List of Ericaceae genera

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Bell heather, Erica cinerea, is the type species of the family.

This is a list of genera in the plant family Ericaceae, which includes the heaths, heathers, epacrids, and blueberries. As currently circumscribed, the family contains approximatively 4000 species into more than 120 genera classified into 9 subfamilies.[1]

Current understanding[edit]

The list shown here follows the phylogenetic classification of Kron et al. (2002),[2] with modifications as per Stevens et al. (2004),[3] Quinn et al. (2005),[4] Albrecht et al. (2010),[5] Gillespie & Kron (2010),[6] and Craven (2011).[7]

Nonetheless, much of the taxonomy within the Vaccinioideae is in flux. Multiple studies of the Gaultherieae have now shown Pernettya, Diplycosia (already including Pernettyopsis), and Tepuia to be nested within Gaultheria,[8][9] although publication formalizing the transfers are yet to be published. Similarly, most of Vaccinieae has not been investigated using molecular techniques, and many genera are likely paraphyletic or polyphyletic. Neotropical and Old World Vaccinioideae are particularly poorly known.[10] Within the Epacrideae preliminary evidence supports the lumping of Budawangia and Rupicola with Epacris,[2] but these genera still stand for the time being.

Relevant recent synonymy include Bruckenthalia with Erica,[11][page needed] Leiophyllum and Loiseleuria with Kalmia,[12] and Diplarche and Menziesia with Rhododendron.[7]

Genera[edit]

Genus
Authority
Year Classification Type species # of species Distribution
Enkianthus
Lour.[13]
1791 Enkianthoideae Enkianthus quinqueflorus
Lour.
!B9972274112777 16 Southeast Asia
Chimaphila
Pursh[14]
1813
("1814")
Pyroloideae Chimaphila maculata
(L.) Pursh
!B9983905620875 5 North and Central America, Eurasia
Moneses
Salisb. ex S.F.Gray[15]
1821 Pyroloideae Moneses grandiflora[N 1]
Salisb. ex S.F.Gray
!C 1 Circumboreal
Orthilia
Raf.[16]
1840 Pyroloideae Orthilia parvifolia[N 1]
Raf.
!C 1 Canada to Guatemala, Eurasia
Pyrola
L.[17]
1753 Pyroloideae Pyrola rotundifolia
L.
!B9965988026183 ca. 30 North and Central America, Eurasia
Allotropa
Torr. & A.Gray[18]
1858
("1857")
Allotropa virgata
Torr. & A.Gray
!C 1 Pacific Northwest
Cheilotheca
Hook.f.[19]
1876 Cheilotheca khasiana
Hook.f.
!B9989013877113 3
Hemitomes
A.Gray[18]
1858
("1857")
Hemitomes congestum
A.Gray
!C 1 West Coast
Monotropa
L.[17]
1753 Monotropa uniflora
L.
!B9993068528194 2 America, Europe, Asia
Monotropastrum
H.Andres[20]
1936 Monotropastrum macrocarpum
H.Andres
!B9990837092681 2 or 3 Himalaya to Sumatra and Japan
Monotropsis
Schwein.[21]
1817 Monotropsis odorata
Schwein.
!C 1 Southeastern United States
Pityopus
Small[22]
1914 Pityopus oregonus[N 2]
Small
!C 1 West Coast of the U.S.
Pleuricospora
A.Gray[23]
1868 Pleuricospora fimbriolata
A.Gray
!C 1 California to British Columbia
Pterospora
Nutt.[24]
1919 Pterospora andromedea
Nutt.
!C 1 United States and Mexico
Sarcodes
Torr.[25]
1851 Sarcodes sanguinea
Torr.
!C 1 West Coast of United States and Mexico
Arbutus
L.[17]
1753 Arbutus unedo
L.
!B9976974149070 10 United States to Central America,
Mediterranean area
Arctostaphylos
Adans.[26]
1763 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
(L.) Spreng.
!B9958103452579 66 North and Central America, Eurasia
Comarostaphylis
Zucc.[27]
1837 Comarostaphylis arguta[N 3]
Zucc.
