List of European folk music traditions

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This is a list of folk music traditions, with styles, dances, instruments and other related topics. The term folk music can not be easily defined in a precise manner; it is used with widely varying definitions depending on the author, intended audience and context within a work. Similarly, the term traditions in this context does not connote any strictly-defined criteria. Music scholars, journalists, audiences, record industry individuals, politicians, nationalists and demagogues may often have occasion to address which fields of folk music areto a distinct group of people and with characteristics undiluted by contact with the music of other peoples; thus, the folk music traditions described herein overlap in varying degrees with each other.

Europe[edit]

Country Elements Dance Instrumentation Other topics
Albanian [1] ahengAlbanian balladepic (këngë trimash, këngë kreshnikësh)kabakantadhaKefalonitikakëputje fjalëshKorçarelamentllazorelullabymaje krahiAlbanian iso-polyphonyprcjellsirapsodisaze orchestraserenataAlbanian wedding musicwork song ajsino oroarnaöutOsman Takapuštenosherianqeshotavalle bousouk / buzukcifteliclarinetdajrejadeffyellgrrnetalahutallautëlodramandolinsharkiviolinzumarë kurbetpare
Andalusian See Spanish
Andorran See Catalan
Arbereshi See Albanian
Austrian [2] FaschingsbriefeSchnadahüpfl (Gstanzl, Gsetzl, Trutzgsangl)schrammelmusikstring quartetWienaliedyodeling (Jodler, Wullaza, Hullaza, Almer)Zettellandler Volkstanz: BlasmusikBoarischerEiswalzerHiatamadlJägermarschKontratänzeKrebspolkaKreuzpolkaKuckuckspolkalandlerländlerLunzer BoarischermazurkaNeudeutscherpolkaPoschater ZwoaschrittRediwa (Sprachinseltänze)Schnitterhüpferschuhplattler (Plattler)RheinländerSiebenschrittSteirischerStudentenpolkaZwiefacherwaltz [3] accordionalphornclarinetdouble bass (contrabass)dulcimerfiddleflutegrazer heurigentrachtVolkssänger
Auvergnat See French
Balearic Islander See Catalan
Basque [4] bertsolaritzabikoachantchoirdawn songerrenatrikitixa Abaltzisketaarin arinAurreskuazeribasobasauriBerastegiBeti Alai ArkubrokeldantzariDonostia-San SebastianEuskaldunakezpataeztai-soinugaraygizonIngurutxojorraiKarrika-Soinu (biribilketa)larrainlegazpimakilMarkina-XemeinMatelotaMiel OtxinmutildantzaMuxico (Mutico)paloteadossagarSan JuansokasorgintroqueltxinoUztai TxikiYantza-Luzezagizortziko alboka (double clarinet)atabalchirulagaïtakirikoketamakilak (sticks)panderetasilbotetarogatotenora (shawm)toberatrikitrixa (concertina)ttunttun (drum)txalapartatxistu (three hole pipe)xirula (flute) aintzara-yokualardesBasque picnicdantzarisherrenkolarismascaradaPastoralreligious processiontxakun
Bavarian See German
Belarusan
Bohemian See Czech
Bosnian [5] gangegusleilahijeizvorna bosanska muzikaLadino songnovokomponovana narodna muzikaravne pjesmesevdalinka (sevdah) [6] line dancekolo accordionbagpipeclarinetdairedouble bassfluteguitarsargija (lute)snare drumviolin sijela
