskrit नीली nili.[4]
Apadravya 
from Sanskrit which refers to a male genital piercing where a barbell passes through the penis. Mentioned in Indian literature in the Kama Sutra
Aryan 
from Latin Ariana, from Greek Ἀρεία Areia, ultimately from Sanskrit आर्य Arya-s "noble, honorable".[5]
Asana 
from Sanskrit आसन āsana which means "seat", a term describing yoga postures.[6]
Ashram 
ultimately from Sanskrit आश्रम āśrama, a religious hermitage.[7]
Atoll 
through Maldivean:އަތޮޅު probably ultimately from Sanskrit अन्तला antala.[8]
Aubergine 
from French aubergine, in Catalan alberginera, via Arabic (باذِنْجان al-badinjan) and Persian (بادنجان badin-gan) ultimately from Sanskrit वातिगगम vātigagama,[9] meaning aubergine or eggplant in American English.
Avatar 
from Sanskrit अवतार avatāra, which means "descent", an avatar refers to the human incarnation of God during times of distress on earth. Thus, Krishna and Rāma were both avatars of Vishnu, who also manifested himself as an avatar many other times, ten of which are considered the most significant.[10]
Ayurveda 
from Sanskrit आयुर्वेद āyurveda, which means "knowledge of life".[11]

B[edit]

Bandana 
from Sanskrit बन्धन bandhana, "a bond".
Banyan 
from Hindi baniyaa ultimately from Sanskrit वणिज्‌ vaṇij, which means "a merchant".[12]
Basmati 
through Hindi बासमती ultimately from Sanskrit वास vāsa.[13]
Bahuvrihi 
from Sanskrit बहुव्रीहि bahuvrīhih, a composite word, meaning 'much rice.'[14]
Beryl 
from Old French beryl, via Latin beryllus, Greek βήρυλλος and Prakrit वेलुरिय (veluriya) ultimately from Sanskrit वैडूर्य vaidūrya, of Dravidian origin, maybe from the name of Belur.[15]
Bhakti 
from Sanskrit भक्ति bhakti, which means "passionate religious devotion".[16]
Bhang 
from Hindi भांग bhang, which is from Sanskrit भङ्ग bhaṅga "hemp".[17]
Bidi 
through Hindi बीड़ी ultimately from Sanskrit वितिक vitika.[18]
Brinjal 
from Persian بادنجان badingān, probably from Sanskrit भण्टाकी bhaṇṭākī.[19]
Buddha 
from Sanskrit बुद्ध blue eyes, which means "awakened, enlightened", refers to Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism[20] Also refers to one who is enlightened in accordance with the teachings of Buddha or a likeness of Buddha[21]

C[edit]

Cheetah 
which is from Sanskrit चित्रस chitra-s "uniquely marked".[22]
Chuddar 
through Urdu چادر ultimately from Sanskrit छत्रम् chatram.[23]
Chukar 
via Hindi चकोर cakor and Urdu چکور chukar ultimately from Sanskrit चकोर cakorah.[24]
Chukker 
from Hindi चक्कर chakkar, from Sanskrit चक्र cakra, "a circle, a wheel".[25]
Citipati 
from Sanskrit चिति पति citi-pati, which means "a funeral pyre lord".[26]
Cot 
from Hindi खाट khaat "a couch", which is from Sanskrit खट्वा khatva.[27]
Cowrie 
from Hindi कौड़ी kauri and Urdu کمتدب kauri, from Marathi कवडइ kavadi, which is ultimately from Sanskrit कपर्द kaparda.[28]
Crimson 
from Old Spanish cremesin, via Medieval Latin cremesinus from Arabic قرمز qirmiz "a kermes", which is ultimately from Sanskrit कृमिज krmi-ja literally: "red dye produced by a worm."[29]
Crocus 
from Greek κρόκος crocus, via Semitic languages (e.g. Hebrew כרכום karkōm, Aramaic ܟܟܘܪܟܟܡܡܐ kurkama, Persian and Arabic كركم kurkum, which mean saffron or saffron yellow.[30]); ultimately from Sanskrit कुङ्कुमं kunkumam.[31]

