List of European windstorms
The following is a list of notable European windstorms.
- 1 Windstorms
- 2 References
- 3 See also
- 4 External links
Historic and notorious European windstorms
|Grote Mandrenke||January 16, 1362||A southwesterly Atlantic gale swept across England, the Netherlands, northern Germany and southern Denmark, killing over 25,000 and changing the Dutch-German-Danish coastline.|
|Spanish Armada storms||1588||After the Battle of Gravelines, the Armada was forced to flee northwards, and attempted to return to Spain by sailing around Scotland and Ireland. Here, the ships ran into a series of powerful westerly gales. Already in poor condition after an extended period at sea, many ships were sunk, or driven onto the coast and wrecked, with over 50 ships lost. The late 16th century, and especially 1588, was marked by unusually strong North Atlantic storms, perhaps associated with a high accumulation of polar ice off the coast of Greenland, a characteristic phenomenon of the "Little Ice Age."|
|Burchardi Flood||October 11–12, 1634||Also known as "second Grote Mandrenke", hit North Frisia, drowned about 8,000-15,000 people and destroyed the island of Strand.|
|Great Storm of 1703||November 26, 1703||Severe gales affect south coast of England.|
|Night of the Big Wind||January 6–7, 1839||The most severe windstorm to hit Ireland in recent centuries, with hurricane force winds, killed between 250 and 300 people and rendered hundreds of thousands of homes uninhabitable.|
|Moray Firth fishing disaster||August 1848|
|Great Storm of 1850||Winter 1850||Severe windstorm in combination with high tides stripped away the turf and sand which had covered the Neolithic settlement at Skara Brae in Orkney.|
|Royal Charter Storm||October 25–26, 1859||The Royal Charter Storm was considered to be the most severe storm to hit the British Isles in the 19th century, with a total death toll estimated at over 800. It takes its name from the Royal Charter ship, which was driven by the storm onto the east coast of Anglesey, Wales with the loss of over 450 lives.|
|Great Gale of 1871||February 10, 1871||A severe storm affected England with 28 ships wrecked on the north east coast, total fatalities are estimated at over 50.|
|The Tay Bridge Disaster||December 28, 1879||Severe gales (estimated to be Force 10-11) swept the east coast of Scotland, infamously resulting in the collapse of the Tay Rail Bridge and the loss of 75 people who were on board the ill-fated train.|
|Eyemouth Disaster||October 14, 1881||A severe storm struck the southeast coast of Scotland. 189 fishermen were killed, most of whom were from the small village of Eyemouth.|
Severe European windstorms between 1900 and 1974
|Julestormen (Christmas Storm)||December 25-26, 1902||The Danish Meteorological Institute report a single measurement from a balloon at Hald in central Jutland with an hourly mean wind value of 35 metres per second (130 km/h). DMI estimate the strongest winds probably reached 50 metres per second (180 km/h) or more. The storm was relatively short-lived and caused extensive damage to forestry as it passed from southern Norway to the Gulf of Riga, with a swathe of damage stretching from north Jutland to Bornholm. The storm also saw significant flooding.|
|"Ulysses Storm"||February 26-27, 1903||Probably the most severe to affect Ireland since the Night of the Big Wind, with an estimated 1000-3000 trees uprooted in Phoenix Park, Dublin. Following a stormy period between the 18-26 which saw several depressions pass close by to the west coast of Ireland. The storm's low pressure was estimated at 975 mb (Lamb, 1991). A quote from Ulysses by James Joyce is likely based on the aftermath of this storm- "O yes, J.J. O'Molloy said eagerly. Lady Dudley was walking home through the park to see all the trees that were blown down by that cyclone last year and thought she'd buy a view of Dublin."|
|Ulvsund storm||October 23-24, 1921||The S.S. Ulvsund capsized during the storm on a sailing between Copenhagen and Nakskov, Lolland.|
|Lacken Disaster||October 28, 1927||Storm affected the west coast of Ireland, with 45 people drowned, led to the abandonment of the Inishkea Islands. There was also coastal flooding along Cardigan Bay and 5 fatalities in Fleetwood, Lancashire.|
|1928 Thames flood||January 6–7, 1928||Snow melt combined with heavy rainfall and a storm surge in the North Sea led to flooding in central London and the loss of 14 lives.|
|Western Europe windstorm||November 23–25, 1928||A windstorm affected parts of Northwestern Europe for more than two days and killed 38 people, mainly in England.|
|Central Europe windstorm||Early July 1929||A severe and deadly windstorm moved through central Europe in early July 1929 and killed 38 people.|