!B9976974149070 10 California to Central America
Ornithostaphylos
Small[22]
1914 Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia
(Parry) Small
!C 1 California, Mexico
Xylococcus
Nutt.[28]
1842
("1843")
Xylococcus bicolor
Nutt.
!C 1 California
Cassiope
D.Don[29]
1834
  • Cassiopeoideae
Cassiope tetragona
(L.) D.Don
!B9971096282421 18 Circumboreal
Bryanthus
J.G.Gmel.[30][N 4]
1769 Bryanthus gmelinii[N 5]
D.Don
Ledothamnus
Meisn.[31]
1863 Ledothamnus guyanensis
Meisn.
Ceratiola
Michx.[32]
1803 Ceratiola ericoides
Michx.
!C 1 United States
Corema
D.Don[33]
1826 Corema album
(L.) D.Don ex Steud.
!B9993068528194 2 North America, Iberian Peninsula
Empetrum
L.[17]
1753 Empetrum nigrum
L.
!B9987472370315 3–18[N 6] Circumboreal and southern South America
Calluna
Salisb.[34]
1802 Calluna vulgaris
(L.) Hull
!C 1 European
Daboecia
D.Don[29]
1834 Daboecia polifolia[N 7]
D.Don
!B9993068528194 2 Europe
Erica
L.[17]
1753 Erica cinerea
L.
!B9932547636505 850+ Afro-Eurasia
Bejaria[N 8]
Mutis[35]
1771 Bejaria aestuans
Mutis ex L.
!B9972919497988 15 South America to United States
Elliottia
Muhl. ex Elliott[21]
1817 Elliottia racemosa
Muhl. ex Elliott
!B9986137056388 4 North America, Japan
Epigaea
L.[17]
1753 Epigaea repens
L.
!B9989013877113 3 North America, Asia
Kalmia
L.[17]
1753 Kalmia latifolia
L.
!B9976974149070 10 Northern hemisphere
Kalmiopsis
Rehder[36]
1932 Kalmiopsis leachiana
(L.F.Hend.) Rehder
!B9993068528194 2 Oregon
Phyllodoce
Salisb.[37]
1806 Phyllodoce taxifolia[N 1]
(Pall.) Salisb.
!B9979205584583 8 North America, Eurasia
Rhodothamnus
Rchb.[38]
1827 Rhodothamnus chamaecistus
(L.) Rchb.
Rhododendron
L.[17]
1753 Rhododendron ferrugineum
L.
!B9930922447210 1000+ North America, Eurasia, Australia
Therorhodion[N 9]
(Maxim.) Small[39]
1914 Therorhodion camtschaticum
(Pall. Small)
!B9989013877113 3 Alaska, Northeast Asia
Harrimanella
Coville[40]
1901
  • Harrimanelloideae
Harrimanella stelleriana
(Pall.) Coville
!B9993068528194 2 Circumboreal
Archeria
Hook.f.[41]
1857
None designated !B9982082405307 6 Tasmania, New Zealand
Andersonia
R.Br.[42]
1810 None designated !B9960879769945 ca. 50 Western Australia
Cosmelia
R.Br.[42]
1810 Cosmelia rubra
R.Br.
!B9993068528194 2 Western Australia
Sprengelia
Sm.[43]
1794 Sprengelia incarnata
!B9986137056388 4 Australia
Budawangia
Telford[44]
1992 Budawangia gnidioides
(Summerh.) Telford
!C 1 Australia
Epacris
Cav.[45]
1797 Epacris longiflora
Cav.
!B9965988026183 30+ Oceania
Lysinema
R.Br.[42]
1810 None designated !B9982082405307 6 Australia
Rupicola
Maiden & Betche[46]
1899
("1898")
Rupicola sprengelioides
Maiden & Betche
!B9986137056388 4 Australia
Woollsia
F.Muell.[47]
1873 Woollsia pungens
(Cav.) F.Muell.
!C 1 Australia
Dielsiodoxa
Albr.[5]
2010 Dielsiodoxa tamariscina
(F.Muell.) Albr.
!B9983905620875 5 Australia
Needhamiella[N 10]
L.Watson[48]
1965 Needhamiella pumilio
(R.Br.) L.Watson
!C 1 Western Australia
Oligarrhena
R.Br.[42]
1810 Oligarrhena micrantha
R.Br.