D[edit]

Dhal 
through Hindi दल dāl ultimately from Sanskrit दलह dalah, meaning cotyledon of a pea pod, a type of Indian food; also refers to lentils.[32]
Das 
from Sanskrit दासा daasa, a slave or servant.[33]
Datura 
through Latin and Hindi: धतूरा dhatūra "jimson weed" ultimately from Sanskrit धत्तुरह dhattūrāh, a kind of flowering plant.[34]
Deodar 
through Hindi दोदर deodār ultimately from Sanskrit देवदारु devadāru, a kind of tree.[35]
Deva 
from Sanskrit देवी deva, which means "a god", akin to Latin deus, "god".[36]
Devi 
from Sanskrit देवी devi, which means "a goddess".[37]
Dharma 
from Pali: धम्म dhamma and Sanskrit: धर्म; akin to Latin: firmus, meaning "conformity to one's duty and nature" and "divine law".[38]
Dhoti 
through Hindi: धोती ultimately from Sanskrit धुनोति dhūnoti, traditional garment of men's wear in India. Material tied around the waist that covers most of the legs.[39]
Dinghy 
from Hindi दिन्गी dingi "a tiny boat", probably from Sanskrit द्रोणम drona-m.[40]

G[edit]

Ganja 
via Hindi गज "Elephant bull" ultimately from Sanskrit गांजा gāñjā, which means "of hemp".[41]
Gaur 
via Hindi गौर "white" ultimately from Sanskrit गौरह gaurah.[42]
Gavial 
through French and Hindi घड़ियाल ghariyāl ultimately from Sanskrit घंतिक ghantikah, a kind of crocodile.[43]
Gayal 
perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit गौह gauh via Bengali গযল্, a kind of animal.[44]
Gharry 
perhaps finally from Sanskrit गर्त gartah via Hindi: गाड़ी, a kind of vehicle.[45]
Ghee 
through Hindi: घी ultimately from Sanskrit: घृतं ghritam.[46]
Guar 
through Hindi गार ultimately from Sanskrit गॊपलि gopālī, an annual legume.[47]
Gunny 
via Hindi गोनी ultimately from Sanskrit गोणी goni "sack".[48]
Gurkha 
via Nepalese गोर्खा ultimately from Sanskrit गोरक्ष goraksa, "a cowherd".[49]
Guru 
via Hindi गुरु ultimately from Sanskrit गुरु guru-s, which means "a teacher".[50]

H[edit]

Hanuman 
through Hindi हनुमान from Sanskrit Hanuman (हनुमान्), name of Hindu mythological God.[51]
Hare Krishna 
from Sanskrit Hare (हरि) and Krishna (कृष्ण).[52]
Himalaya 
from Sanskrit हिमालय himalayah, which means "Abode of snow".[53]
Hindi 
from Hindi हिंद Hind, via Persian: هندو Hindu "Sind" ultimately from Sanskrit सिन्धु sindhu, which means "a river".[54]

J[edit]

Jackal 
from Turkish çakal, from Persian شغال shaghal, from Middle Indic shagal, ultimately from Sanskrit शृगालः srgalah "the howler".[55]
Jaggery 
via Portuguese jágara, jagre and Malayalam ഛക്കര chakkara perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा śarkarā derived from proto-Dravidian.[56]
Juggernaut 
through Odia जगन्नाथ jagannath ultimately from Sanskrit जगन्नाथ jagat-natha-s, which means "lord of the world".[57]
Jungle 
through Hindi जंगल jangal "a desert, forest" ultimately from Sanskrit जंगल jangala-s, which means "arid".[58]
Jute 
via Bengali পাট jhuto ultimately from Sanskrit जुतास juta-s, which means "twisted hair".[59]

K[edit]

