List of entheogenic/hallucinogenic species

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This is a list of species and genera that are used as entheogens or are used in an entheogenic concoction (such as ayahuasca). For recreational use they may be classified as hallucinogens. The active principals and historical significance of each is also listed to illustrate the requirements necessary to be categorized as an entheogen.

Fauna[edit]

Common name Binomial nomenclature for species or genus Psychoactive constituent(s) Regions/Cultures of use
Colorado River toad Bufo alvarius 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin Controversial interpretation of Mesoamerican art.
Bullet ant Paraponera clavata Poneratoxin Used by the Satere-Mawe people in their initiation rites 20 times.
Hallucinogenic fish Primary Siganus spp. Unknown

Flora[edit]

Common name Binomial nomenclature for species or genus Psychoactive constituent(s) Regions/Cultures of use
African dream root Silene capensis Possibly triterpenoid saponins Xhosa people of South Africa.
Ayahuasca Banisteriopsis caapi Harmala alkaloids South America; people of the Amazon Rainforest. UDV of Brazil and United States. Use within ayahuasca.
Blue lily Nymphaea caerulea Nuciferine and aporphine Possibly ancient Egypt and South America.
Angel's trumpet Brugmansia spp. Tropane alkaloids South America, sometimes used as part of ayahuasca.
Bolivian torch cactus Echinopsis lageniformis syn. Trichocereus bridgesii Mescaline South America
Cannabis Cannabis spp. THC and other cannabinoids Sadhus of India. See also: religious and spiritual use of cannabis.
Chaliponga Diplopterys cabrerana DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru as part of ayahuasca.
Coca leaves Erythroxylum coca & Erythroxylum novogranatense spp. Primarily Cocaine Andes mountains and surrounding areas..
Harmal Peganum harmala Harmala alkaloids Turkey and the Middle East.
Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa Ergoline alkaloids Psychoactive, but may not have been used as an entheogen. Native to India. Traditional usage possible but mainly undocumented.
Henbane Hyoscyamus niger Tropane alkaloids Ancient Greece and witches of the Middle Ages.
Peruvian torch cactus Echinopsis peruviana syn. Trichocereus peruvianus Mescaline Pre-Incan Chavín rituals in Peru.
Iboga Tabernanthe iboga Ibogaine Bwiti religion of West Central Africa. Used by Western nations to treat opioid addiction.
Morning glory Ipomoea tricolor Ergoline alkaloids Aztecs
Morning glory Ipomoea violacea Ergoline alkaloids Mazatec[1]
Jimson weed Datura stramonium Tropane alkaloids Native Americans: Algonquian and Luiseño. Sadhus of India. Táltos of the Magyar (Hungary).
Khat Catha edulis cathinone, East-Africa/Middle East
Mapacho Nicotiana rustica Nicotine and harmala alkaloids South America
Jurema Mimosa tenuiflora syn. M. hostilis DMT and harmala alkaloids-ott claims to have taken bark alone and is active Northeastern Brazil
Peyote Lophophora williamsii Mescaline Oshara Tradition
Chacruna Psychotria viridis DMT UDV of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and the Brazilian church. Santo Daime have used it as part of ayahuasca.
Ska María Pastora Salvia divinorum Salvinorin A Mazatec
San Pedro cactus Echinopsis pachanoi syn. Trichocereus pachanoi Mescaline South America
Tobacco Nicotiana rustica Nicotine, Harmala alk. North & South America, other spp. may have similar activity
Christmas vine Turbina corymbosa syn. Rivea corymbosa Ergoline alkaloids Mazatec[1]
Virola Virola spp. DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin South America
Vilca Anadenanthera colubrina DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin South America
Yopo Anadenanthera peregrina DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin South America

Fungi[edit]

Common name Binomial nomenclature for species or genus Psychoactive constituent(s) Regions/Cultures of use
Fly agaric Amanita muscaria[2] Ibotenic acid and muscimol Siberian shamans. Scandinavia. Possibly the Soma drink of India.
Magic mushrooms primarily Psilocybe spp. Psilocybin and psilocin; baeocystin and norbaeocystin (some species) Mazatec

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.sagewisdom.org/shepherdess.html
  2. ^ Heinrich, C (1995). Strange Fruit: Alchemy and Religion- The Hidden Truth. London : Bloomsbury. Referenced throughout ISBN 978-0-7475-1548-7