|Iberian windstorm||February 13-15, 1941||A storm made a direct hit on Lisbon while damaging winds affected the whole of Portugal. Low of 950 hPa, reaching winds up tof 180 km/h (110 mph) in San Sebastián, Spain. It remains one of the top five most severe windstorms across Europe during the 20th Century.|
|North Sea Flood of 1953||January 31–February 1, 1953||Considered to be the worst natural disaster of the 20th century both in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, claiming over two thousand lives altogether. A storm originating over Ireland moved around the Scottish west coast, over Orkney, down the east coast of Scotland and England and across the North Sea to the Netherlands. Sea defences in the Netherlands and eastern England were overwhelmed. The ferry MV Princess Victoria, travelling between Scotland and Northern Ireland, was lost with 133 people drowned, and over a quarter of the Scottish fishing fleet was also lost. In the Netherlands, flooding killed 1,835 people and forced the emergency evacuation of 70,000 more as sea water inundated 1,365 km² of land. An estimated 30,000 animals drowned, and 47,300 buildings were damaged of which 10,000 were destroyed. Total damage was estimated at that time at 895 million Dutch guilders.|
|Sicily windstorm||Mid-December 1957||11 people die in a Sicily school, with winds reaching 75 mph (121 km/h).|
|Ex-Hurricane Debbie||September 17, 1961||North-west Ireland, much of Scotland and the Northern Isles hit by severe gales, which were the residuals of Hurricane Debbie.|
|North Sea flood of 1962||February 17, 1962||The above mentioned storm had moved south-east and reached the German coast of the North Sea with wind speeds up to 200 km/h. The accompanied storm surge combined with high tide pushed water up the Weser and Elbe, breaching dikes and caused extensive flooding, especially in Hamburg. 315 people were killed, around 60,000 were left homeless.|
|Scandinavian storm||October 17-18, 1967||October 1967 was one of the wettest in Denmark with several areas of low pressure passing the country. Wind speeds over 40 metres per second (140 km/h) were recorded across Denmark and at the southern tip of Öland, Sweden.|
|1968 Scotland storm||January 15, 1968||This storm tracked north up the west coast of Scotland. In Glasgow, some 20 people were killed, 40 injured and 2,000 people made homeless, Ayrshire and Argyll also affected.|
|Quimburga||11–14 November 1972||A storm that struck northern Europe in mid-November 1972 and spawned a tornado that killed 28 in Germany.|
|Irish windstorm||January 11–12, 1974||Record winds, sometimes of hurricane force, recorded in many parts of Ireland. The strongest ever sea level gust in Ireland, at exactly 200 km/h, was recorded in Kilkeel, County Down. Many trees and buildings were damaged and 250,000  premises were left without electricity (approx 1 in 4 in the county).|
|Norway windstorm||Mid February 1974||Winds up to 100 mph (160 km/h) battered the United Kingdom and Norway in Mid February 1974, killing 19.|
Severe European windstorms between 1975 and 1999
|Gale of January 1976 ("Capella storm")||January 2-5, 1976||Central UK windspeed gusts of 105 mph (169 km/h) were measured at RAF Wittering. Middlesbrough saw winds of 114 mph (183 km/h). Widespread wind damage was reported across Europe from Ireland to Central Europe. Coastal flooding of 400 homes occurred in Cleethorpes, United Kingdom. In Ruisbroek, Antwerp Belgium dike failures and floods on the Scheldt estuary led to the adoption of the Sigmaplan (the Belgian equivalent of the Dutch Delta Works) The highest storm surge of the 20th Century was recorded on the German North Sea coast, with some flooding of coastal marshes.|
|Fastnet Disaster Storm||August 13-14, 1979||An unusual storm during the 1979 Fastnet yachting race resulted in 24 yachts being disabled or lost and 15 fatalities.|
|1981 Storm series||November and December 1981||
|Southwest France and Spain windstorm||Early November 1982||A windstorm swept through Iberia and killed 21 on its path.|
|Christiansborg storm||January 18, 1983||A windstorm affected Denmark, blowing a roof off Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen which killed two.|
|Ex-Hurricane Charley||August 25, 1986||Rainfall records were broken in Ireland (e.g. 200mm in Kippure) with consequent flooding, up to 2.4 metres in Dublin, and the storm also caused flooding in Wales and England. At least eleven people were killed in Ireland and Britain.|