Karma 
from Sanskrit कर्म karman, which means "action".[60]
Kedgeree 
probably ultimately from Sanskrit कृशर krśara.[61]
Kermes 
via French: Kermès, Arabic: قرمز qirmiz and Persian قرمز qermez; perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit: कृमिज kṛmija meaning "worm-made."[62]
Kos 
through Hindi कोस kos ultimately from Sanskrit रोस krosah, which means "a call, a shout".[63]
Krait 
through Hindi करैत karait probably ultimately from Sanskrit: काराइट, a kind of snake.[64]

L[edit]

Lac 
through Urdu لاکھ, Persian لاک and Hindi लाख lakh from Prakrit लक्ख lakkha, ultimately from Sanskrit लाक्षम् laksham, meaning lac.[65]
Lacquer 
through French: Laque and Portuguese: Laca from Arabic لك lakk, via Prakrit ultimately from Sanskrit लक्षं laksha.[66]
Langur 
through Hindi लुट lut probably ultimately from Sanskrit लंगुलम langūlam.[67]
Lilac 
via Arabic للك lilak from Persian نیلک nilak meaning "bluish", ultimately from Sanskrit नील nila, which means "dark blue".[68]
Loot 
ultimately from Sanskrit लुण्टा lota-m or लून्त्ति luṇṭhati meaning "he steals" through Hindi लूट lūṭ, which means "a booty, stolen thing".[69]

M[edit]

Maharajah 
through Hindi महाराजा ultimately from Sanskrit महा राजन् maha-rājān, which means "a great king".[70]
Maharani 
through Hindi महारानी finally from Sanskrit महा रानी mahārājnī, which means "consort of a maharajah".[71]
Maharishi 
from Sanskrit महर्षि maha-rishi, which means "a great sage".[72]
Mahatma 
from Sanskrit महात्मा mahatman, which means "a great breath, soul".[73]
Mahayana 
from Sanskrit महायान maha-yana, which means "a great vehicle".[74]
Mahout 
via Hindi माहुत (variant of महावत) ultimately from Sanskrit महमत्रह् mahāmātrah.;[75]
Mandala 
from Sanskrit मण्डल mandala, which means "a disc, circle".[76]
Mandarin 
via Portuguese mandarim, Dutch mandarijn, Indonesian and Malay mantri or menteri, and Hindi मंत्री mantri "a councillor" ultimately from Sanskrit मन्त्रिन् mantri, which means "an advisor".[77]
Mantra 
from Sanskrit मन्त्र mantra-s which means "a holy message or text".[78]
Maya 
from Sanskrit माया māyā, a religious term related with illusion.[79]
Mithras 
from Sanskrit मित्र Mitrah, which means "a friend".[80]
Moksha 
from Sanskrit मोक्ष moksha, liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth.[81]
Mugger 
via Hindi मगर and Urdu مگر magar ultimately from Sanskrit मकर makara ("sea creature"), like a crocodile, which attacks stealthily.[82]
Mung bean 
through Hindi मुग mū̃g and Pali/Prakrit मुग्ग mugga ultimately from Sanskrit मुग्दह् mudgah, a kind of bean.[83]
Musk 
via Middle English Muske, Middle French Musc, Late Latin Muscus and Late Greek μόσχος moskhos from Persian موشک mushk, ultimately from Sanskrit मुस्कस् muska-s meaning "a testicle", from a diminutive of मुस mus ("mouse").[84][85][86]
Mynah 
through Hindi मैना maina ultimately from Sanskrit मदन madana-s, which means "love".;[87] Mother : ultimately from Sanskrit matru, which means "mother".