Breton [7] bagad (bagadoù, pipe band)chant de marin (sea shanty)couples de sonneurs (sonner par couple)gwerz (gwerzioù)kan a bozkan ha diskankantik (hymn)kost ar c'hoatquêtesôn (sonioù) an dros (an dro)balsplinnfiselgavottejabadaohanter drolaridé (ridée)pach-pirond accordionbinou (bagpipe, kozh, braz, bihan, pib veur)binou brazbombarde (oboe)hurdy-gurdytelenn (harp)treujenn-gaol (clarinet, trognon d'chou)veuze (bagpipe)violon (violin, fiddle) chanteurs engagés (protest singer)Dastumdiskanerfest-noz (festou noz, bal breton)kanerroots revivalsonerion
Bulgarian [8] choirKoleduvanekopanicaLaduvaneLazaruvanena trapezawedding music Horo: acano mlada nvesto (line dance)buchimish (line dance)chetvornochopedaichovo (line dance)dunavskoelenino (line dance)eleno momeiove male momekopanicakopanitsa (line dance, gankino)nestinaripaidushkopetruninopovarnato (devetorka)pravo horo (line dance)rachenitsa (ruchenitsa, couple dance)sandanskosedenkasedi donkatrite puti (line dance)tropoli clarinetkaba gaidakaval (flute)gadulkagaida (bagpipe)tambura (lute)tarabuka (drum)tǔpan (drum) Koprivshtitsanestinarstvosedyanki
Burgenland Croat See Croatian
Calabrian See Italian
Cantabrian tonada montañesamarzascantares de rondapasacallesromancescoplas a lo pesaucoplas a lo ligerucantos de labortrovareyescanto a bodasvillancico jota montañesapicayosdanza de arcosbaila de Ibiopaloteopericote lebaniegotrepeletrécuevanucoromance del conde de Laradanza de cintas pitu montañésgaitarabelbígarutamborilchifla campurrianacaja redoblantepanderetapanderotarrañuelasvozainasilbualboguerutón sobanochiflita pasiegaalcurdióncuerno pasiego jisquíu o ijujúgudos
Castilian See Spanish
Catalan [9] ball de bastonsball de gitanesbesonescaramellescercavilescollacolles diablerescoblagalopsgloses (glosada, estribot)gotxoshabaneraida y vueltalullabypassosporfèdiaredobladaregateixredoblatucwork song bolerocontrapàscopeocossiershabaneresjotamarratxamateixasa fileraSaint Anne's dancesardana (circle dance)sardana curtasardana llargasardana de lluïmentsardana revessases dotze rodadesses nou rodades bandurriabimbau (jaw harp)castanetfiscorn (horn)flabiol (flute)gralla (oboe)guitarró (guitar)sac de gemecs (bagpipe, coixinera, caterineta, borrega, manxa borrega, bot, noia verda, mossa verda, ploranera, sac de les aspres, buna, cornamusa)tamboritambourinetarota (oboe)tenora (shawm)tiblexeremia (clarinet)ximbomba cantadacorrefocesbartadessonadorvetladaxacota
Cham See Albanian
Channel Islands [10] bachîn ringing bérouissecotilliondanse des chapieaux (the hat dance)ronde (round dance)sonneur accordionbachînchifournie (hurdy gurdy)violin
Cornish [11] Cornish carol cushion dancejighornpipereeltroyll bagpipebombardecrowdy crawn (croder croghen)fiddle (crowd)hand drumharp gorsedd
Corsican See French
Croatian [12] bećaracdeseteracepic poetryklapatamburica bandtamburitza drmekolo (round dance)lindjomoreska (Korcula sword dance)zvecke accordionberdabisernicebračbugarijaclarinetcurladiplefiddlegangeguslelijerica (lirica, fiddle)roznicasamicasargija (dulcimer)sopilatambura (mandolin)tamburicaviolinzither Istrian scalekukeri
Cypriot See Greek or Turkish
Czech [13] Národní písni: cimbalom bandgajdošská (bagpipe band)hudecká (fiddle band)lidovka (lidovky)skřipáckáold Prague song (staropražské písničky)tramp music (trampská hudba) polkasedláckátáhláverbunk (Slovácko verbuňk) accordionbagpipecimbalomclarinetdouble bassfiddleviolaviolin
