List of Formula One constructors

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The following is a list of Formula One constructors which have competed or plan to compete in the FIA World Championship.

Terminology: constructors vs. teams[edit]

In Formula One racing the terms "constructor" and "entrant" have specific and differing meanings. An entrant is the person or corporate entity that registers a car and driver for a race, and is then responsible for preparing and maintaining that car during the race weekend. As a result of this preparation role and active involvement in the running of the race, the term "team" has become commonly applied to an entrant organisation.

Constructors[edit]

Under Article 6.3 of the FIA Sporting Regulations, "the constructor of an engine or chassis is the person (including any corporate or unincorporated body) which owns the intellectual rights to such engine or chassis."[1] The title of Formula One World Champion Constructor is awarded to the car "make" that has scored the most points during the course of the season, where a car's make takes into account both engine and chassis. Hence, if a car's chassis and engine constructor are the same entity (e.g. Ferrari, Toyota, BRM etc.) then the make is simply the name of that one constructor. However, where the chassis and engine are constructed by different entities the car's make comprises both (e.g. McLaren-Mercedes, Lotus-Climax etc.), with the name of the chassis constructor being placed before that of the engine constructor. As both engine and chassis are included in the make name, chassis run with different engines (e.g. Lotus-Ford, Lotus-BRM) are counted as two separate makes and points are scored separately. The World Constructors' Championship title is awarded to the constructor of the chassis of the make that scores the most points. For this reason, this list only considers chassis constructors. For more information on engines, see Formula One engines.

Teams[edit]

Since the early 1980s the FIA have required that Formula One entrants own the intellectual rights to the chassis that they enter, and so the terms "entrant" and "constructor", and hence also "team", have become synonymous.

Before this time, constructors were free to sell their chassis to as many other teams as they liked. Brabham and Lotus chassis were used extensively by other teams during the 1960s and 1970s and several quite competitive teams never built their own chassis. Rob Walker Racing Team was the most successful example, being responsible for the first victories in Formula One for both Cooper and Lotus. The concept of a "works" or "factory" team (i.e. the official team of the company producing the cars, as opposed to a customer team which buys them off the shelf) therefore applied to chassis in the same way as it does in rallying and sports car racing.

There have been some recent exceptions where a specialist company, not itself entered in the championship, has been commissioned to design and build a chassis for a team; Lola built cars for Larrousse and Scuderia Italia in the late 1980s and early 1990s, for example. Larousse had their points from the 1990 season erased after the FIA decided that they had falsely nominated themselves and not Lola as the chassis constructor. In 1978, the new Arrows team which had been established by former Shadow personnel was sued by Shadow on the grounds that the Arrows FA/1 car was a copy of Shadow's DN9 - a view upheld by the UK High Court, which placed a ban on Arrows racing the FA/1. There have been more recent cases with Ligier (1995), Sauber (2004), Scuderia Toro Rosso (2006 & 2007) and Super Aguri (2007 & 2008) where teams have been accused of using a chassis produced by another constructor (respectively Benetton, Ferrari, Red Bull Racing and Honda). No action was taken against any of these teams, the sporting authorities being satisfied in each case that the team owned the intellectual property to the chassis they raced.

2014 constructors' statistics[edit]

Key: Rcs. = Number of individual races entered; Drv. = Number of driversEnt. = Total number of race entries; Wins = Number of races won; Pts. = Number of Constructors' Championship points scored; PP = Number of pole positionsFL = Number of fastest lapsPod. = Number of podium finishes; WCC = Constructors Championships won; WDC = Drivers' Championships won.

Constructor Engine Country Base Seasons Rcs. Drv. Ent. Wins Pts. PP FL Pod. WCC WDC First Grand Prix Formerly known as
Caterham Renault Malaysia United Kingdom 2012–current 55 7 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 Australian Lotus (2010–2011)
Ferrari Ferrari Italy Italy 1950–current 889 78 1908 221 6730.27 207 230 680 16 15 1950 Monaco
Force India Mercedes India United Kingdom 2008–current 130 6 260 0 463 1 3 2 0 0 2008 Australian Spyker (2007), Midland (2006), Jordan (1991–2005)
Lotus Renault United Kingdom[2] United Kingdom 2012–current 57 5 114 2 628 0 5 24 0 0 2012 Australian Renault (2002–2011), Benetton (1986–2001), Toleman (1981–1985)
Marussia Ferrari Russia[3] United Kingdom 2012–current 55 4 109 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2012 Australian Virgin (2010–2011)
McLaren Mercedes United Kingdom United Kingdom 1966–current 760 47 1593 182 4993.5 155 152 485 8 12 1966 Monaco
Mercedes Mercedes Germany Germany
United Kingdom
19541955,
2010–current
107 10 226 28 1532 34 25 62 1 2 1954 French Brawn (2009), Honda (2006–2008), BAR (1999–2005), Tyrrell (1968–1998)
Red Bull Renault Austria United Kingdom 2005–current 183 7 366 50 2833.5 57 43 116 4 4 2005 Australian Jaguar (2000–2004), Stewart (1997–1999)
Sauber Ferrari Switzerland Switzerland 1993–current 383 25 740 1 771 1 5 26 0 0 1993 South African
Toro Rosso Renault Italy Italy 2006–current 165 9 330 1 199 1 0 1 0 0 2006 Bahrain Minardi (1985–2005)
Williams Mercedes United Kingdom United Kingdom 1978–current 615 37 1153 114 3009 128 133 304 9 7 1978 Argentine

