List of birds of Florida

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The Northern Mockingbird is the state bird of Florida

List of Florida birds contains every wild bird species identified in the U.S. state of Florida, as accepted by the Florida Ornithological Society Records Committee (FOSRC) as of 31 December 2010.[1]

The following status codes have been used:

  • (I) - Introduced: Birds that have been introduced to Florida by the actions of man, either directly or indirectly.
  • (i) - Introduced/native: Birds that naturally occur in Florida at certain seasons, or only in parts of the state, but also have populations in Florida that have been introduced by the actions of man, either directly or indirectly.
  • (E) - Extinct a recent member of the avifauna that no longer exists.
  • (A) - Accidental: Birds that occur rarely or accidentally in Florida, and for which the FOSRC requests a full report for verification.[1]

Only birds that are considered to have arrived in Florida without human assistance, or introduced species with established, self-sustaining populations in Florida, are included on this list. Probable escapees are not included. For example, the Ringed Turtle-Dove (Streptopelia "risoria") was previously considered to be an established exotic; however, although occasional sightings are reported from residential areas, they are probably escapees, and evidence of a true self-sustaining population is lacking. They are, therefore, not included on this list.[2][3] There are 510 species on the Florida state checklist.[1]

This list includes the Black-hooded Parakeet, a species which is not on the List of North American birds.[4] This species has been accepted as an introduced exotic by the FOSRC;[1] however, the American Birding Association has not yet added the species to the "official" North American list.[5]

This list is presented in taxonomic order and follows The Check-list of North American Birds (7th ed., 51st supplement, 2010), published by the American Ornithologists' Union.[4] The table of contents is grouped into passerines (the largest order of birds) and non-passerines. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced, casual, accidental, extirpated and extinct species are included in the total species counts for North America and Florida.[1][4]


Table of contents

Non-passerines: Ducks, geese, and swansPartridges, grouse, turkeys, and Old World quailNew World quailLoonsGrebesFlamingoesAlbatrossesPetrels and shearwatersStorm petrelsTropicbirdsStorksFrigatebirdsGannets and boobiesCormorantsDartersPelicansBitterns, herons, and egretsIbises and spoonbillsNew World vulturesHawks, kites, and eaglesCaracaras and falconsRails, gallinules, and cootsLimpkinsCranesLapwings and ploversOystercatchersStilts and avocetsSandpipers and alliesGulls, terns, and skimmersSkuasAlcidsPigeons and dovesParrotsCuckoos, roadrunners, and anisBarn owlsTypical owlsNightjarsSwiftsHummingbirdsKingfishersWoodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers

Passerines: Tyrant flycatchersShrikesVireosJays, crows, magpies, and ravensLarksSwallows and martinsChickadees and titmiceNuthatchesTreecreepersWrensBulbulsKingletsOld World warblers and gnatcatchersThrushesMimidsStarlingsPipitsWaxwingsWood-warblersBananaquitTanagersAmerican sparrows, towhees, and juncosCardinals, saltators, and grosbeaksIcteridsFringilline finches, Cardueline finches, and alliesOld World sparrows

Pending        See also        References        External links

Ducks, geese, and swans[edit]

Canada Goose

Order: Anseriformes. Family: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.

New World quail[edit]

Order: Galliformes. Family: Odontophoridae

The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.

Partridges, grouse, turkeys, and Old World quail[edit]

Wild Turkey

Order: Galliformes. Family: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae is the family containing the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial birds, variable in size but generally plump, with broad, relatively short wings. Many are gamebirds, or have been domesticated as a food source for humans.

Loons[edit]

Common Loon

Order: Gaviiformes. Family: Gaviidae

Loons are aquatic birds the size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely grey or black and they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well and fly adequately but, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body, are clumsy on land.

Grebes[edit]

Pied-billed Grebe

Order: Podicipediformes. Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.

Flamingoes[edit]

Order: Phoenicopteriformes. Family: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingoes are gregarious wading birds, usually 3–5 feet in height, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down.