|Great Storm of 1987||October 15–16, 1987||This storm mainly affected southeastern England and northern France. In England maximum mean wind speeds of 70 knots (an average over 10 minutes) were recorded. The highest gust of 117 knots (217 km/h) was recorded at Pointe du Raz in Brittany. In all, 19 people were killed in England and 4 in France. 15 million trees were uprooted in England. This storm received much media attention, not so much because of its severity, but because these storms do not usually track so far south, the trees and buildings are not used to such winds (indeed, in mid-October most deciduous trees still have their leaves and were therefore more susceptible to windstorm damage and, following weeks of wet weather, the ground was sodden, providing little grip for the trees' roots), the severity of the storm was not forecast until approximately 3 hrs before it hit and it struck after midnight, meaning few people had advance warning.|
|Scottish windstorm||February 13, 1989||During this storm, a gust of 123 knots (228 km/h) was recorded at the Kinnaird Lighthouse (Fraserburgh) on the north-east coast of Scotland. This broke the highest low-level wind speed record for the British Isles. Much higher (unofficial) windspeeds have been recorded on the summit of Cairn Gorm and on Unst in Shetland.|
|Burns' Day storm (Daria)||January 25, 1990||Widespread severe gales in the United Kingdom, France, the Benelux countries, and Germany. Isolated gusts of over 45 m/s were recorded, causing extensive structural damage. The storm tracked across the United Kingdom into mainland Europe, where it was known under the name "Daria" and caused severe damage, especially to forests. In total, insurance losses resulting from this storm totalled about US $6bn..|
|Vivian & Wiebke||February 25-27, 1990 & February 28-March 1 1990||Storm primarily affected Switzerland resulting in 64 fatalities. Coastal flooding also occurred in North Wales.|
|New Year's Day Storm (Nyttårsorkanen)||January 1, 1992||This storm affected much of northern Scotland and western Norway, unofficial records of gusts in excess of 130 knots (67 m/s) were recorded in Shetland, while Statfjord-B in the North Sea recorded wind gusts in excess of 145 knots (75 m/s). DNMI estimated the strongest sustained winds (10 min. average) to have reached 90 knots (45 m/s), comparable to a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Very few fatalities occurred, mainly due to the very low population of the islands and the fact that the islanders are used to very high winds.|
|Braer Storm of January 1993||January 8–17, 1993||The storm was the most intense extratropical cyclone ever recorded in the North Atlantic, with a central pressure of 916 millibars (27.0 inHg), the intensity of a Category 5 hurricane. 96 miles per hour (154 km/h) wind gusts were recorded in the Shetland Isles. BBC Forecast on Braer storm. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=11MgMm96GYQ|
|Verena||January 13–14, 1993||A storm with a low of 980 millibars (29 inHg) affected the Southern Baltic. During the storm the Polish ferry MS Jan Heweliusz capsizes, with 55 lives lost.|
|Christmas Eve Storm (Yuma)||December 23–25,1997||On Christmas Eve, an intense secondary depression tracked north-east across Scotland, bringing severe gales and heavy rain. The storm caused 6 fatalities, extensive structural damage and disruption to National Grid. Blackpool's North Pier in north-west England was also damaged.|
|Boxing Day Storm||December 26, 1998||Severe gales over Ireland, northern England, and southern Scotland. Winds speeds of 103 mph were recorded at Prestwick airport, and 93 mph (150 km/h) in Glasgow. Widespread disruption and power outages in Northern Ireland and southern Scotland. The Forth Road Bridge was fully closed for the first time since its construction in 1964.|
|Anatol||December 3, 1999||Hurricane like storm Anatol hits Denmark and neighbouring countries. Killing 7 in Denmark alone. Pressure: 952.4 hPa. Wind speeds above 85 mph (38 m/s), gusts up to 115 mph (51 m/s).|
|Cyclone Lothar and Martin||December 26–28, 1999||France, Switzerland and Germany were hit by severe storms and rain. Over 100 people were killed, and the storm caused extensive damage to property and trees and the French and German national power grids, including an emergency due to flooding at the Blayais Nuclear Power Plant. The first storm in the series, dubbed Lothar by European forecasters, rapidly developed just off of the French coast and swept inland. Each of these systems was associated with an intense jet stream aloft and benefitted from latent heat release through atmosphere-ocean exchange processes. "Lothar" and "Martin", as the second storm was dubbed, were extratropical cyclones and had a hurricane-like shape, with an eye at the center. In the first storm, a gust of 184 km/h was recorded at Ushant (Fr. Ouessant) in Brittany and in the second storm, the highest gust was of 200 km/h at Île de Ré in France.|