Dalmatian See Croatian
Danish [14] fanikfirturhopsapolkapolsrheinlænderschottischesønderhoningtrekantertreturvals accordionfiddlepiano
Dutch [15] mâtelotmazurkapolkaSeven Saultwaltz accordiondoedelzakguitarhurdy-gurdypijpzakviolin
Emilian See Italian
English [16] broadside balladChild balladwassailing [17] cloggingcountry dancehorn dancehornpipelong swordMaypole dancemorris dancerapper dance melodeonconcertinafiddlemouth organNorthumbrian smallpipetrombonetubasnare drumbass drum ballad meterobby oss
Estonian [18] runo-songswing-song reilenderlabajalgpolka accordionbagpipeconcertinafiddlekanneltalharpa(hiiu kannel)trumpetwhistlezither Kalevipoeg
Faroese [19] kingosalmarkvæðiskjaldurtættirvisur circle danceFaroe two-step
Finnish [20] itkurekilaulurunolaulu humppajenkkamazurkaminuetpelimannipolkapurpurischottischewaltz accordionclarinetfiddleharmoniumhornjouhikkokanteletalharpawhistle Kalevala
Flemish [21]
Florentine See Italian
Formentera See Catalan
Frisian [22] galoppolkaskoetsploechskotswalz accordionfiddlemelodeonrommelpot
French [23] bal-musetteCorsican polyphonic songpaghjellaregret bacchu-berbourréebranlecontredansefarandolequadrillerigaudon aboèaccordionbodegabohacabrettechabrettecornemusefifregaloubetgraillegrand cornemusehurdy-gurdypifretambourinviolin
Galician [24] coplas verdesalaláalboradapasacallescarballesaribeirana danza de damas e galánsjotamuiñeirapasodobrerumba accordion – cadro – clarinetgaitapandeiretapandeirotamboriltarrañolas
Gascon See French
Genoese See Italian
German[25] anacrusisGerman balladvolksmusikyodeling perchtentanzschuhplatteltanzwaltz alphornzupfgeige KriegspieleStadtfeste
Gheg See Albanian
Greek [26] amanédhimotika tragoudhiakalandakantadheskleftikoKlephtic songmiroloyianisiotikarebetikoskarostaximtis tavlas çiftetellihasaposervikokalamatianokarsilamakhasapikosyrtotsamikozeibekiko askomandurabaglamasbouzoukidaoulidefigaidakavalikitharaklarinolaouto / laoutokithara (Lute guitar) – lyraoutisantouritoumberlekitsambounaviolizournas dhimotikidromoimangespaniyiriarebetestekes
Gypsy See Romani (Gypsy)
Hungarian [27] hajnaliparlando-rubatotempo-giustoverbunkos csardaslegenyesszoloverbunkos bagpipecimbalomcowbellfiddlegardonhurdy-gurdyviolinzither tanchaz
Ibiza See Catalan
Icelandic [28] organumrimur Icelandic ballad dancing fidlalangspil saga
Irish [29] aislingamhrainballadbardcaoineadhdiddlingdrinking songFonn Mallharp musickeening (lament, caoning)macaronic songOssian ballad (Fenian ballad)rebel songreverdiesean nós carolcéilidhclogginghighlandhornpipejigpolkaquadrillereelslideslip jigstep dancestrathspey accordionbanjobodhránbouzoukiconcertinafiddlefluteguitarharpuilleann pipeswhistle [30] American wake conyachcrackfeisfleadhsession
Istrian See Croatian
Italian [31] barideendecasillabogozomaggioSardinian polyphonytammorriatatrallalerovillanella ciocioraforlanaruggerasaltarellosicilianasu ballutarantellatrescona accordionclapperclarinetfluteguitarjaw harplauneddaliramandolinmelodeonocarinaorganettopanpipepifferorattletamburellotamorratamuraviolinzampogna tarantolati
Karelian See Finnish
Kvarnerian See Croatian
Lab See Albanian
Latvian [32] balssdainadziesmaligotneruno-songsadziveszinge citaradulcimerkokleaccordionbalalaikamandolindouble bassfiddlebagpiperussian guitar