Former constructors' statistics[edit]

Key: Rcs. = Number of individual races entered; Drv. = Number of driversEnt. = Total number of race entries; Wins = Number of races won; Pts. = Number of Constructors' Championship points scored; PP = Number of pole positionsFL = Number of fastest lapsPod. = Number of podium finishes; WCC = Constructors Championships won; WDC = Drivers' Championships won.

Constructor Country Seasons Rcs. Drv. Ent. Wins Pts. PP FL Pod. WCC WDC First Grand Prix Last Grand Prix
Alex von Falkenhausen Motorenbau Germany 19521953[4] 4 6 9 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1952 Swiss 1953 Italian
Automobiles Gonfaronnaises Sportives France 19861991 80 10 124 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1986 Italian 1991 Monaco
Alfa Romeo Italy 19501951
19791985
110 18 237 10 50[5] 12 14 26 0[6] 2 1950 British 1985 Australian
Alta United Kingdom 19501952[7] 5 4 6 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1950 British 1952 British
Amon New Zealand 1974 4 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1974 Spanish 1974 Italian
Andrea Moda Italy 1992 9 4 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 S. African 1992 Italian
Apollon Switzerland 1977 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1977 Italian 1977 Italian
Arrows a United Kingdom 19782002 393 36 783 0 167 1 0 8 0 0 1978 Brazilian 2002 German
Arzani-Volpini Italy 1955 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1955 Italian 1955 Italian
Aston Butterworth United Kingdom 1953 4 2 4 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1952 Belgian 1952 Italian
Aston Martin United Kingdom 19591960 6 3 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1959 Dutch 1960 British
Automobili Turismo e Sport Italy 1963[8] 5 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1963 Belgian 1963 Mexican
ATS (Auto Technisches Spezialzubehör) Germany 19771984 107 15 146 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 1978 Argentine 1984 Portuguese
British American Racing United Kingdom 19992005 118 7 236 0 227 2 0 15 0 0 1999 Australian 2005 Chinese
Behra-Porsche Germany 1960 4 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1960 Argentine 1960 Monaco
Bellasi Switzerland 19701971 6 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1970 Dutch 1971 Italian
Benetton c United Kingdom/Italy[9][10] 19862001 260 17 520 27 851.5 15 36 102 1 2 1986 Brazilian 2001 Japanese
Boro Netherlands 19761977 8 4 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1976 Spanish 1977 Italian
Brabham United Kingdom 19621987, 19891992 402 39 995 35 843 39 42 124 2 4 1962 German 1992 Hungarian
Brawn GP United Kingdom 2009 17 2 34 8 172 5 4 15 1 1 2009 Australian 2009 Abu Dhabi
British Racing Motors United Kingdom 1951, 19561977 208 71 559 17 385 11 15 61 1 1 1951 British 1977 Italian
British Racing Partnership United Kingdom 19631964 13 2 19 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 1963 Belgian 1964 Mexican
Bugatti France 1956 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1956 French 1956 French
Cisitalia Italy 1952 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1952 Italian 1952 Italian
Coloni d Italy 19871991 65 8 81 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1987 Italian 1991 Australian
Connaught United Kingdom 19521959 18 29 52 0 0[11] 0 0 1 0 0 1952 British 1959 United States
Connew United Kingdom 1972 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1972 British 1972 Austrian
Cooper Car Company United Kingdom 1950, 19521969 129 111 528 16 301 11 14 58 2 2 1950 Monaco 1969 Monaco
Dallara Italy 19881992 80 6 144 0 15 0 0 2 0 0 1988 Brazilian 1992 Australian
Derrington-Francis United Kingdom 1964 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1964 Italian 1964 Italian
Peter de Klerk South Africa 1963, 1965 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1963 South African 1965 South African
De Tomaso Italy 19611963, 1970 15 8 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1961 French 1970 United States
Eagle (Anglo American Racers) United States[12] 19661969 26 7 35 1 17 0 2 2 0 0 1966 Belgian 1969 Canadian
Eifelland Germany 1972 8 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1972 South African 1972 Austrian
Emeryson United Kingdom 1956, 19611962 6 6 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1956 British 1962 Italian
Eisenacher Motorenwerk East Germany 1953 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1953 German 1953 German
Ecurie Nationale Belge Belgium 1962 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1962 German 1962 German
Ensign United Kingdom 19731982 134 25 154 0 19 0 1 0 0 0 1973 French 1982 Caesars Palace