Severe European windstorms between 2000 and 2009
|Name (other name)||Dates||Minimum pressure||Meteorological history|
|Oratia||October 30–November 5, 2000||954 hPa||A deep area of low pressure swept across the United Kingdom bringing gusts in excess of 90 mph (140 km/h) and severe flooding to Southern England, it was the strongest system of its kind to hit the UK since the Burns Day Storm of 1990. Contributing to the Autumn 2000 western Europe floods.|
|Jeanett||October 25–31, 2002||975 hPa||A strong windstorm ripped through the British Isles, killing 24. Winds peaked at 95 mph (153 km/h).|
|Dagmar||December 16–20, 2004||983 hPa||A storm generating 80 mph (130 km/h) winds hit northern France, including Paris, killing 6 people and leaving thousands of homes without power.|
|Erwin (Gudrun)||January 5–12, 2005||961 hPa||Northern Europe was hit by the storm Erwin (Free University of Berlin), also called Gudrun by the Norwegian weather service, with sustained wind speeds of 126 km/h and wind gusts of 165 km/h. About 341,000 homes lost power in Sweden and several thousand of these were out of power for many days and even weeks; about 10,000 homes were still without power after three weeks. The international death toll was at least 17.
The storm caused a lot of financial damage in Sweden, where the forest industry suffered greatly from damaged trees. In the south, 75 million m³ (98 million yd³) of trees blew down. In the space of 6 hrs, 250,000,000 trees were blown down, and after months of hard work, lorries and drivers from across Europe eventually transported the logs to several sites across the south of Sweden. One huge site was situated on a disused airfield, stretched for 2 km, 14 metres in height, and 10 piles in width. This was only 2% of the total logs stored, enough to create a 3m x 3m pile all the way to Australia.
|Gero||January 10–19, 2005||944 hPa||On the evening of the 11th and early morning of the 12th, a ferocious gale swept across Northern Ireland and northwest Scotland. Wind speeds of 134 mph (equivalent to a weak Category 4 hurricane) were recorded on North Rona and wind speeds in excess of 110 mph (180 km/h) measured on South Uist with 105 mph (169 km/h) on Barra in the Hebrides before the automatic station stopped reporting at 1700 UTC. Surface pressure reached a minimum of 946 mb (27.9 inHg) to the west of Scotland. Stormy seas combined with high spring tides and caused flooding in low-lying coastal areas. One fatality occurred in Ireland and six in Scotland, including a family of five who were swept into the sea after fleeing their house on South Uist. At the height of the storm, 85,000 households in Scotland were without power. On the 13th, all Caledonian MacBrayne ferry services and train services in Scotland were suspended, and many roads were closed due to fallen trees. The Forth Road Bridge was closed for the first time since the 1998 Boxing Day Storm, and the Tay (Dundee) and Friarton (Perth) bridges were also closed to all traffic.|
|Renate||October 2–8, 2006||999 hPa||A powerful storm battered the south west coast of France with gusts of 150 km/h in the coastal areas. The storm uprooted many trees, and many homes remained without power for many hours. Two people were badly injured in a helicopter crash. One person died in a house fire, which originated from a candle that he was using for illumination.|
|Britta||October 29–November 4, 2006||979 hPa||In the afternoon of the second and in the night a storm made its way through the North Sea with gusts reaching 174 km/h in Denmark and southern Sweden. The countries affected were Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Germany and Scotland. The storm killed 15 people and detached an oil rig, which then was rescued and pulled back to safety.|
|Franz||January 10–13, 2007||951 hPa||A strong depression north of Scotland brought high winds to most of the United Kingdom. A strong jet stream was also present at the time. This system was one of several strong storms to hit the United Kingdom during the winter of 2006–2007, linked to the strong North Atlantic Oscillation event taking place at the time. With a central pressure of 951 hPa, sustained winds exceeded 60 mph (97 km/h) and a gust of 94 mph (151 km/h) was recorded in Benbecula late on January 10. Additional hurricane-force gusts were recorded in Scotland. Gale-force winds were recorded in the south of the United Kingdom and in the Midlands, and gusts of over 50 mph (80 km/h) affected the entire country. Northern areas received gusts of between 60 and 90 mph (140 km/h). The depression was named Franz by the Free University of Berlin.