!C 1 Australia
Lebetanthus[N 11]
Endl.[49]
1841 Lebetanthus americana[N 12]
(Hook.f.) Hook.f.
!C 1 South America
Prionotes
R.Br.[42]
1810 Prionotes cerinthoides
(Labill. R.Br.)
!C 1 Tasmania
Dracophyllum
Labill.[50]
1800 Dracophyllum verticillatum
Labill.
!B9953948298140 ca. 100 Oceania
Richea[N 13]
R.Br.[42]
1810 Richea dracophylla
R.Br.
!B9976021047272 11 Australia, Tasmania
Sphenotoma
(R.Br.) Sweet[N 14][51]
1828 Sphenotoma gracilis
(R.Br.) Sweet
!B9982082405307 6
Acrothamnus
Quinn[4]
2005 Acrothamnus maccraei
(F.Muell.) Quinn
!B9983707594602 5+ Oceania
Acrotriche
R.Br.[42]
1810 Acrotriche divaricata[N 15]
R.Br.
!B9972274112777 16 Australia
Agiortia
Quinn[4]
2005 Agiortia cicatricata
(J.M.Powell) Quinn
!B9989013877113 3 Australia
Androstoma
Hook.f.[41]
1844 Androstoma empetrifolia
Hook.f.
!B9993068528194 2 Australia, New Zealand
Astroloma
R.Br.[42]
1810 none designated !B9976974149070 ca. 10 Australia
Brachyloma
Sond.[52]
1845 Brachyloma preissii
Sond.
!B9980540898509 7 Australia
Coleanthera
Stschegl.[53]
1859 None designated
Conostephium
Benth.[54]
1837 Conostephium pendulum
Benth.
!B9976974149070 ca. 10 Australia
Croninia
J.M.Powell[55]
1993 Croninia kingiana
(F.Muell.) J.M.Powell
!C 1 Australia
Cyathodes
Labill.[56]
1805
(1804)
Cyathodes glauca[N 16]
Labill.
!B9983905620875 5(?) Australia
Cyathopsis
Brongn. & Gris[N 17][57]
1864 Cyathopsis floribunda
Brongn. & Gris
!B9989013877113 3 New Caledonia
Decatoca
F.Muell.[58]
1889 Decatoca spencerii
!C 1 New Guinea
Leptecophylla
C.M.Weiller[59]
1999 Leptecophylla juniperina
(J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) C.M.Weiller
!B9975150933502 12 Oceania
Leucopogon
R.Br.[42]
1810 Leucopogon lanceolatus[N 18]
!B9949893647059 150+ Oceania
Lissanthe
R.Br.[42]
1810 Lissanthe strigosa[N 19]
(Sm.) R.Br.
!B9980540898509 7 Australia
Melichrus
R.Br.[42]
1810 Melichrus procumbens
(Cav.) Druce
!B9976974149070 ca. 10 Australia
Monotoca
R.Br.[42]
1810 Monotoca scoparia
(Sm.) R.Br.
!B9971667866559 17 Australia
Montitega
C.M.Weiller[5]
1993 Montitega dealbata
(R.Br.) C.M.Weiller
!C 1 Australia
Pentachondra
R.Br.[42]
1810 None designated[N 20] !B9984959226032 4–5 Australia, New Zealand
Planocarpa
C.M.Weiller[60]
1996 Planocarpa petiolaris
(DC.) C.M.Weiller
!B9989013877113 3 Tasmania
Styphelia
Sm.[61]
1795
("1793")
Styphelia tubuliflora
Sm.
Oceania
Trochocarpa
R.Br.[42]
1810 Trochocarpa laurina
(Rudge R.Br.)
!B9976974149070 10? Australia, Malesia
Andromeda
L.[17]
1753 Andromeda polifolia
L.
!B9995945348918 1 or 2 Circumboreal
Zenobia
D.Don[29]
1834 Zenobia speciosa[N 21]
(Michx.) D.Don
!C 1 Southeastern United States
Chamaedaphne
Moench[62]
1794 Chamaedaphne calyculata
(L.) Moench
!C 1 Circumboreal
Diplycosia
Blume[63]
1826 None designated[N 22] !B9952995196342 ca. 110 Southeast Asia
Eubotrys
Nutt.[28]
1842
("1843")
Eubotrys racemosa
(L.) Nutt.