English Racing Automobiles United Kingdom 19501952 7 7 12 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1950 British 1952 Dutch
EuroBrun Italy/Switzerland 19881990 46 5 76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1988 Brazilian 1990 Spanish
Ferguson Research Ltd. United Kingdom 1961 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1961 British 1961 British
FIRST Italy 1989 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fittipaldi Automotive (Copersucar) Brazil 19751982 120 8 156 0 44 0 0 3 0 0 1975 Argentine 1982 Caesars Palace
Fondmetal Italy 19911992 29 4 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1991 United States 1992 Italian
Forti Italy 19951996 27 4 54 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 Brazilian 1996 British
Frank Williams Racing Cars e United Kingdom 19721976 61 25 112 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 1972 British 1976 Japanese
Frazer-Nash United Kingdom 1952 4 2 4 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1952 Swiss 1952 Dutch
Fry United Kingdom 1959 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1959 British 1959 British
Gilby Engineering United Kingdom 19611963 6 2 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1961 British 1963 Italian
Gordini France 19521956 33 23 101 0 n/a 0 1 2 n/a 0 1952 Swiss 1956 Italian
Greifzu East Germany 1952 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1952 German 1952 German
Hesketh United Kingdom 19741978 60 15 97 1 48 0 1 7 0 0 1974 South African 1978 Belgian
Hill United Kingdom 1975 12 6 21 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1975 South African 1975 United States
HRT Spain 20102012 56 8 116 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 Bahrain 2012 Brazilian
Honda Japan 19641968
20062008
88 8 154 3 154 2 2 9 0 0 1964 German 2008 Brazilian
HWM (Hersham and Walton Motors) United Kingdom 19511955 16 15 48 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1951 Swiss 1955 Monaco
Jaguar f United Kingdom 20002004 85 8 170 0 49 0 0 2 0 0 2000 Australian 2004 Brazilian
JBW United Kingdom 19591961 6 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1959 British 1961 Italian
Jordan g Republic of Ireland[13] 19912005 250 30 500 4 291 2 2 19 0 0 1991 United States 2005 Chinese
Kauhsen Germany 1979 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979 Spanish 1979 Belgian
Klenk Germany 1954 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1954 German 1954 German
Kojima Japan 19761977 2 3 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1976 Japanese 1977 Japanese
Kurtis h United States 1959 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1959 United States 1959 United States
Lambo (Modena Team) Italy 1991 16 2 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1991 United States 1991 Australian
Lancia Italy 19541955 4 4 10 0 n/a 2 1 1 n/a 0 1954 Spanish 1955 Belgian
Larrousse France 19931994 32 7 64 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1993 South African 1994 Australian
LDS South Africa 19621963, 1965, 19671968 5 3 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1962 South African 1968 South African
LEC United Kingdom 1977 5 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1977 Spanish 1977 British
Leyton House i United Kingdom 19901991 32 3 64 0 8 0 0 1 0 0 1990 United States 1991 Australian
Life Italy 1990 14 2 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990 United States 1990 Spanish
Ligier j France 19761996 330 28 612 9 388 9 9 50 0 0 1976 Brazilian 1996 Japanese
Lola k United Kingdom 19621963, 19671968, 19741975, 19851991, 1997 152 27 280 0 45 1 0 3 0 0 1962 Dutch 1997 Australian
Lotus (1958–1994) United Kingdom 19581994 493 122 1332 79 1332 107 70 172 7 6 1958 Monaco 1994 Australian
Lotus (2010–2011) Malaysia 20102011 38 3 76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 Bahrain 2011 Brazilian
Lyncar United Kingdom 19741975 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1974 British 1975 British
Maki Japan 19741976 8 3 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1974 British 1976 Japanese
March l United Kingdom 19701977, 19811982, 19871989, 1992 208 54 579 3 172.5 5 7 21 0 0 1970 South African 1992 Australian
Martini France 1978 7 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1978 South African 1978 Dutch
Maserati Italy 19501960 73 93 407 9 9 10 17 37 0 2 1950 British 1960 United States
Matra France 19671972 61 5 117 9 163 4 12 21 1 1 1967 Monaco 1972 United States
McGuire Australia 1977 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1977 British 1977 British
Merzario Italy 19781979 31 3 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1978 Argentine 1979 United States