Lithuanian [32] dainadvejinesketurinessutartinestrejines polkaquadrillerateliaiwaltz accordionbalalaikabandoneonbasetlebirbynesclarinetconcertinadaudytesfiddleguitarharmonicakanklelamzdeliaimandolinpuslineragaisekminiu ragelisskuduciaisvilpastabala
Lombard See Italian
Majorca See Catalan
Manx [33] Carvalyn GailckaghlamentManx carol
Macedonian [34] calgianarodni orkestri accordioncemaneclarinetdefdzumbusgajdakanunkavalsupelkatamburatarabukatupanutzurla narodna muzikanove narodne pesme novokomponirana
Minorca See Catalan
Moldovan See Romanian
Montenegrin [35] Montenegrin epic poetry gusle
Moravian See Czech
Neapolitan See Italian
Norwegian [36] bånsullerkvedinghallinglalinglokkingNorwegian balladslåttarstevtralling bruremarsjbygdedansgammeldans – gangar – hallingpolsrullspringarspringdansspringleik bukkehornfiddleHardanger fiddleharplangeleiklurMeråkerseljefløytetrekkspeltungehorn kappleikar
Occitan See French
Piedmontese See Italian
Pityusan Islander See Catalan
Polish [37] lidyzowanie chodzonycimbaŀykrakowiakkrzesanymazurkaobertasozwodnapolkapolonaisezbojnicki cellodiable skrzypcefiddlegenslekoziołmaryna[disambiguation needed]mazankasukaviolin dozynki
Portugal [38] castiçofadomodinhaRomanceirotamborileirozés-pereiras dança dos homensfofalundum adufebandolimbexigoncelobombobrinquinhocaixacântaro com abanhocastanholascavaquinhoconcertinaconchaferrinhosflauta pastorilgaita-de-folesgenebresguitarrapandeiretapandeiropifaroreco-reco – sanfona – sarronçatamboriltranscanholasviolazaclitracs fadistaranchos folclóricossaudade
Provenç See French
Puglian See Italian
Romani (Gypsy) [39] buleríascalgiacantescimbalomfandangofasilflamencojaleokoumpaneialoki djilioral-bassingsiguiriyassolearestaksimtientostangos alegriasbelly dancebuleríasfarrucagarrotinmarianasmoritaskhelimaske djili accordionbuzuqcimbalomclarinetcümbüşdarbukadavuldjumbusdombakkamankanunneyrebabtablaudviolinzurna braceoscuadrojuergaKaragöz shadow theatretaraf
Romanian [40] balladcolindedoinalamenttarafTransylvanian wedding music briufluiergeamparalehorasirba ceteracimbalomcobzadobadouble bassfiddlenaitaragotviolaviolinzongora capra
Roussillon See Catalan
Russian [41] bylinychastushkaplachiprotiazhnaia pesniawedding musiczmires broyges tantskaketkekozatskekrakovyakkhorovodimitsve tantsshershrayer garmonbayanbalalaikadomratsimbl badkhnfakelore
Sami [42] joiklavlu gievrikobdas noaite
Sardinian See Italian
Scottish [43] balladBorder balladbothy balladbrosnachadhcauld wind pipeceol begceol morflytingliltmuckle sangpibrochpiobaireachdpsalmpuirt-a-beul (mouth music)Scottish work songShetland fiddlingtrowieurlarwaulking song battementHighland flinghornpipejigminuetquickstepreelshean treusestrathspeysword dance accordionBorder pipeclarsachconcertinafiddleflutegueharpHighland pipesLowland pipepastoral pipepibrochsmallpipetin whistle Cape Breton fiddlingScottish Baroque musicconyachFeiseanmodtryst
Serbian [44] izvornanarodna muzikanovokomponovana narodna muzikasevdalinka [45] cocekkolosa-sa frulagaidaguslesargijatamburitzatupanviolin
Sicilian See Italian
Slavonian See Croatian