!B9993068528194 2 Eastern United States
Gaultheria
L.[17]
1753 Gaultheria procumbens
L.
!B9952550678716 ca. 115 Circumpacific, Americas
Leucothoe
D.Don[29]
1834 Leucothoe axillaria
(Lam.) D.Don
!B9983905620875 5 United States, East Asia
Pernettya[N 23]
Gaudich.[64]
1825 Pernettya empetrifolia[N 24]
(Lam.) Gaudich.
Southern America, Oceania
Tepuia
Camp[65]
1939 Tepuia tatei[N 25]
Camp
!B9980540898509 7 South America
Agarista
D.Don ex G.Don[66]
1834 Agarista nummularia
(Cham. & Schltdl.) G.Don
!B9965988026183 ca. 30 Americas, Africa, Madagascar
Craibiodendron
W.W.Sm.[67]
1911 Craibiodendron shanicum[N 26]
W.W.Sm.
!B9983905620875 5 India, China, Indochina
Lyonia
Nutt.[24]
1919 Lyonia ferruginea
(Walter) Nutt.
!B9964446519385 35 United States to Mexico
and Caribbeans, East Asia
Pieris
D.Don[29]
1834 Pieris formosa
(Wall.) D.Don
!B9980540898509 7 United States, Cuba, East Asia
Oxydendrum
DC.[68]
1839
Oxydendrum arboreum
(L.) DC.
!C 1 United States
Agapetes
D.Don ex G.Don[66]
1834 Agapetes setigera
(Wall.) D.Don ex G.Don
!B9956179733653 80+ Himalaya
Anthopteropsis
A.C.Sm.[69]
1941 Anthopteropsis insignis
A.C.Sm.
!C 1 Panama
Anthopterus
Hook.[70]
1839 Anthopterus racemosus
Hook.
!B9970042677264 ca. 20 Neotropical
Cavendishia
Lindl.[71]
1835
("1836")
Cavendishia nobilis
Lindl.
!B9953948298140 ca. 100 Neotropical
Ceratostema
Juss.[72]
1789 Ceratostema peruvianum
J.F.Gmel.
!B9964446519385 35 Andes
Costera
J.J.Sm.[73]
1910 Costera ovalifolia
J.J.Sm.
!B9976974149070 10
Demosthenesia
A.C.Sm.[74]
1936 Demosthenesia mandonii
(Britton) A.C.Sm.
!B9975150933502 12 Neotropical
Didonica
Luteyn & Wilbur[75]
1977 Didonica pendula
Luteyn & Wilbur
!B9986137056388 4 Neotropical
Dimorphanthera[N 27] N/A None designated !B9956179733653 80+ Malesia to Australia
Diogenesia
Sleumer[76]
1934 Diogenesia octandra
Sleumer
!B9974350506425 13 Eastern Venezuela, Northern Andes
Disterigma
(Klotzsch) Nied.[77]
1889
("1890")
Disterigma empetrifolium
(Kunth) Drude
!B9963111205458 ca. 40 Mexico to Northern South America
Gaylussacia
Kunth[78]
1819 Gaylussacia buxifolia
Kunth
!B9960879769945 50 Americas
Gonocalyx
Planch. & Linden[79]
1856 Gonocalyx pulcher
Planch. & Linden
!B9976021047272 11 Southern America
Lateropora
A.C.Sm.[80]
1932[N 28] Lateropora ovata
A.C.Smith
!B9989013877113 3
Macleania
Hook.[70]
1837 Macleania floribunda
Hook.
!B9960879769945 ca. 50 Southern Mexico to Peru
Mycerinus
A.C.Sm.[81]
1931 Mycerinus sclerophyllus
A.C.Sm.
!B9989013877113 3 Southern America
Notopora
Hook.f.[70]
1873 Notopora schomburgkii[N 29]
Hook.f.
!B9983905620875 5
Oreanthes
Benth.[82]
1844 Oreanthes buxifolius
Benth.
!B9980540898509 7 Neotropical
Orthaea
Klotzsch[83]
1851 Orthaea secundiflora
(Poepp. & Endl.) Klotzsch
!B9964736394753 34 Neotropical
Paphia
Seem.[84]
1864 Paphia vitiensis
Seem.