N[edit]

Nainsook 
through Hindi नैनसुख nainsukh and Urdu نینسوکھ ultimately from Sanskrit नयनम्सुख् nayanam-sukh, meaning "pleasing to the eyes".[88]
Namaste 
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit नमस्ते namaha-te, which means "I bow to you".[89]
Nard 
through Old French narde and Latin nardus from Greek νάρδος nardos, perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit नलदम् naladam.[90]
Narghile 
through French Narguilé and Persian نارگيله nārghīleh ultimately from Sanskrit नारिकेलः nārikelah.[91]
Nark 
probably from Romany nak "a nose", via Hindi नक् nak ultimately from Sanskrit नक्र‌ nakra.[92]
Neem 
through Hindi निम् nīm ultimately from Sanskrit निम्बः nimbah, a kind of tree.[93]
Nilgai 
through Hindi नीलगाय nīlgāy lit., blue cow ultimately from Sanskrit नीलगौः nīla-gauh, an ox-like animal.[94]
Nirvana 
from Sanskrit निर्वाण nirvana-s which means "extinction, blowing out".[95]

O[edit]

Opal 
through French opalle from Latin opalus from Greek ὀπάλλιος opallios, probably ultimately from Sanskrit औपल upalah.[96]
Orange 
through Old French orenge, Medieval Latin orenge and Italian arancia from Arabic نارنج naranj, via Persian نارنگ narang and Sanskrit नारङ्ग naranga-s meaning "an orange tree", derived from proto-Dravidian.[97]

P[edit]

Punch 
via Hindi "panch" and ultimately Sanskrit "panchan", meaning five. The original drink was made from five ingredients: alcohol, sugar, lemon, water, and tea or spices.[98]
Pundit 
via Sanskrit "Pandita", meaning learned. A person who offers to mass media their opinion or commentary on a particular subject area.[99]

R[edit]

Raga 
via Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit राग rāgah, melodic modes used in Indian classical music.[100]
Raita 
ultimately from Sanskrit रजिकतिक्तक rājikātiktakaḥ via Hindi रायता rāytā, a south Asian condiment and side dish made of yogurt and vegetables.[101]
Raj 
through Hindi राज and Pali/Prakrit रज्ज rajja ultimately from Sanskrit राज्य rājya, which means "a king" or "kingdom." Raj means kingdom or domain of a ruler.[102]
Rajah 
through Hindi राज from Sanskrit राजन् rājān, which means "a king".[103]
Ramtil 
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit रामतिलः rāmatilah, which means "a dark sesame".[104]
Rani 
through Hindi रानी ultimately from Sanskrit राज्ञी rājnī, consort of a rajah.[105]
Rice 
via Old French ris and Italian riso from Latin oriza, which is from Greek ὄρυζα oryza, through an Indo-Iranian tongue finally from Sanskrit व्रीहिस् vrihi-s "rice", derived from proto-Dravidian.[106]
Rupee 
through Hindi रुपया rupiyā ultimately from Sanskrit रूप्यकम् rūpyakam, an Indian silver coin.[107]
Rye 
via Romani from Sanskrit राजा rājā; a gypsy man.[108]

S[edit]

Saccharo- 
via Latin Saccharon and Greek σάκχαρον from Pali सक्खर sakkharā, ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sarkarā.[109]
Sadhu 
ultimately from Sanskrit साधु sādhu meaning "good man."[110]
Samadhi 
from Sanskrit समाधि samadhi, which means "putting together".[111]
Sambal 
through Afrikaans, Indonesian and Tamil சம்பல் campāl ultimately from Sanskrit सम्बार sambhārei.[112]
Sambar 
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit संभारह् śambarah, a kind of Asian deer.[113]
Samsara 
from Sanskrit संसार saṃ-sāra, which means "passing through".[114]
Sandal 
via Middle English sandell, Old French sandale, Medieval Latin sandalum, Medieval Greek σανδάλιον sandalion (diminutive of σάνδαλον sandalon) and Arabic and Persian صندل; perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit चन्दनम् candanam meaning "wood for burning incense;" this is the word sandalwood, not related to sandals which is a type of footwear.[115]
Sandhi 
ultimately from Sanskrit संधि samdhih, a wide variety of phonological processes.[116]
Sangha 
from Sanskrit संघ saṅgha, a community of Buddhist monks and nuns.[117]
Sanskrit 
from Sanskrit संस्कृतम् samskrtam "put together, well-formed".[118]
Sapphire 
via Old French saphir, Latin sapphirus and Greek σάπφειρος sappheiros from a Semitic tongue (c.f. Hebrew: ספיר sapir); possible ultimate origin in Sanskrit शनिप्रिय sanipriya which literally means "Sacred to Saturn (Shani)".[119]
Sari 
through Hindi साड़ी sari and Prakrit सदि sadi, finally from Sanskrit षाटी sati "garment".[120]
Satyagraha 
from Sanskrit सत्याग्रह satyagraha, which means "insisting on truth".[121]
Sattva 
from Sanskrit सत्त्व sattvah, which means "truth".[122]
Shaman 
through Russian шама́н from Tungus shaman, perhaps from Chinese 萨满 sha men, via Prakrit समन finally from Sanskrit श्रमण sramana-s "a Buddhist monk".[123]
Shampoo 
via Anglo-Indian shampoo and Hindi चाँपो champo probably from Sanskrit चपयति capayati, which means "kneads".[124]
Shawl 
from Persian شال shal, finally from Sanskrit सत्ल् satI, which means "a strip of cloth".[125]
Siddha 
from Sanskrit सिद्ध siddhah, which means "achieved, accomplished".[126]
Sikh 
through Hindi सिख sikh "a disciple", ultimately from Sanskrit शिक्षति siksati which means "studies".[127]
Singh 
via Hindi सिंह Singh finally from Sanskrit सिंहः simhah which means "a lion".[128]
Singapore 
via Malay Singapura ultimately from Sanskrit सिंहपुरं Simhapuram, literally "the lion city".[129]
Sinhala 
from Sanskrit सिंहल Simhala which means "Sri Lanka".[130]
Sinhalese 
from Sanskrit सिंहल simhala which means "of lions".[131]
Sri Lanka
from Sanskrit: श्री लंका which means "venerable island." It is said that Shree or Lakshmi, the Goddess of wealth, resides there.
Stupa 
from Sanskrit स्तूपः stūpah which means "crown of the head".[132]
Sulfur
from Sanskrit शुल्बारी shulbari which means "copper's enemy" since Sulfer readily reacts with Copper after which the Copper loses it's metallic properties.[133]
Sugar 
through Old French sucre, Italian zucchero, Medieval Latin succarum, Arabic: سكر sukkar and Persian: شکر shakar ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sharkara which means "ground or candied sugar" (originally "grit" or "gravel"), from proto-Dravidian.[134]
Sunn 
via Hindi: सुन्न ultimately from Sanskrit: सन sāna, a kind of Asian plant.[135]
Sutra 
from Sanskrit सूत्र sutram which means "a rule".[136]
Suttee 
through Hindi finally from Sanskrit सती sati, which means "an honorable woman" or 'ideal wife', after the first wife of Lord Shiva[137]
Swami 
through Hindi स्वामी swami ultimately from Sanskrit स्वामी svami, which means "a master".[138]
Swastika 
from Sanskrit स्वस्तिक svastika, which means "one associated with well-being, a lucky charm" or Good, god fearing being. It is said to be the form of the Sun.[139]

T[edit]