Slovak [46] čardáščuchomdupakkarickado kolesaodzemokpolka- verbunkwaltz accordioncellocimbaldvojačka (double whistle) – fujaragajdykoncovka (overtone flute) – píšťalka (6 hole whistle) – violin
Slovenian [47] velike goslarijeSlovenian harmony singing mehpanpipesopilezither
Spanish [48] coplajaleojotaRomanceiro aragonesasbolerobolerio viejo o paradocachuchachaconnedanza Antigua de HermiguaDanza del Paloteo y el Cordón a La Virgen de La PiedadDanza del Cordón, de la Carrera y del Paloteo al Cristo de la VigaDanza de las ánimasDanza de los Diablosdanzantes y pecadosS'a llarga y S'a curtaS'escandalarifandangogallegagitanajotajota de vendimiamalagueñasmanchegasmelonerasmilongamollarasmurcianopanaderosquipuzcoanasseguidillasevillanasolearestorrásvalldemosavallencianaverdialeszambrazarabanda castanetchacara (large castanet)bandurriadulzainaguitarramandolintambourine café cantatesduendejuerga
Swedish [49] balladhallingkulninglalinglockroplokking cobbler's dancedaldansgammaldansgangarkadriljspolspolska (polskor)rudlrunddansskralatspringarspringdansspringleikvafva vadnavingakersdans ackordcittradragspelfiddlehackbrädehummelmungiganyckelharpasäckpipasälgpipaskalmejaspelpipastråkharpavevlira spelmanslagZorn Badge
Swiss [50] yodeling alphorn
Tosk See Albanian
Transylvanian See Hungarian and Romanian
Ukrainian [51] dumytroista muzyka arkanholubkahutsulkahopakkolomyjkakozachokmetelytsjapolkawaltz bandurafiddlefloyarafrilkakobzalirasopilkatrembitatsymbalytylynka kobzarilirnykypryspivzaspiv
Valencian See Catalan
Venetian See Italian
Vlach [35] bagpipefiddle Pomana
Walloon [21] fiddle
Welsh [52] penillion – Welsh choral music clogging (Welsh step dance)hornpipetwmpath crwthpibacwdpibcornWelsh harp (triple harp) dategeiniadeisteddfodgweringwyl werin


References[edit]

  • Bohlman, Philip V.; Bruno Nettl, Charles Capwell, Thomas Turino and Isabel K. F. Wong (1997). Excursions in World Music (Second ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-230632-4. 
  • Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham (eds.) (2000). Rough Guide to World Music (First ed.). London: Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-636-5. 
  • "Glossary of Folk Musical Instruments & Styles from Around the World". Hobgoblin Info Source. Retrieved April 20, 2006. 
  • Kinney, Troy and Margaret West (1935). The Dance: Its Place in Art and Life. Tudor Publishing. 
  • Manuel, Peter (1988). Popular Musics of the Non-Western World. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-505342-5. 
  • Mathieson, Kenny (Ed.), ed. (2001). Celtic Music. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-623-6. 
  • McKinney, Howard D. and W. R. Anderson (1966). Music in History: The Evolution of an Art. New York: American Book Company. 
  • Ritchie, Fiona (2004). The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to Celtic Music. New York: Berkley Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-399-53071-5. 
  • Nettl, Bruno (1965). Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. OCLC 265458368. 
  • Sawyers, June Skinner (2000). Celtic Music: A Complete Guide (First ed.). Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81007-7. 
  • "War Type Dances". Dance History Archives at StreetSwing.com. Retrieved April 3, 2006. 