!B9970042677264 20+ Australasia
Pellegrinia
Sleumer[85]
1935 Pellegrinia grandiflora
(Ruiz & Pav. ex G.Don) Sleumer
!B9982082405307 6
Plutarchia
A.C.Sm.[74]
1936 Plutarchia rigida
(Benth.) A.C.Sm.
!B9976021047272 11 Ecuador, Colombia
Polyclita
A.C.Sm.[74]
1936 Polyclita turbinata
(Kuntze) A.C.Smith
!C 1
Psammisia
Klotzsch[83]
1851 Psammisia falcata
Klotzsch
!B9957515047579 70 Neotropical
Rusbya
Britton[86]
1893 None designated[N 30]
!C 1 Bolivia
Satyria
Klotzsch[83]
1851 Satyria warszewiczii
Klotzsch
Semiramisia
Klotzsch[83]
1851 Semiramisia speciosa
(Benth.) Klotzsch
!B9986137056388 4 Ecuador, Venezuela to Peru
Siphonandra[N 31]
Klotzsch[83]
1851 Siphonandra elliptica
(Ruiz & Pav. ex G.Don) Klotzsch
!B9989013877113 3 Neotropical
Sphyrospermum
Poepp. & Endl.[87]
1835 Sphyrospermum buxifolium
Poepp. & Endl.
!B9969089575466 22 Neotropical
Symphysia
C.Presl[88]
1827 Symphysia martinicensis[N 32]
C.Presl
Themistoclesia
Klotzsch[83]
1851 Themistoclesia pendula[N 33]
!B9969089575466 22 Costa Rica to Peru
Thibaudia
Ruiz & Pav. ex J.St.-Hil.[89][N 34]
1805 Thibaudia mellifera[N 35]
Ruiz & Pav. ex J.St.-Hil.
!B9959056554377 60 Neotropical
Utleya
Wilbur & Luteyn[75]
1977 Utleya costaricensis
Wilbur & Luteyn
!C 1
Vaccinium
L.[17]
1753 Vaccinium uliginosum
L.
!B9937853919015 500+ Near cosmopolitan

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c As unnecessary renamings of species described earlier by Linnaeus, these names are illegitimate and treated respectively as Moneses uniflora (L.) A.Gray, Orthilia secunda (L.) House, and Phyllodoce caerulea (L.) Bab.
  2. ^ Small's species, which he originally named Pityopus oregona, was later found to be the same as Alice Eastwood's Monotropa californica. It is now treated as Pityopus californius (Eastw.) H.F.Copel.
  3. ^ Currently treated as a synonym of Comarostaphylis discolor (Hook.) Diggs.
  4. ^ The name is often attributed to David Don (1834, Edinb. New Philos. J. 17:160), but although no valid species name were published in the two last volumes of Gmelin's work (which did not use the Linnean binomial system), his genera are considered valid.
  5. ^ This species' correct name is Bryanthus musciformis (Poir.) Nakai
  6. ^ Murray & al. (2009, Fl. N. Am. 8:486) note that there are no recent comprehensive reviews of this genus "where different authors rarely, if ever, arrive at the same conclusion" (citing Hultén, 1971, Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 4 8(5):86).
  7. ^ The correct name of the species is Daboecia cantabrica (Huds.) K.Koch
  8. ^ As Befaria. The corrected spelling was later conserved.
  9. ^ John Lindley and Joseph Paxton had originally (1851, Paxton's Fl. Gard. 1:113) moved Pallas' Rhododendron camtschaticum to a new genus Rhodothamnus, a name that Reichenbach had already coined for another Ericacea genus. Small elevated Carl Maximowicz' Rhododendron sect. Therorhodion (Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, sér. 7. 16(9):47) to generic level to replace that name.
  10. ^ Robert Brown's (1810, Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.:558) original Needhamia could not be used because Needhamia Scop. (1777, Intr. Hist. Nat.:310), a rejected synonym of Tephrosia (Fabaceae) antedates it.