Taka 
via Maithili and Bengali: টাকা from Sanskrit तन्कह् tankah.[140]
Talipot 
through Hindi, Indonesian and Malay talipat from Sanskrit तालपत्रम् tālapatram, a kind of tree.[141]
Tendu 
via French "stretched" and Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit तालपत्रम् tainduka.[142]
Tantra 
from Sanskrit तन्त्र tantram, which means "weave".[143]
Teapoy
via Hindi तिपाई tipāi and Urdu تپائي tipāʼī,which originated as a Sanskrit compound: त्रि (trí, “three”) and पाद (pā́da, “foot”).[citation needed]
Thug 
through Marathi ठग and Hindi ठग thag probably ultimately from Sanskrit स्थग sthaga, which means "a scoundrel".[144]
Til 
from Sanskrit तिल tilah, a kind of plant.[145]
Toddy 
through Hindi तरी tari ultimately from Sanskrit तल tala-s, a Dravidian origin is also probable.[146]
Tola 
via Hindi: तोला ultimately from Sanskrit तुला tulā, a traditional Indian unit of mass.[147]
Toon 
through Hindi तुन tūn ultimately from Sanskrit तुन्नह् tunnah, a kind of tree.[148]
Tope 
through Hindi टॉप ṭop probably from Prakrit थुपो thūpo, finally from Sanskrit स्तूप stūpah.[149]
Tutty 
through Middle English tutie, Old French, Medieval Latin tūtia, Arabic توتي tūtiyā, and Persian توتیا ultimately from Sanskrit तुत्थं tuttham meaning "blue vitriol", a Dravidian origin is also probable.[150]

U[edit]

Umbra 
through Hindi अँधा Am̐dhā ultimately from Sanskrit, meaning "blind".[151]

V[edit]

Vina 
ultimately from Sanskrit वीणा vīṇā through Hindi वीणा vīṇā, a kind of musical instrument.[152]
Vimana 
from Sanskrit विमान vimana meaning plane, also referred to the top of the temple tower, sanctum santorum.[153]
Vinyasa 
Sanskrit term often employed in relation to certain styles of yoga. The term vinyasa may be broken down into its Sanskritic roots to assist in decoding its meaning. Nyasa denotes "to place" and vi denotes "in a special way.

W[edit]

Wanderoo 
through Sinhalese: වන්ඩෙරූ finally from Sanskrit वानर vānarah, a kind of monkey.[154]
Wat 
via Thai: วัด ultimately from Sanskrit वात vātah meaning "an enclosure."[155]
Widow 
From Sanskrit "vidavah".

Y[edit]

Yoga 
through Hindi योग ultimately from Sanskrit योग yoga-s, which means "yoke, union".[156]
Yogi 
through Hindi योगी yogi from Sanskrit योगिन् yogin, one who practices yoga or ascetic.[157]

Z[edit]