Six fatalities have been confirmed, along with several injuries. Five people were killed when a trawler sank off the coast near Wexford, in Ireland and another person was killed near Taunton, Somerset when a tree crushed his car. Another trawler went missing. Two survivors were recovered. One woman went missing after falling overboard on a ferry near Falmouth. A supermarket in Wales had its roof damaged, and residents across the United Kingdom reported other minor damage. 80,000 homes lost power in Wales. Flooding occurred in several areas, with several rivers overflowing. The Environment Agency issued 59 flood warnings.
|Hanno (Per)||January 9–16, 2007||965 hPa||The powerful storm Per hit south-western Sweden with wind gusts up to about 90 mph (140 km/h). Six people were reported dead in different storm-related accidents, thousands of trees were blown down, and thousands of households lost electricity. This storm also caused damage and flooding in Lithuania.|
|Kyrill||January 17–23, 2007||963 hPa||In the wake of Kyrill, already regarded as one of the most violent and destructive storms in more than a century, storm-warnings were given for many countries in western, central and northern Europe with severe storm-warnings for some areas. Schools in particularly threatened areas had been closed by mid-day, to allow children to get home safely before the storm reached its full intensity in the late afternoon. At least 53 people were killed in northern and central Europe, causing travel chaos across the region. Britain and Germany were the worst hit, with eleven people killed as rain and gusts of up to 99 mph (159 km/h) with sustained windspeeds of up to 73 mph (117 km/h) swept the UK. Thirteen people were killed in Germany, with the weather station on top of the Brocken in the Saxony-Anhaltian Harz mountain range recording wind speeds of up to 121 mph (195 km/h). Direct damage in Germany was estimated to amount to €4.7 billion. Five people were killed in the Netherlands and three in France. The gusts reached 151 km/h at the Cap Gris Nez and 130 km/h in many places in the north of France. In both Germany and the Netherlands the national railways were closed. At Frankfurt International Airport over 200 flights were cancelled.|
|Uriah||June 23–July 1, 2007||980 hPa||A rather unseasonal weather system brought gale force winds to the UK, but was more memorable for causing severe flooding, with many areas receiving more than a months' rainfall in a single day. The storm exacerbated existing flooding problems (caused by violent thunderstorms a week earlier) and areas such as Sheffield were worst affected. Over 102 flood warnings were issued, and by June 29, five people were dead, many areas flooded and there was severe damage to the Ulley reservoir, where cracks appeared in the dam wall, causing fears that it might collapse. 700 people were evacuated from the area. Over 3000 properties were flooded across the country and more than 3,500 people were evacuated from their homes. See June 2007 United Kingdom floods.|
|Tilo (Andrea)||November 6–11, 2007||974 hPa||A strong European windstorm struck Northern Scotland. All schools in Orkney were closed and hundreds of homes lost power. Gusts as high as 90 mph (140 km/h) were reported, along with early snow for the Scottish highlands. The Northlink ferry company cancelled sailings between Lerwick and Aberdeen. There were also reports of trees and roofs being blown down, such as in Grampian. The combination of Northwesterly winds exceeding 60 mph (97 km/h), low pressure and high spring tides led authorities to expect severe flooding in the east of England, to close the Thames Barrier. Many said that these conditions mirrored the North Sea Flood of 1953. In the Netherlands, the Eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier and the gigantic Maeslantkering (sealing off the Rotterdam harbor) were closed. For the first time since 1976, the entire coastline was put on alert and under round-the-clock surveillance. The tidal surge traveling down the North Sea turned out to be too weak to cause any significant problems to the strong Dutch coastal defenses.|
|Paula||January 24–27, 2008||971 hPa||A strong European windstorm, Paula hit Poland, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. At least one person died in Poland. The gusts reached 165 km/h in the Eastern Alps, 155 km/h in Poland, 150 km/h in Norway and 140 km/h in Germany.|
|Emma||February 28–March 7, 2008||959 hPa||A strong European windstorm, Emma hit Germany, Austria, Czech Republic and Poland. At least 12 people died. The gusts reached 190 km/h in Eastern Alps, 170 km/h in Poland and 140 km/h in Germany and Czech Republic. The results were catastrophic.|
|Klaus||January 23–27, 2009||963 hPa||A European windstorm that hit southern France and northern Spain, said to be the most damaging in the area since that of December 1999. The storm caused widespread damage across the countries, especially in northern Spain. Twelve fatalities have been reported as of January 24, as well as extensive disruptions of public transport. Many homes lost power, including over a million in southwestern France. The gusts reached 206 km/h.|
|Quinten||February 8–13, 2009||975 hPa||Severe windstorm across France, the Benelux and Germany in early February. Highest winds were recorded at the Feldberg-Mountain (Black Forest), Germany. Here the gusts reached 166 km/h.|
Severe European windstorms since 2010
|Name (other name)||Dates||Minimum pressure||Meteorological history|
|Xynthia||February 26–March 7, 2010||967 hPa||A severe windstorm which was generated close to Madeira and from there moved across to the Canary Islands, then Portugal and much of western and northern Spain, before moving on to hit western and southwestern France. The highest gust speeds recorded as of midnight were at approximately 2130 UTC at Alto de Orduña (228 km/h (142 mph)). 50 people have been reported to have died.|
|Becky and Carmen||November 7–19, 2010||951 hPa||Becky originated from a low pressure area that formed off the southeast coast of Greenland on November 7, 2010. It moved rapidly towards the United Kingdom, deepening to 960 hPa on November 8. While Becky was making landfall on Cornwall on November 9, a low pressure area over Nova Scotia was named Carmen. By November 10, Becky had weakened and become more elongated, Carmen had moved offshore and began strengthening. On November 11, Becky had been absorbed by Cyclone Anneli and Carmen had rapidly deepened to 965 hPa. Carmen strengthened slightly on November 12, while centred just offshore Aberdeen, Scotland. On November 13, it was centred over Scandinavia. It had split into two vortexes by that time. It began moving rapidly to the northeast, and moved out of the Free University of Berlin's tracking charts on November 16. Extratropical cyclone funnelled an Atmospheric river of moist air towards Cumbria.|
|Ex-Hurricane Katia||September 11–18, 2011||954 hPa||A tropical depression formed near the Cape Verde Islands in late-August, and strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane on September 5. However, it later weakened rapidly to a Category 1 the next day. It later struck the United Kingdom with near hurricane-force winds and moved across the rest of northern Europe in the next few days. The remnants of Katia killed a man when a tree blew down on his car. A maximum gust of 132 km/h (82 mph) was recorded, and caused widespread power outages throughout Europe, as far east as Russia.|
|Berit (Xaver)||November 22–29, 2011||944 hPa||A tropical wave that developed east of the Lesser Antilles was first noted for a 10% chance of becoming a tropical or subtropical cyclone by the National Hurricane Center on November 19. The center then said on November 21 that the wave had a 60% chance of becoming a subtropical cyclone, and was also gaining frontal characteristics. The system then acquired extratropical features and on November 22, it was named Xaver by the Free University of Berlin. Xaver then began a rapid strengthening phase, and deepened almost 30 millibars to 944 mb (27.9 inHg). Wind gusts reached 184 km/h (114 mph) in the Faroe Islands causing widespread damage. One woman died after her car got blown into a loch in Scotland.|
|Friedhelm (Bawbag)||December 7–13, 2011||956 hPa||The system that would become Friedhelm formed over the Labrador Sea on December 5, 2011 with a central pressure of 997 mb (29.4 inHg). As the system moved into the North Atlantic Ocean, it was named Friedhelm by the Free University of Berlin. On December 8 at midnight, Friedhelm was located west of the British Isles with a central pressure of 977 mb (28.9 inHg). By the next day, December 9, the large system was located over the North Sea with a deep central pressure of 956 mb (28.2 inHg). Friedhelm then weakened as it moved over Scandinavia.
