Outline of Eritrea

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The location of Eritrea
An enlargeable map of the State of Eritrea

Eritrea (/ˌɛrɨˈtr.ə/ or /ˌɛrɨˈtrə/;[1] Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā ; Arabic: إرترياIritriyā), officially the State of Eritrea,[2] is a country in the Horn of Africa. Eritrea is the Italian form of the Greek name Ἐρυθραίᾱ (Erythraíā ), meaning "red [land]". With its capital at Asmara, it is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea, directly across from Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands.

Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups. It has a population of around six million inhabitants. Most residents speak Afro-Asiatic languages, either of the Semitic or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinya make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Christianity or Islam.[3]

The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and the Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia, rose somewhere around the first or second centuries[4][5] and adopted Christianity shortly after its formation.[6] In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri Kingdom, with a smaller region being part of the Hamasien Republic. The creation of modern day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent Kingdoms and various vassal states of the Ethiopian empire and the Ottoman Empire, eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. In 1947 Eritrea became part of a federation with Ethiopia, the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Subsequent annexation by Ethiopia led to the Eritrean War of Independence, ending with Eritrean independence in 1991.

Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations and IGAD, and is an observer in the Arab League.

General reference[edit]

An enlargeable basic map of Eritrea

Geography of Eritrea[edit]

An enlargeable topographic map of Eritrea
Main article: Geography of Eritrea
 Ethiopia 912 km
 Sudan 605 km
 Djibouti 109 km

Environment of Eritrea[edit]

An enlargeable satellite image of Eritrea

Natural geographic features of Eritrea[edit]

Regions of Eritrea[edit]

Ecoregions of Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Ecoregions in Eritrea

Administrative divisions of Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Administrative divisions of Eritrea
Regions of Eritrea[edit]
Main article: Regions of Eritrea
Districts of Eritrea[edit]
Main article: Districts of Eritrea
Municipalities of Eritrea[edit]

Demography of Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Demographics of Eritrea

Government and politics of Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Government of Eritrea and Politics of Eritrea

Branches of the government of Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Government of Eritrea

Executive branch of the government of Eritrea[edit]

Legislative branch of the government of Eritrea[edit]

Judicial branch of the government of Eritrea[edit]

Foreign relations of Eritrea[edit]

International organization membership[edit]

The State of Eritrea is a member of:[3]

Law and order in Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Law of Eritrea

Military of Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Military of Eritrea

Local government in Eritrea[edit]

History of Eritrea[edit]

Main article: History of Eritrea, Timeline of the history of Eritrea, and Current events of Eritrea

Culture of Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Culture of Eritrea

Art in Eritrea[edit]

Sports in Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Sports in Eritrea

Economy and infrastructure of Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Economy of Eritrea

Education in Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Education in Eritrea

Health in Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Health in Eritrea

See also[edit]

Main article: Eritrea


  1. ^ "Merriam-Webster Online". Merriam-webster.com. 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  2. ^ ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-13 International Organization for Standardization
  3. ^ a b Eritrea entry at The World Factbook
  4. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press, 1991, p. 57 ISBN 0-7486-0106-6.
  5. ^ Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, 2005 ISBN 1-85065-522-7.
  6. ^ Aksumite Ethiopia. Workmall.com (2007-03-24). Retrieved on 2012-03-03.
  7. ^ The only glaciers in Africa are on Mt Kenya (in Kenya), on Kilimanjaro (in Tanzania), and in the Ruwenzori Mountains (which are located in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo). See Proceedings of the Riederalp Workshop, September 1978; Actes de l'Atelier de Riederalp, septembre 1978): IAHS-AISH Publ. no. 126, 1980.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Atlas of Eritrea