Zen 
through Japanese 禅 and ChineseChán ultimately from Pali झन jhāna and Sanskrit ध्यान dhyana, which means "a meditation".[158]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ American Heritage Dictionary, Ahimsa, Quote: "doctrine expressing belief in the sacredness of all living creatures and urging the avoidance of harm and violence."
    • Ahimsa, Sanskrit Lexicon, University of Koeln, Germany (2009)
    • Mayton, D. M., & Burrows, C. A. (2012), Psychology of Nonviolence, The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology, Vol. 1, pages 713-716 and 720-723, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-1-4051-9644-4
  2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ambarella
  3. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Amrita
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Aniline
  5. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Aryan". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  6. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Asana
  7. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ashram
  8. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Atoll
  9. ^ Harper, Douglas. "aubergine". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  10. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Avatar". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  11. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ayurveda
  12. ^ Harper, Douglas. "banyan". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  13. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Basmati rice
  14. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Bahuvrihi
  15. ^ Harper, Douglas. "beryl". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  16. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Bhakti
  17. ^ Harper, Douglas. "bhang". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  18. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Bidi
  19. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Brinjal
  20. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Buddha
  21. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Buddha
  22. ^ Harper, Douglas. "chit". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  23. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Chuddar
  24. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Chukar
  25. ^ Harper, Douglas. "chukker". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  26. ^ Dinosauria.com – Citipati
  27. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cot". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  28. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cowrie". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  29. ^ Harper, Douglas. "crimson". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  30. ^ Babiniotis, Leksiko tis neoellinikis glossas.
  31. ^ Harper, Douglas. "crocus". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  32. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Dahl
  33. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Das
  34. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Datura
  35. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Deodar
  36. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Deva". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  37. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Devi
  38. ^ [1]
  39. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Dhoti
  40. ^ Harper, Douglas. "dinghy". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  41. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ganja
  42. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Gaur
  43. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Gavial
  44. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Gayal
  45. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Gharry
  46. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ghee
  47. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Guar
  48. ^ Harper, Douglas. "gunny". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  49. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Gurkha
  50. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Guru". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  51. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Hanuman
  52. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Hare Krishna
  53. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Himalaya". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  54. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Hindi
  55. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Jackal". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  56. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Jaggery
  57. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Juggernaut". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  58. ^ Harper, Douglas. "jungle". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  59. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Jute". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  60. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Karma". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  61. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Kedgeree
  62. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Kermes
  63. ^ Harper, Douglas. "kos". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  64. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Krait
  65. ^ Harper, Douglas. "lac". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  66. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Lacquer
  67. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Langur
  68. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Lilac
  69. ^ Harper, Douglas. "loot". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  70. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Maharajah". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  71. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Maharani
  72. ^ Harper, Douglas. "maharishi". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  73. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mahatma". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  74. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mahayana". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  75. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Mahout
  76. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mandala". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  77. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mandarin (bureaucrat)". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  78. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mantra". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  79. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Maya
  80. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Mitra
  81. ^ Dictionary.com – Moksha
  82. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Mugger
  83. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Mung bean
  84. ^ Harper, Douglas. "musk". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  85. ^ "Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: musk". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  86. ^ Chantraine, Pierre (1990). Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. Klincksieck. p. 715. ISBN 2-252-03277-4. 
  87. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mynah". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  88. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Nainsook
  89. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Namaste". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  90. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Nard
  91. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Narghile
  92. ^ Harper, Douglas. "nark". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  93. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Neem
  94. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Nilgai
  95. ^ Harper, Douglas. "nirvana". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  96. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Opal
  97. ^ Harper, Douglas. "orange". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  98. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary – Punch
  99. ^ Oxford Dictionary – Pundit
  100. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Raga
  101. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Raita
  102. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Raj
  103. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Rajah". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  104. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ramtil
  105. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Rani
  106. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=rice
  107. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Rupee
  108. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Rye
  109. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Saccharo-
  110. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sadhu
  111. ^ Harper, Douglas. "samadhi". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  112. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sambal
  113. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sambar
  114. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Samsara
  115. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sandal
  116. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sandhi
  117. ^ Dictionary.com – Sangha
  118. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Sanskrit". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  119. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sapphire". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  120. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Sari
  121. ^ Harper, Douglas. "satyagraha". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  122. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sattva". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  123. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Shaman
  124. ^ Harper, Douglas. "shampoo". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  125. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Shawl
  126. ^ Harper, Douglas. "siddha". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  127. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Sikh". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  128. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Singh". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  129. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Singapore". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  130. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Sinhala
  131. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Sinhalese". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  132. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Stupa
  133. ^ Shearer, Randy L; Poole, Elizabeth B; Nowalk, Joe B (1993). "Application of Gas Chromatography and Flameless Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detection to the Analysis of Petroleum Products". Journal of Chromatographic Science. Mathematics & Physical Sciences 31: 82–87. doi:10.1093/chromsci/31.3.82. 
  134. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sugar". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  135. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sunn
  136. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Sutra". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  137. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Suttee". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  138. ^ Harper, Douglas. "swami". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  139. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Swastika". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  140. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Taka
  141. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Talipot
  142. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Tendu
  143. ^ Harper, Douglas. "tantra". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  144. ^ Harper, Douglas. "thug". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  145. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Til
  146. ^ Harper, Douglas. "toddy". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  147. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Tola
  148. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Toon
  149. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Tussah
  150. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Tutty
  151. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary - Umbra
  152. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Vina
  153. ^ Dictionary.com – Vimana
  154. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Wanderoo
  155. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Wat
  156. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Yoga". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  157. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Yogi". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  158. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Zen". Online Etymology Dictionary. 

External links[edit]