Albatrosses[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Diomedeidae

Albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds.

Petrels and shearwaters[edit]

Greater Shearwater

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united tubular nostrils with a median septum.

Storm petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are the smallest of seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the ocean's surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.

Tropicbirds[edit]

White-tailed Tropicbird

Order: Phaethontiformes. Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.

Storks[edit]

Wood Stork

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They lack the powder down that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a pharynx and are mute.

Frigatebirds[edit]

Order: Suliformes. Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.

Gannets and boobies[edit]

Northern Gannet

Order: Suliformes. Family: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish.

Cormorants[edit]

Double-crested Cormorant

Order: Suliformes. Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order.

Darters[edit]

Anhinga

Order: Suliformes. Family: Anhingidae

Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. They often swim with only the neck above water, and are fish-eaters.

Pelicans[edit]

Brown Pelicans

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes.

Bitterns, herons, and egrets[edit]

Great Blue Heron

Order: Pelicaniformes. Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the herons, egrets, and bitterns. Herons and Egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of the Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted.

Ibises and spoonbills[edit]

Order: Pelicaniformes. Family: Threskiornithidae

Roseate Spoonbill

The family Threskiornithidae includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings. Their bodies are elongated, the neck more so, with long legs. The bill is also long, decurved in the case of the ibises, straight and distinctively flattened in the spoonbills.

New World vultures[edit]

Turkey Vulture

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Cathartidae

New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers; however, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses.

Ospreys[edit]

Osprey

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Pandionidae

The family Pandionidae is a family of fish-eating birds of prey, possessing a very large, powerful hooked beak for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. The family is monotypic; its sole member, the Osprey, is found in Florida.

Hawks, kites, and eagles[edit]

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Accipitridae

The family Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey that includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. They have very large, hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.

Caracaras and falcons[edit]

Northern Caracara

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Falconidae

The Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey containing the falcons and caracaras. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet.

Rails, gallinules, and coots[edit]

Purple Gallinule

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Rallidae

The Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive, making them difficult to observe. Most have strong legs with long toes, short rounded wings, and are weak fliers.

Limpkins[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Aramidae

The Limpkin is an odd bird that looks like a large rail, but is skeletally closer to the cranes. It is found in marshes with some trees or scrub in the Caribbean, South America and southern Florida.

Cranes[edit]

Sandhill Cranes

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks extended. Most have elaborate and noisy courtship displays or "dances".

Lapwings and plovers[edit]

Snowy Plover

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings. They are generally found in open country, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions.

Oystercatchers[edit]

American Oystercatcher

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large, conspicuous and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs.

Stilts and avocets[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Recurvirostridae

The Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.

Sandpipers and allies[edit]

Sanderling

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large and diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds which includes the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. Most eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or sand. Different lengths of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.

Gulls, terns, and skimmers[edit]

Ring-Billed Gull

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Laridae

The Laridae are a family of medium to large seabirds and containing the gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.

Skuas[edit]

Pomarine Jaeger

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Stercorariidae

Skuas are medium to large seabirds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with a hooked tip, and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers.

Alcids[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits; however they are not closely related to penguins, and are (with one extinct exception) able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to breed.

Pigeons and doves[edit]

Eurasian Collared-Dove

Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.

Parrots[edit]

Order: Psittaciformes Family: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with characteristic curved beaks. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two behind.

Cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis[edit]

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

Order: Cuculiformes Family: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites.

Barn owls[edit]

Barn Owl

Order: Strigiformes Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.

Typical owls[edit]

Burrowing Owl

Order: Strigiformes Family: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.

Nightjars[edit]

Chuck-will's-widow

Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is crypically coloured to resemble bark or leaves.

Swifts[edit]

Chimney Swift

Order: Apodiformes Family: Apodidae

The swifts are small aerial birds, spending most of their lives flying. They have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have very long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang.

Hummingbirds[edit]

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Order: Apodiformes Family: Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.

Kingfishers[edit]

Belted Kingfisher

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.

Woodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers[edit]

Red-bellied Woodpecker

Order: Piciformes Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.

Tyrant flycatchers[edit]

Eastern Kingbird

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are passerines which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.

Shrikes[edit]

Loggerhead Shrike

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerines known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.

Vireos[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized passerines restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills.

Jays, crows, magpies, and ravens[edit]

Florida Scrub-Jay

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show levels of learned behavior of a high degree.

Larks[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.

Swallows and martins[edit]

Barn Swallow

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partly joined at the base.

Chickadees and titmice[edit]

Tufted Titmouse

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.

Nuthatches[edit]

White-breasted Nuthatch

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike most other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet.

Treecreepers[edit]

Brown Creeper

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.

Wrens[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Troglodytidae

Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.

Bulbuls[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Pycnonotidae

The bulbuls are a family of medium-sized songbirds native to Africa and tropical Asia. They are noisy and gregarious and often have beautiful songs.

Gnatcatchers[edit]

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Polioptilidae

The family Polioptilidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds, containing the gnatcatchers and gnatwrens.

Kinglets[edit]

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Regulidae

The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds in the genus Regulus. The adults have colored crowns, giving rise to their name.

Old World flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Muscicapidae

Thrushes[edit]

American Robin

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Turdidae

The Thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.

Mimids[edit]

Brown Thrasher

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Mimidae

The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. They are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance.

Starlings and mynas[edit]

Common Myna

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerines with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Their plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.

Pipits[edit]

American Pipit

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground-feeding insectivores of open country.

Waxwings[edit]

Cedar Waxwing

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.

Longspurs[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Calcariidae

The Calcariidae are a group of passerine birds that have been traditionally grouped with the Emberizeridae (New World Sparrows), but differe in a number of respects, and are usually found in open grassy areas.

Wood-warblers[edit]

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Parulidae

The Wood Warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerines restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.

Bananaquit[edit]

Bananaquits

Order: Passeriformes Family: Coerebidae (Incertae sedis)

The Bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers, and is the only member of the genus Coereba (Vieillot, 1809). It is normally placed within the monotypic family Coerebidae, although there is uncertainty whether that placement is correct (hence the assignment Genus: Coereba Incertae sedis).

Tanagers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Thraupidae

The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly colored. They are seedeaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings.

American sparrows, towhees, and juncos[edit]

Chipping Sparrow

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Emberizidae

The Emberizidae is a large passerine family. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are called sparrows, although they are not closely related to the Old World sparrows in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.

Cardinals, saltators, and grosbeaks[edit]

Painted Bunting

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Cardinalidae

The Cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.

Icterids[edit]

Boat-tailed Grackle

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Icteridae

The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colorful, passerines restricted to the New World, including the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most have black as a predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.

Fringilline finches, Cardueline finches, and allies[edit]

American Goldfinch

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerines. They are small to moderately large and have strong, usually conical and sometimes very large, beaks. All have 12 tail feathers and nine primaries. They have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.

Old World sparrows[edit]

House Sparrow

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Passeridae

Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects.

Uncertain origin[edit]

The following species have been reviewed by the FOSRC and, while confirmed in identification, there is uncertainty as to whether they represent escaped individuals or genuine vagrants from established populations.

Notable exotics[edit]

Purple Swamphen

The following introduced species, while not considered officially established by the FOSRC, have self-sustaining populations and, within range and proper habitat, are likely to be encountered.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e Florida Official State List
  2. ^ Peterson 2000, p.80.
  3. ^ Florida Breeding Bird Atlas
  4. ^ a b c A.O.U. Check-List, 7th edition, 51st supplement
  5. ^ *"Criteria For Determining Establishment of Exotics". American Birding Association Committee on Exotics. Retrieved 2011-01-17. 
Bibliography

External links[edit]