  • Fujie, Linda, James T. Koetting, David P. McAllester, David B. Reck, John M. Schechter, Mark Slobin and R. Anderson Sutton (1992). Jeff Todd Titan, ed. Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples (Second ed.). New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 978-0-02-872602-1. 
  • "International Dance Glossary". World Music Central. Archived from the original on February 7, 2006. Retrieved April 3, 2006. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Burton, Kim, "The Eagle Has Landed", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 1–6; World Music Central; Koco, Eno. Albanian Music. Leeds-Tiranë: University of Leeds. Retrieved 2005-08-28. ; "Bashkim Braho: Albanian folk dance". Massachusetts Cultural Council. Retrieved April 3, 2006. 
  2. ^ Bohlman, pp. 210; Wagner, Christoph, "Soul Music of Old Vienna", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 13–15; *""Volksmusik", "Unterhaltungsmusik", "Kammermusik", "Blasmusik", "Schnadahüpfl" and "Jodler"". AEIOU. Retrieved April 5, 2006. 
  3. ^ The landler and the ländler are not the same dance, despite the similarity in name
  4. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 109–112; Krümm, Philippe and Jean-Pierre Rasle, and Jan Fairley, "Music of the Regions" and "A Tale of Celts and Islanders" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 103–113 and 292–297; World Music Central; "Folk music and poetry". Bizkaia.net. Retrieved April 20, 2006. ; Hobgoblin Info Source; "TAP Program Notes". Traditional Arts Program. Retrieved April 20, 2006. ; "What is the Txistu?". Txistulari.com. Archived from the original on December 25, 2005. Retrieved April 20, 2006. "Txalaparta". Irish World Academy of Music and Dance. Retrieved April 20, 2006. ; Murua, Angel (1993). "Folklore and Traditions". The Basque Country, Come and then pass the word (2nd ed.). Gobierno Vasco, Departamento de Comercio, Consuma, y Turismo. Viceconsejeria de Turismo. Retrieved 2006-04-17. 
  5. ^ Burton, Kim, "Sad Songs of Sarajevo", in the Rough Guide to World Music, p. 31–35; Slobin, Mark, "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe" in Worlds of Music, pp. 167–207; "Art". Bosnians, Their History and Culture. Archived from the original on February 16, 2006. Retrieved April 20, 2006. 
  6. ^ The novokomponovana narodna muzika style is clearly not folk music in a scholarly sense, but may be more loosely termed traditional
  7. ^ Ritchie, pp. 49, 60, 79; Krümm, Philippe and Jean-Pierre Rasle, "Music of the Regions" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 103–113; Sawyer, pp. 5, 14–15, 58, 133; World Music Central; Winick, Steven D., "Brittany", in Mathieson, pp. 110–139; Ceolas; Winick, Stephen D. (Summer 1995). "Breton Folk Music, Breton Identity, And Alan Stivell's Again". Journal of American Folklore 108 (429). Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 2006-04-17. 
  8. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, p. 84; Burton, Kim, "The Mystery Voice", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 36–45; Slobin, Mark, "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe" in Worlds of Music, pp. 167–207; Vollan, Ståle Tvete (1999). Bulgarsk folkemusikk – musikktradisjon og feltarbeid (in Norwegian). Trondheim. Retrieved March 2006. ; "May It Fill Your Soul". Central Europe Review. Retrieved April 19, 2006. ; "Bulgarian Folk Instruments". Lark in the Morning: A World of Music. Retrieved April 19, 2006. ; "Bulgarian dances". Eliznik Romania. Retrieved April 19, 2006. ; "Kopanica (Sopluk & Trakia, Bulgaria)". Dunav. Archived from the original on April 13, 2006. Retrieved April 19, 2006. 
  9. ^ Catalan folk music can be taken to not include the music of the Balearic Islands; however, for the purposes of this list, the islands are included with Catalonia; Krümm, Philippe and Jean-Pierre Rasle, and Jan Fairley, "Music of the Regions" and "A Tale of Celts and Islanders" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 103–113 and 292–297; Stanley Sadie (Ed), ed. (1980). "Spain". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians 20. London: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56159-174-9. ; Hobgoblin Info Source; "Report and Projects: Music in the Balearic and Pityusan Islands". Judith R.Cohen, Esperança Bonet Roig and Manel Frau. Retrieved April 23, 2006. ; "For Culture Lovers". FEVA. Archived from the original on November 15, 2004. Retrieved September 28, 2005. 
  10. ^ Johnson, Henry. Maintaining and Creating Heritage (PDF). Small Island Cultures Research Initiative. Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  11. ^ Ritchie, p. 48; ; Sawyer, pp. 16–17; "Cornish Music". Real Cornwall. Retrieved May 1, 2006. 
  12. ^ Burton, Kim, "Sad Songs of Sarajevo" and "Toe Tapping Tamburicas", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 31–35 and 46–48; "Present". Folk Ensemble Filip Devic. Archived from the original on 2006-02-03. Retrieved May 5, 2006. ; "The Moreska Dance". Korcula.net. Retrieved May 6, 2006. ; "Croatia: A Diverse Culture". Footnotes (59). October 2000. Archived from the original on 2006-02-18. Retrieved 2006-05-06. 
  13. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, p. 91; Plocek, Jiri, "East Meets West", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 49–57; "Folk Music". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved June 13, 2006. 
  14. ^ Cronshaw, Andrew, "A New Pulse for the Pols", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 58–63
  15. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75; Bloemendaal, Wim, "Tilting at Windmills" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 207–210; Kinney, pp. 156–163
  16. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75; Ritchie, p. 73; Irwin, Colin, "England's Changing Roots", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 64–82; Kinney, pp. 156–163; Sawyer, pp. 5, 99–100; World Music Central
  17. ^ Nettl notes that broadside ballads were primarily a form of popular music, but that many such ballads entered the folk repertoire.
  18. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75; Cronshaw, "Singing Revolutions", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 16–24
  19. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75; Cronshaw, Andrew, "A New Pulse for the Pols", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 58–63
  20. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75, 87; Cronshaw, Andrew, "New Runes", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 91–102
  21. ^ a b Rans, Paul, "Flemish, Walloon and Global Fusion", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 25–30
  22. ^ Bloemendaal, Wim, "Tilting at Windmills" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 207–210
  23. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 102–106; Krümm, Philippe and Jean-Pierre Rasle, and Alessio Surian, "Music of the Regions" and "Tenores and Tarantellas" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 103–113 and 189–201; Kinney, pp. 156–163
  24. ^ Ritchie, pp. 51, 76; Jan Fairley, "A Tale of Celts and Islanders" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 292–297; Sawyer, pp. 5, 19; World Music Central
  25. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75, 80; Hunt, Ken, "Kraut Kaunterblast" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 114–125; Kinney, pp. 156–163
  26. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pp. 127–132; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, p. 92; Dubin, Marc and George Pissalidhes, "Songs of the Near East" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 126–142
  27. ^ Bohlman, p. 199; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75; Broughton, Simon, "A Musical Mother Tongue" and "Taraf Traditions"in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 159–167 and 237–247; Slobin, Mark, "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe" in Worlds of Music, pp. 167–207; Kinney, pp. 190–192; World Music Central
  28. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75; Cronshaw, Andrew, "Waiting for the Thaw" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 168–169
  29. ^ Ritchie, pp. 15–17, 32–33, 60, 67, 72, 74–75, 77, 80–81; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75; O'Connor, Nuala, "Dancing at the Virtual Crossroads" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 170–188; Kinney, pp. 156–163; Sawyer, pp. 5, 7–10, 36–37, 55–56, 101–105, 111–112, 117–121, 172–176, 232–233
  30. ^ The bouzouki is a relatively recent import that is often considered to not be a traditional instrument. O'Connor, however, acknowledges that though "it might seem odd", the bouzouki has "taken firm root" in traditional music.