Midland m Russia 2006 18 2 36 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 Bahrain 2006 Brazilian
Milano Italy 1950 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1950 Italian 1950 Italian
Minardi n Italy 19852005 346 42 676 0 38 0 0 0 0 0 1985 Brazilian 2005 Chinese
Onyx United Kingdom 19891990 26 6 52 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 1989 Brazilian 1990 Hungarian
O.S.C.A. Italy 19511953, 1958 7 5 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 1951 Italian 1958 Monaco
Osella o Italy 19801990 172 17 253 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1980 Argentine 1990 Australian
Pacific United Kingdom 19941995 33 5 66 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 Brazilian 1995 Australian
Parnelli United States 19741976 16 1 16 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 1974 Canadian 1976 US West
Penske United States[14] 19741977 41 7 46 1 23 0 0 3 0 0 1974 Canadian 1977 Canadian
Porsche Germany 19571964 35 13 75 1 46 1 0 5 0 0 1957 German 1964 German
Prost p France 19972001 83 9 166 0 35 0 0 3 0 0 1997 Australian 2001 Japanese
RAM United Kingdom 19831985 44 8 73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1983 Brazilian 1985 European
RE Rhodesia 1965 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1965 South African 1965 South African
Rebaque Mexico 1979 3 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979 Italian 1979 United States
Renault France/United Kingdom[15][2] 19771985,
20022011
303 20 588 35 1298 51 31 100 2 2 1977 British 2011 Brazilian
Rial Germany 19881989 32 6 48 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 1988 Brazilian 1989 Australian
Scarab United States 1960 5 4 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1960 Monaco 1960 United States
Scirocco United Kingdom 19631964 7 3 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1963 Belgian 1964 German
Shadow United States/United Kingdom[16][17][18] 19731980 112 21 240 1 67.5 3 2 7 0 0 1973 South African 1980 French
Shannon United Kingdom 1966 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1966 British 1966 British
Simca-Gordini France 19501953 15 11 29 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1950 Monaco 1953 Belgian
Simtek United Kingdom 19941995 21 7 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 Brazilian 1995 Monaco
Spirit United Kingdom 19831985 25 3 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1983 British 1985 San Marino
Spyker r Netherlands 2007 17 4 34 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2007 Australian 2007 Brazilian
Stebro Canada 1963 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1963 United States 1963 United States
Stewart s United Kingdom 19971999 49 4 98 1 47 1 0 5 0 0 1997 Australian 1999 Japanese
Super Aguri Japan 20062008 39 5 39 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 2006 Bahrain 2008 Spanish
Surtees United Kingdom 19701978 119 38 260 0 53 0 3 2 0 0 1970 British 1978 Canadian
Talbot-Lago France 19501951 13 18 81 0 n/a 0 0 2 n/a 0 1950 British 1951 Spanish
Tec-Mec United States 1959 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1959 United States 1959 United States
Tecno Italy 19721973 13 3 14 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1972 Belgian 1973 Austrian
Theodore Hong Kong 1978, 19811983 51 10 64 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1978 Argentine 1983 European
Token United Kingdom 1974 4 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1974 Belgian 1974 Austrian
Toleman t United Kingdom 19811985 70 9 131 0 26 1 2 3 0 0 1981 San Marino 1985 Australian
Toyota Japan 20022009 140 9 276 0 278.5 3 3 13 0 0 2002 Australian 2009 Abu Dhabi
Trojan United Kingdom 1974 8 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1974 Spanish 1974 Italian
Tyrrell u United Kingdom 19701998 433 47 884 23 617 14 20 77 1 2 1970 Canadian 1998 Japanese
Vanwall United Kingdom 19541960 29 12 66 9 48 7 6 13 1 0 1954 British 1960 French
Venturi France 1992 16 2 32 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1992 South African 1992 Australian
Veritas Germany 19511953 6 15 18 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0 1951 Swiss 1953 German
Virgin v United Kingdom/Russia[3] 20102011 38 3 76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 Bahrain 2011 Brazilian
Wolf (Walter Wolf Racing) w United Kingdom[19] 19771979 48 4 54 3 79 1 2 13 0 0 1977 Argentine 1979 United States
Zakspeed Germany 19851989 74 7 136 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1985 Portuguese 1989 Australian
Constructor Country Seasons Rcs. Drv. Ent. Wins Pts. PP FL Pod. WCC WDC First Grand Prix Last Grand Prix