  11. ^ Endlicher substituted this name (as "Lebethanthus") for his own Allodape (1839, Gen. Pl.:749), which he consider preoccupied by Allodape Lepeletier & Serville 1825 (Encycl. Méthod., Insectes 10:18), a genus of bees. Since this is not the case under the ICN, the new name was eventually conserved with the current spelling.
  12. ^ Now included within Lebetanthus myrsinites (Lam.) Dusén.
  13. ^ Sometimes misattributed to Labillardière (1800, Voy. Rech. Pérouse 1:186), but that name is a rejected name against Brown's, and a synonym of Craspedia (Asteraceae:Gnaphalieae).
  14. ^ Not "R.Br. ex Sweet" or just "Sweet". Brown's Dracophyllum [unranked] Sphenotoma (1810, Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.:556) had no rank attached, but although such names cannot affect priority, they can still serve as basionyms so long as they are validly published (ICBN, art. 35).
  15. ^ Not recorded in Index Nominum Genericorum (ING), but see Paterson (1960, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 85:77, publ. 1961).
  16. ^ Not recorded in ING, but see Weiller (1996, Austral. Syst. Bot. 9(4):496)
  17. ^ ING and IPNI cite both this reference and Bull. Soc. Bot. France 11:66, but that issue of the Bulletin was not published before late January 1865 (Leussink, 1985, Taxon 34(4):589).
  18. ^ An illegitimate renaming of Henry Charles Andrews Styphelia parviflora. The correct name is Leucopogon parviflorus (Andrews) Lindl.
  19. ^ Not recorded in APNI or ING, but see Crayn & al. (1999, Austral. Syst. Bot. 16(5):600).
  20. ^ This would have to be either Pentachondra involucrata or Pentachondra pumilla.
  21. ^ The genus' sole species is now known as Zenobia pulverulanta (W.Bartram ex Willd.) Pollard
  22. ^ Would be either Diplycosia pilosa, D. heterophylla or D. latifolia (≡D. heterophylla var. latifolia).
  23. ^ Gaudichaud originally spelled the name, which honors Antoine-Joseph Pernety, as "Pernettia". The spelling was later conserved with y.
  24. ^ The correct name in Pernettya is Pernettya pumila (L.f.) Hook.. Although the species is known to belong in Gaultheria, it currently lacks a name in that genus (Gaultheria pumila Hook. already exists).
  25. ^ Although Tepuia species belong to Gaultheria, this species lack a valid name in the latter genus because of the existence of Gaultheria tatei A.C.Sm. (1933; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 60(2):99).
  26. ^ Currently treated as a synonym of Craibiodendron stellatum (Pierre) W.W.Sm.
  27. ^ Authorship, date and proper place of publication of this genus are listed in a number of different, contradictory ways.
  28. ^ A printing error misstates the year as "1942".
  29. ^ Hooker also listed the species with the epithet "schomburgkiana".
  30. ^ This would have to be Rusbya taxifolia, as the other of Britton's original species is currently treated as Demosthenesia pearcei (Britton) A.C.Sm. and its designation as lectotype would replace Demosthenesia with Rusbya.
  31. ^ Because the name is preceded by Siphonandra Turcz. (1848, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 21(1):581; =Arachnothryx, Rubiaceae), it has been proposed for conservation (Pedraza-Peñalosa & Luteyn, 2013; Taxon 62(2)408-409).
  32. ^ A synonym of Symphysia racemosa (Vahl) Stearn
  33. ^ A synonym for Themistoclesia dependens (Benth.) A.C.Sm.
  34. ^ The fourth and fifth volumes of Ruiz and Pavón's Flora Peruviana, et Chilensis were not published during their time, but the plates that were to illustrate volume 4 were circulated and lead to the publication of some names (Stafleu & Cowan, 1983; Taxon. Lit., ed. 2 4:982).
  35. ^ It is not clear whether the correct spelling is "mellifera" or "melliflora".

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stevens, P.F. (June 2008). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, Version 9". Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Kron, K.A. et al. (2002). "Phylogenetic Classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and Morphological Evidence". Botanical Review 68 (3): 335–423. doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2002)068[0335:PCOEMA]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 4354425. 
  3. ^ Stevens, P.F. et al. (2004). "Ericaceae". In Klaus Kubitzki. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants 6. Berlin: Springer. pp. 145–194. ISBN 3-540-06512-1. 
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