In preparation for the storm, the Met Office issued a red wind warning for the Scottish Central Belt. Most schools in Scotland were closed by lunchtime. The Forth, Tay, Erskine and Skye Bridges were all closed due to strong winds. The summit of CairnGorm recorded a gust up to 165 mph (266 km/h), also recording sustained winds up to 105 mph (169 km/h). As the storm moved into Scandinavia, the Swedish Meteorological Institute issued a Class 2 warning.
The storm was named Friedhelm on December 7 by the Free University of Berlin and was named Bawbag by an unknown person.
|Hergen||December 11–19, 2011||946 hPa||On December 11, 2012, an area of low pressure emerged over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near Newfoundland. By the next day, Hergen intensified rapidly as it sped across the Atlantic, deepening to 980 mb (29 inHg). Bombing occurred within the center of the storm and he attained peak itensity on December 13 with a central pressure of 945 mb (27.9 inHg), equivalent to a Category 4 hurricane. Hergen was so strong that it had absorbed the circulation of another low named 'Gunther'. By this time, the Cairn Gorm weather station had recorded a 111 mph (179 km/h) wind gust. As Hergen moved northeastwards, it began to weaken while located over the Shetland Isles on December 14. The storm remained stationary until December 16 offshore the west coast of Norway. The vortex continued to weaken until it dissipated on December 20.|
|Joachim||December 15–21, 2011||968 hPa||A low pressure area formed north of Puerto Rico on December 13 and rapidly moved towards Europe. The storm caused power outages and travel disruption in France, Germany, and Switzerland.|
|Patrick (Dagmar)||December 24–27, 2011||964 hPa||Formed as secondary low to Cato, affecting central Norway, Sweden and Finland. A F2 tornado was reported in Hellesylt, Norway.|
|Ulli (Emil)||December 31, 2011–January 6, 2012||952 hPa||A weak low pressure system formed over the Mid-west of the United States on December 30. This low moved into the Atlantic Ocean the next day and was named Ulli by the FU-Berlin. On January 2, the Met Office began issuing weather warnings for most of the country. Blizzard warnings were issued for northern Scotland, while a heavy rain advisory was issued for southern England. SkyWarn UK also issued their first Particularly Dangerous Situation warning of the year, along with a severe weather warning. The storm rapidly deepened 9 millibars in just less than six hours. One person was killed after an oak tree fell on his car. This storm was described as the worst in Scotland since the Boxing Day Storm of 1998 by the UK Met Office.|
|Andrea||January 3–9, 2012||966 hPa||Closely following Cyclone Ulli, the first named storm of 2012 formed southwest of Iceland, moving down into the North Sea affecting UK, Netherlands, Denmark and Germany.|
|Christian (Saint Jude Day storm).||October 26–31, 2013||965 hPa||Named after the feast of Saint Jude the Apostle on the 28 October, impact N Europe from 27 October. The storm was widely reported in the British press on 25 October, with predicted intensity comparisons made to the Great storm of 1987 and the Burns' Day storm of 1990. It hit the UK, and parts of northern Europe with gusts of up to 120 mph recorded in Denmark. More than 10 people were killed in the storm.|
|Nordic Storm Series 2013||November 13–December 19, 2013||971 hPa||
A series of storms affected the Nordic Nations during November and December as high pressure over Europe directed westerly flow over the Atlantic to Northern Europe.
|Xaver (Bodil)||December 4–11, 2013||962 hPa||Force 12 winds were forecast over the North Sea on December 5. The system impacted densely populated areas in the UK, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and Poland.|
|Winter Storms 2013–2014||December 17, 2013–February 20, 2014||927 hPa||
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