  31. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 106–109; Krümm, Philippe and Jean-Pierre Rasle, and Alessio Surian, "Music of the Regions" and "Tenores and Tarantellas" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 103–113 and 189–201; Kinney, pp. 156–163; World Music Central
  32. ^ a b Cronshaw, "Singing Revolutions", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 16–24
  33. ^ Ritchie, p. 43; Sawyer, pp. 5, 17–18
  34. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pp. 137–139; Burton, Kim, "Tricky Rhythms" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 202–206
  35. ^ a b Burton, Kim, "Balkan Beats" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 273–276
  36. ^ Bohlman, p. 210; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75; Cronshaw, Andrew, "Fjords and Fiddles" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 211–218; Sawyers, pp. 79–81; World Music Central
  37. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 91–92; Broughton, Simon, "Hanging on in the Highlands" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 219–224; Kinney, pp. 190–191; World Music Central
  38. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, p. 115; Cronshaw, Andrew and Paul Vernon, "Traditional Riches, Fate and Revolution" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 225–236
  39. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pp. 121, 165; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 115–116; Plocek, Jiri, "East Meets West", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 49–57; Broughton, Simon, "Kings and Queens of the Road" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 146–158; Kinney, pp. 121–155; World Music Central
  40. ^ Broughton, Simon, "Taraf Traditions" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 237–247; Slobin, Mark, "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe" in Worlds of Music, pp. 167–207
  41. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, p. 87; Broughton, Simon and Tatiana Didenko, "Music of the People" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 248–254; Slobin, Mark, "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe" in Worlds of Music, pp. 167–207
  42. ^ Cronshaw, Andrew, "Joiks of the Tundra" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 255–260
  43. ^ Ritchie, pp. 15–16, 18, 38–39, 40–41, 62, 66, 71–73, 80; Heywood, Pete and Colin Irwin, "From Strathspeys to Acid Croft" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 261–272; Kinney, pp. 156–163; Sawyer, pp. 5, 10–13, 36–37, 39, 80–82, 88–101, 113–116, 121–126, 131–133, 146, 162–164, 202
  44. ^ Burton, Kim, "Sad Songs of Sarajevo", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 31–35; Burton, Kim, "Balkan Beats" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 273–276; Kinney, pp. 189–190
  45. ^ narodna muzika and novokomponovana narodna muzika translate respectively as folk music and newly-composed folk music; Burton describes both terms as perhaps vague, referring sometimes to traditionally-styled music or outright modern, popular music, which would not qualify as true folk music under any common scholarly definition; Burton also notes that many novokomponovana narodna muzika songs reflect a more Bosnian character than Serbian or Montenegrin.
  46. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, p. 91; Plocek, Jiri, "East Meets West", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 49–57
  47. ^ Burton, Kim, "The Sound of Austro-Slavs" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 277–278
  48. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 113–117; Cronshaw, Andrew and Paul Vernon, and Jan Fairley, "Traditional Riches, Fate and Revolution" and "A Tale of Celts and Islanders" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 225–236 and 292–297; Kinney, pp. 121–155; McKinney and Anderson, pp. 614–616; World Music Central
  49. ^ Bohlman, p. 210; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75; Cronshaw, Andrew, "Fjords and Fiddles" and "A Devil of a Polska" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 211–218 and 298–307; Kinney, pp. 156–163; World Music Central
  50. ^ Hunt, Ken, "Kraut Kaunterblast" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 114–125; Kinney, pp. 156–163
  51. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, p. 87; Kochan, Alexs and Julian Kytasty, "The Bandura Played On" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 308–312
  52. ^ Ritchie, pp. 4, 44–46, 71; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pp. 53–75; Price, William, "Harps, Bards and the Gwerin" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 313–319; ; Sawyer, pp. 5, 13–14, 38–39