Notes:

a Arrows were known as Footwork from 1991 to 1996.
b BAR formerly Tyrrell; subsequently became Honda, then Brawn, then Mercedes.
c Benetton formerly Toleman; subsequently became Renault F1, then Lotus F1.
d Coloni subsequently became Andrea Moda.
e Frank Williams Racing Cars includes Politoys (1972), Iso Marlboro (19731974) and Wolf-Williams (1976) cars. Prior to 1972 FWRC ran customer chassis. Subsequently became Wolf. Williams Grand Prix Engineering, now WilliamsF1, was a new constructor established by Frank Williams and Patrick Head after Williams left Wolf-Williams.
f Jaguar formerly Stewart Grand Prix. Subsequently became Red Bull Racing.
g Jordan subsequently became Midland F1 Racing, then Spyker, then Force India.
h Does not include Kurtis' Indianapolis 500 (1950−1960) entries.
i Leyton House formerly March Engineering.
j Ligier subsequently became Prost Grand Prix.
k Lola includes Larrousse (1990) and Mastercard Lola (1997) entries.
l March subsequently became Leyton House Racing, later reappearing as March for one final season.
m Midland formerly Jordan Grand Prix; subsequently became Spyker F1, then Force India.
n Minardi subsequently became Scuderia Toro Rosso.
o Osella subsequently became Fondmetal.
p Prost formerly Ligier.
q Sauber subsequently became BMW works team BMW Sauber, then reverted back to Sauber.
r Spyker formerly Jordan Grand Prix and Midland F1 Racing; subsequently became Force India.
s Stewart subsequently became Jaguar Racing.
t Toleman subsequently became Benetton Formula.
u Tyrrell subsequently became British American Racing.
v Virgin subsequently became Marussia F1.
w Wolf formerly Frank Williams Racing Cars.

Indianapolis 500 only[edit]

Constructors whose only World Championship participation was in the Indianapolis 500 from 1950 to 1960. All were American-based.

Privateer teams[edit]

The following are teams which never built their own chassis, and thus were not "constructors":

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "2007 Formula One Sporting Regulations" (PDF). FIA. Retrieved 2008-04-11.  (.pdf)
  2. ^ a b Noble, Johnathan (2011-01-13). "Renault to switch to British licence". Autosport (Autosport). Retrieved 2011-01-13. 
  3. ^ a b "F1 Marussia Virgin Racing team to compete under Russian flag". RIA Novosti. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  4. ^ In 1949 and 1950, AFM participated in the German Formula 2 championship.
  5. ^ Points awarded from seasons 1979–1985.
  6. ^ The first Constructors' World Championship was not held until 1958.
  7. ^ From 1950 to 1957, Alta was also an engine manufacturer for teams HWM, Cooper and Connaught.
  8. ^ In 1964 and 1967, ATS was an engine manufacturer for teams Derrington-Francis and Cooper, racing at the 1964 Italian and 1967 British Grands Prix with Mário de Araújo Cabral and Silvio Moser.
  9. ^ From 1986 to 1995 Benetton F1 Team had a United Kingdom license; from 1996 to 2001, an Italian one.
  10. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1309&dat=19951129&id=FWoWAAAAIBAJ&sjid=3B4EAAAAIBAJ&pg=3285,4122386
  11. ^ Points not awarded prior to 1958.
  12. ^ http://allamericanracers.com/gurney_grand-prix/eagle_f1-story.html
  13. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20070527061529/http://www.itv-f1.com/Feature.aspx?Type=General&PO_ID=39312
  14. ^ http://www.racingsportscars.com/covers/_Watkins_Glen-1974-10-06e.jpg
  15. ^ From 1977 to 2010 Renault had a French license; in 2011, a British one.
  16. ^ http://www.racingsportscars.com/covers/_Watkins_Glen-1973-10-07e.jpg
  17. ^ http://www.racingsportscars.com/covers/_Watkins_Glen-1978-10-01e.jpg
  18. ^ From 1973 to 1975 Shadow had an American license; from 1976 to 1980, a British one.
  19. ^ http://www.racingsportscars.com/covers/_Watkins_Glen-1979-10-07e.jpg
  20. ^ In 1952 and 1953 Scuderia Platé built their own engines for the Maserati-Platé 4CLT.

References[edit]

All statistics and other data drawn from: